Glen Ellen, California
Glen Ellen is a census-designated place in Sonoma Valley, Sonoma County, California, USA. The population was 784 at the 2010 census, down from 992 at the 2000 census, Glen Ellen is the location of Jack London State Historic Park, Sonoma Valley Regional Park, and a former home of Hunter S. Thompson. Stuart purchased a part of the Rancho Agua Caliente land grant and in 1868 began building a house there, eventually establishing a 1, the town that grew up around the vineyard came to be called Glen Ellen, and Stuarts home was renamed Glen Oaks Ranch. Glen Ellen is about 6 miles northwest of the city of Sonoma, the United States Census Bureau fixes the total area at 2.1 square miles,99. 95% of it land and 0. 05% covered by water. Sonoma Creek, the river of the Sonoma Valley flows through Glen Ellen. The 2010 United States Census reported that Glen Ellen had a population of 784, the population density was 372.7 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Glen Ellen was 693 White,3 African American,9 Native American,16 Asian,3 Pacific Islander,18 from other races, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 67 persons.
The Census reported that 98. 3% of the lived in households and 1. 7% lived in non-institutionalized group quarters. There were 23 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 6 same-sex married couples or partnerships,122 households were made up of individuals and 34 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.12, there were 212 families, the average family size was 2.67. The median age was 51.4 years, for every 100 females there were 103.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.2 males, there were 421 housing units at an average density of 200.2 per square mile, of which 60. 4% were owner-occupied and 39. 6% were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1. 3%, the vacancy rate was 4. 0%. 60. 5% of the lived in owner-occupied housing units and 37. 9% lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 992 people,340 households, the population density was 473 people per square mile. There were 387 housing units at a density of 185/sq mi.
The racial makeup of the CDP was 89. 4% White,1. 9% African American,1. 2% Native American,1. 2% Asian,0. 40% Pacific Islander,2. 7% from other races,8. 5% of the population were Hispanic. 25. 0% of all households consist of individuals and 3. 8% have someone living alone who is 65 or older, the average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.91
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Sonoma Mountain is a prominent landform within the Sonoma Mountains of southern Sonoma County, California. At elevation of 2,463 ft, Sonoma Mountain offers expansive views of the Pacific Ocean to the west, in fact, the viticultural area extends in isolated patches up the eastern slopes of Sonoma Mountain to almost 1,700 feet in elevation. The eastern and northern slopes are protected from heat and hence are more densely forested in oak woodlands. The western and southern slopes, on the hand, are drier and warmer, leading to fewer dense woodlands and more chaparral, grassland. Up until about twelve years ago, this location was part of the seabed of the Pacific Ocean. This uplift formed the volcanically based Sonoma Mountains as well as the Mayacamas Mountains to the east, residual evidence of these ancient geological features appears in the form of local hot springs such as nearby Mortons Hot Springs and Agua Caliente Hot Springs. The presence of the active Rodgers Creek Fault attests to this prehistoric tectonic movement, the eastern slopes of Sonoma Mountain drain to Sonoma Creek, the northern flanks drain to Matanzas Creek and the southwestern flanks are in the Petaluma River watershed.
The most readily accessed eastern slopes have a predominant occurrence of Goulding clay loam soils and these are generally areas of 15 to 30 percent slopes that support dense mixed oak woodland, with large percentages of California laurel and bigleaf maple. Higher on the slopes is a large occurrence of Goulding clay loam on 30 to 50 percent slope, still with a dense forest cover. Soil depths are rarely over a few feet deep before bedrock is reached, outcrops of basaltic rock are common among this soil type, betraying the volcanic origin of Sonoma Mountain. The upper western reaches of Sonoma Mountain have some amounts of the Raynor clay association, lower on the western exposures, along the Lichau Creek immediate drainage area, there is a broad occurrence of Goulding clay loam on slopes of about 15 to 25 percent. The verdant forests on eastern exposures are fed by the year round Graham Creek, the most common eastern slope plant community is the oak woodland, which has a canopy of coast live oak, Garry oak, black oak, Pacific madrone, bigleaf maple and California laurel.
In some of the steeper, cooler riparian zones there are small groves of coast redwood. In these oak woodlands, the dominant understory plants are toyon, western poison-oak, common animals observed include California mule deer, gray squirrel, raccoon and opossum. Less frequently bobcat and mountain lion are seen, there is abundant birdlife including the scrub jay, Stellers jay, acorn woodpecker and junco. Jack London State Historic Park, near Glen Ellen, California, is situated on the slope of Sonoma Mountain. The namesake of this California State Park is author Jack London whose home, the building, a sizable stone structure, was destroyed by fire and its picturesque ruins are protected within the state park. Sonoma Mountain had a significant influence on Jack London and his writings, in 1910 Jack London purchased this 1,000 acre property, known as the Beauty Ranch, for $26,000
The Pomo are an indigenous people of California. The historic Pomo territory in northern California was large, bordered by the Pacific Coast to the west, extending inland to Clear Lake, and mainly between Cleone and Duncans Point. One small group, the Northeastern Pomo of the Stonyford vicinity of Colusa County, was separated from the core Pomo area by lands inhabited by Yuki, the name Pomo derives from a conflation of the Pomo words and. It originally meant those who live at red earth hole and was once the name of a village in southern Potter Valley near the community of Pomo. It may have referred to local deposits of the red mineral magnesite, used for red beads, or to the earth and clay, such as hematite. In the Northern Pomo dialect, -pomo or -poma was used as a suffix after the names of places, by the year 1877, the use of Pomo had been extended in English to mean the entire people known today as the Pomo. The Pomo had 20 chiefs at the same time, the people called Pomo were originally linked by location and cultural expression.
They were not socially or politically linked as one large unified group, they lived in small groups or bands, linked by geography and marriage. Traditionally they relied upon fishing and gathering for their food, the Pomo Indian tribe is a linguistic branch of Native American of Northern California. Their historic territory in the past was on the Pacific Coast between Cleone and Duncans Point, the Pomo Indians preferred to live in small groups which they called bands. Their bands were linked by geography and marriage, the Pomo was composed of about hundreds of independent communities. Like many other Native groups, the Pomo Indian of Northern California relied upon fishing and they ate salmon, wild greens, mushrooms, grasshoppers, rabbits and squirrels. Acorns were the most important part of their diet, the Pomo Indian women were gatherers while men were hunters and fishers. They were somewhat nomadic people and liked to migrate around the California Great Plains, wherever they found peaceful and well adapted, they began building homes.
The Pomo people lived a simple life. They did not use a lot of clothing, men were naked and women mostly wore short. In the cold winter, more clothing made of animals skin might be worn, the Pomo Indians are known as masters of basket weaving and jewelry making. Some of their most culturally important dances are Ghost Dance and Far South, during a Ghost Dance ceremony, they believed that the dead were recognized
California Department of Parks and Recreation
The California Department of Parks and Recreation, known as California State Parks, manages the California state parks system. Headquartered in Sacramento, park administration is divided into 25 districts, the California State Parks system is the largest state park system in the United States. Californias first state park was the Yosemite Grant, which constitutes part of Yosemite National Park. In 1864, the government set aside Yosemite Valley for preservation and ceded the land to the state. Californias oldest state park, Big Basin Redwoods State Park, was founded in 1902, until 1921, each park was managed by an independent commission or agency. In 1927, the California Legislature, with the support of Governor C. C. Young, established the State Park Commission, and its membership included, Major Frederick R. Burnham, W. F. Chandler, William E. Colby, Henry W. OMelveny. The following year, a newly established State Park Commission began gathering support for the first state park bond issue and its efforts were rewarded in 1928 when Californians voted nearly three-to-one in favor of a $6 million park bond act.
With Newton B. Drury serving as officer, the new system of state parks rapidly began to grow. William Penn Mott, Jr. served as director of the agency under Governor Ronald Reagan, responsible for almost one-third of Californias scenic coastline, California State Parks manages the states finest coastal wetlands, estuaries and dune systems. California State Parks contains the largest and most diverse natural and cultural heritage holdings of any agency in the nation. The Department employs State Park Peace Officers Law Enforcement to protect and preserve the State Parks, Parks are patrolled by sworn State Park Peace Officers, of which there are two classifications, State Park Ranger and State Park Lifeguards. In May 2008 The National Trust for Historic Preservation listed the system as a whole on their list of Americas Most Endangered Places. The Parks Forward commission issued a report in 2015 that noted the lack of maintenance for many parks along with visitors who do not reflect the diversity of Californias population.
The report said the agency is using outdated technology for managing the parks, at least $1 million of more than $14 million in total proposed cuts resulting from park closures would take place during the current budget year. The deficit reducing measure would reduce or eliminate over 100 staff positions in addition to seasonal lifeguards at many state beaches. On May 29,2009, the State of California announced that it planned to close 220 parks, examples of service reductions included some parks only being open on weekends and holidays, or closing accessibility to portions of an otherwise open park. On May 11,2011, state officials announced that seventy parks would be closed due to department budget cuts in response to Californias continuing budget crises
National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service
The Lost Hero
The Lost Hero is a 2010 fantasy-adventure novel written by Rick Riordan and is based on Greek and Roman mythology. It is the first book in the series The Heroes of Olympus and it was preceded by the Percy Jackson & the Olympians series, which focused solely on Greek mythology. The book received positive reviews, and managed to win the Barnes & Noble Best Book of 2010 and landed on five bestseller lists. After creating the storyline, Riordan created three new main characters—Jason and Leo—but continued to use the main characters such as Annabeth. In The Lost Hero, those characters are Jason, although initially uncertain how fans would react, Riordan found that they enjoyed the new format, as it allowed them to learn more about each character. The novel begins on December 17,2009, several months after the events of The Last Olympian and this allowed continuity with the first series, so previous characters could be included and readers would not be confused. Riordan says that it was my way of letting them revisit that world in a fresh twist, but to catch up with Percy and Annabeth and he pondered on how the Roman aspect of the gods would be after moving from Greece to Rome to America.
After a while, playing with that idea gave me the idea for the new series. The novel was first released in the United States on October 12,2010, the hardcover had a 2.5 million copy first printing, Riordan has stated that he intends to finish a new book in the series every year, completing it in 2014. Before The Lost Hero was released, Disney-Hyperion released several sneak peeks in an effort to build up publicity for the books release and this included releasing a preview of the first two chapters of the book as well as releasing the book cover. Along with the excerpt, Disney-Hyperion released information about the series and characters, a trailer. To celebrate the release of the book, a release party took place at BookPeople in Austin, the party began at 4 pm with over 800 visitors including Riordan himself. The party featured food and rock climbing, over 10,000 joined Riordan on an online webchat where he read the first two chapters and answered questions from the fans. He signed one copy of the book and announced that seven lucky demigods will be selected in a sweepstakes to attend an exclusive one-week session at Camp Half-Blood at Bookpeople in July 2011.
As the book starts, Jason Grace awakens on a bus, unable to remember who or where he is. He is sitting next to Piper McLean and Leo Valdez, who know him by name and say they are his girlfriend and best friend respectively. All three are part of a field trip to the Grand Canyon, and after they arrive. In the ensuing fight, Jason surprises everyone, including himself, during the fight, Coach Hedge revealed himself as a satyr and was captured by the spirits as they fled
The Press Democrat
The Press Democrat, with the largest circulation in the California North Bay, is a daily newspaper published in Santa Rosa, California. The paper received the 2004 George Polk Award for Regional Reporting given annually by Long Island University to honor contributions to journalistic integrity and investigative reporting. Annie Wells of the Press Democrat won the 1997 Pulitzer Prize for Spot News Photography for her photograph of a local firefighter rescuing a teenager from raging floodwaters. It was founded in 1897 by Ernest L. Finley who merged his Evening Press, Finley bought the Santa Rosa Republican in 1927 and merged it with the Press Democrat in 1948. Ernest L. Finley, his wife Ruth, daughter Ruth and Ruth Finley Person sold the paper to The New York Times Company in 1985. According to a survey, the most popular feature in the newspaper for many years was Gaye LeBarons community column. LeBaron produced more than 8,000 columns between 1961 and her semi-retirement in 2001, writing on human interest, cultural events, ethnic history and it is currently owned by Sonoma Media Investments, LLC after being purchased from Halifax Media Group.
Halifax resold its California papers at the end of 2012 to an ownership group that includes Douglas H. Bosco
Fairfield Osborn Preserve
The Fairfield Osborn Preserve is a 450 acre nature reserve situated on the northwest flank of Sonoma Mountain in Sonoma County, California. There are eight plant communities within the property, oak woodland being the dominant type, other communities include chaparral, Douglas fir woodland, native Bunch grass, freshwater marsh, vernal pool and riparian woodland. The flora is diverse including many native trees, wildflowers, lichens. A diverse fauna inhabits this area including black-tailed deer, bobcat, Copeland Creek and its tributaries drain the Preserve as they wend their way down steep ravines toward eventual discharge to the Laguna de Santa Rosa. An understated natural trail system weaves through the property to access to creek canyons, ridges. The preserve is situated at elevations 1,350 to 2,300 feet above sea level, the steep slopes of Copeland Creek have a predominant occurrence of Goulding clay loam soils, with a typical soil depth of only 16 to 20 inches. These are generally areas of 15 to 45 percent slopes that support dense mixed oak woodland, with percentages of California laurel.
On the higher slopes, there are terraces of Raynor clay. Both soil types are known to support grazing when woodlands are cleared, in the late 19th century, the site was used for sheep and cattle grazing and the woodlands were cut for firewood, which was taken by wagonload down the mountain to Petaluma. The Copeland Creek watershed is the southernmost drainage in the Russian River drainage basin, all creeks south of Copeland, beginning with Lichau Creek, are part of the San Francisco Bay watershed. Since many of these reaches of Copeland Creek involve steep slopes, often above 50 percent. Within the oak woodland the main species are Coast live oak, Oregon oak, California black oak, Canyon live oak. The woodland understory exhibits toyon, poison oak and, in the exposed areas with ecotones to chaparral. This community sometimes gradates to small grassland savannas between the oak groves, which are rich with grasses and annual wildflowers, the freshwater marsh was formed by massive land movement along the Rodgers Creek Fault.
The two ponds on the property are manmade, having been created in the early 20th century and these wetland communities are important habitat for many species including sora and Virginia rails, western pond turtles, and the federally listed endangered Red-legged Frog. Moreover, natural seeps feed these locations and the outcome is climax vegetation that has stabilized, Turtle Pond has a layer of duckweed on the water surface that is consumed by a variety of fauna. Riparian zones of Copeland Creek have a high percentage population of California bay laurel. The Pacific giant salamander, one of the largest known species of salamander is observed hunting for prey in Copeland Creek, other amphibians seen in riparian habitats include the Pacific treefrog, Hyla regilla, Rough skinned newt, Taricha granulosa, and California slender salamander, Batrachoseps attenuatus
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
United States Department of Agriculture
Approximately 80% of USDAs $140 billion budget goes to the Food and Nutrition Service program. The largest component of the FNS budget is the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, after the resignation of Thomas Vilsack on January 13,2017 and the departure of President Barack Obama from office on January 20,2017, the acting Secretary of Agriculture is Michael Young. Activities in this include the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, which provides healthy food to over 40 million low-income. The USDA is concerned with assisting farmers and food producers with the sale of crops and it plays a role in overseas aid programs by providing surplus foods to developing countries. This aid can go through USAID, foreign governments, international bodies such as World Food Program, the Agricultural Act of 1949, section 416 and Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, known as Food for Peace, provides the legal basis of such actions. The USDA is a partner of the World Cocoa Foundation, early in its history, the economy of the United States was largely agrarian.
Officials in the government had long sought new and improved varieties of seeds, plants. In 1837 Henry Leavitt Ellsworth, a Yale-educated attorney interested in improving agriculture, became Commissioner of Patents and he began collecting and distributing new varieties of seeds and plants through members of the Congress and agricultural societies. In 1839, Congress established the Agricultural Division within the Patent Office and allotted $1,000 for the collection of agricultural statistics, Ellsworth was called the Father of the Department of Agriculture. In 1849, the Patent Office was transferred to the newly created Department of the Interior, in the ensuing years, agitation for a separate bureau of agriculture within the department or a separate department devoted to agriculture kept recurring. Lincoln called it the peoples department, in the 1880s, varied advocacy groups were lobbying for Cabinet representation. Business interests sought a Department of Commerce and Industry, and farmers tried to raise the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet rank, finally, on February 9,1889, President Grover Cleveland signed a bill into law elevating the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet level.
In 1887, the Hatch Act provided for the funding of agricultural experiment stations in each state. The Smith-Lever Act of 1914 funded cooperative extension services in each state to teach agriculture, home economics, with these and similar provisions, the USDA reached out to every county of every state. During the Great Depression, farming remained a way of life for millions of Americans. The Department of Agricultures Bureau of Home Economics, established in 1923, published shopping advice and recipes to stretch family budgets and make food go farther. USDA helped ensure that continued to be produced and distributed to those who needed it, assisted with loans for small landowners. The Department of Agriculture was authorized a budget for Fiscal Year 2015 of $139.7 billion, the Washington Post reports that he said There are days when I have literally nothing to do, he recalled thinking as he weighed his decision to quit