Moïse Kapenda Tshombe was a Congolese businessman and politician. He served as the president of the secessionist State of Katanga from 1960 to 1963 and as prime minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 1964 to 1965. A member of the Lunda tribes, Tshombe was born near Musumba, Belgian Congo, the son of a successful businessman, he received his education from an American missionary school and trained as an accountant. In the 1950s, he became involved in politics, he founded. CONAKAT promoted a federal Congo independent of the Belgian colonial empire. CONAKAT won control of the Katanga provincial legislature in the May 1960 general elections. One month the Congo became an independent republic. Tshombe became President of Katanga. In the resulting strife and chaos following independence, CONAKAT declared the State of Katanga's secession from the rest of the Congo; the Christian, anti-communist pro-Western Tshombe declared, "We are seceding from chaos." Favoring continued ties with Belgium, he asked the Belgian government to send military officers to recruit and train a Katangese army.
Tshombe demanded UN recognition for independent Katanga, he announced that any intervention by UN troops would be met with force. Nonetheless, Congolese Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba and his successor, Cyrille Adoula requested intervention from UN forces. UN forces were sent under the direction of UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld. Lumumba's government was overthrown, Lumumba taken prisoner by Mobutu and detained at Camp Hardy in Thysville. Harold d'Aspremont Lynden sent a confidential telegram on 16 January 1961 to the government in Léopoldville to send Lumumba to Katanga; that would have stemmed from Lumumba's increasing popularity among soldiers. Meanwhile, soldier mutinies and unrest increased at Prison Camp Hardy in Thysville; the telegram has still not been shown to exist. While being flown in a Sabena DC-4 air plane to Katanga, Lumumba was beaten by the Congolese soldiers escorting him. In custody in Katanga, Lumumba was visited by Katangese notables and Belgian officers, who included Tshombe, Godefroid Munongo, Kitenge, Son, Huyghé, Tignée, Verscheure and Rougefort.
Lumumba's execution was carried out by a firing squad led by Julien Gat. In 1963, UN forces succeeded in suppressing Katanga, driving Tshombe into exile in Northern Rhodesia to Spain. In July 1964, he returned to the Congo to serve as prime minister in a new coalition government. Tshombe's national support was derived from the backing of provincial political bosses, customary chiefs, foreign financial interests. In a New Year's message at the beginning of 1965, Tshombe rejected conciliation with the Simba rebels and called for their total defeat, he was dismissed from his position in October 1965 by President Kasa-Vubu. In November, General Mobutu, who had staged a successful coup against Kasa-Vubu, brought charges of treason against Tshombe, who again fled the country and settled in Francoist Spain. In 1967, Tshombe was sentenced to death in absentia. On 30 June 1967, he was in a Hawker Siddeley jet aircraft, hijacked by Francis Bodenan, an agent of the SDECE of France. According to the Congolese government, Tshombe was going to Africa.
Tshombe was taken to Algeria and placed under house arrest. The pilots of the plane, Britons Trevor Coppleston and David Taylor, were released and returned to the United Kingdom; the Congolese government demanded his extradition to Congo, his Western supporters agitated for his release. The Algerians resisted both demands. "Moïse Tshombe nearly became the'savior' of the Congo on his return from exile. But history decided otherwise, the Congolese people found themselves under the leadership of Mobutu". Tshombe died in 1969, the official cause of death was listed as "death from heart failure", he was buried in a Methodist service near Brussels, Belgium. Due to his role in the death of Lumumba and association with Western interests, Tshombe's surname became synonymous with "sellout" to black African nationalists. Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown. "Moise Kapend Tshombe". Find-A-Grave. "Moise Tshombe" on YouTube
Lockheed L-1049 Super Constellation
The Lockheed L-1049 Super Constellation is an American aircraft, a member of the Lockheed Constellation aircraft line. The L-1049 was Lockheed's response to the successful Douglas DC-6 airliner, first flying in 1950; the aircraft was produced for both the United States Navy and Air Force as transport and airborne early warning and control aircraft. Beginning in 1943 Lockheed planned stretched variants of the Constellation family; the first was the L-049 with a fuselage lengthened by 13 feet and the second the L-749 stretched 18 feet. The idea was relaunched after a rival aircraft appeared, when Douglas launched a stretched version of its DC-6 airliner as a cargo transport, designated DC-6A, for both military and civilian operators. Douglas was soon to launch a passenger version of this new aircraft; the DC-6B could carry 23 more passengers than Lockheed's current production L-749 Constellation. In 1950 Lockheed had repurchased the XC-69 Constellation prototype from the Hughes Tool Company; the XC-69 however, was equipped with four Pratt & Whitney R-2800 radial engines instead of the Wright R-3350s used on production models.
Lockheed lengthened XC-69 by 18 feet. The aircraft first flew that year still fitted with R-2800 engines was refitted with R-3350 956-C18CA-1 engines with jet stacks for increased thrust. Modifications included strengthened landing gear and larger vertical stabilizers. Eastern Air Lines ordered 10 aircraft, while Trans World Airlines followed with an order for 14; the L-1049 had some 550 improvements and modifications compared to the L-749, including greater fuel capacity, rectangular windows, larger cockpit windshields and improved heating and pressurization. In 1953 R-3350 Turbo-compounds were made available for civil use. Lockheed incorporated them into the L-1049C; the R-3350-972-TC18DA-1 turbo-compound engines on the L-1049C had a new turbine system, the Power Recovery Turbines. Each engine's exhaust gas flowed through three turbines. One drawback of the PRT was the visible flame from the exhaust pipes; the L-1049C had climb rate. Although lacking the range of the DC-6B, the L-1049C had identical performance to the Douglas and could carry a larger payload.
The wings of the new model were strengthened, cabin soundproofing was increased, the landing gear retraction system was improved. A new series of interior layouts was offered for the new model; each of these new layouts included reading lights at each seat. Forty-eight L-1049Cs were built, being used by Eastern, TWA, Air France, KLM, Trans-Canada Air Lines, Air India, Pakistan International Airlines, Iberia, Línea Aeropostal Venezolana and Cubana de Aviación. A freighter version, the L-1049D, first flew in August 1954, it had two cargo doors on the left side and a reinforced magnesium floor as used on the R7V-1 military variant of the L-1049B. The L-1049D could carry a 36,916 lb payload and had a volume of 5,579 ft³. At the time of its first flight, the L-1049D was the largest civil cargo aircraft. In the end four were produced, all delivered to Western Airlines. Two of the four L-1049D aircraft were converted to L-1049H standards; the L-1049E was more successful. Similar to the L-1049C, the L-1049E was able to carry the same load as the L-1049D.
The L-1049C and L-1049E could not fly Europe to New York nonstop against the wind. Lockheed thought of fitting a new variant based on the L-1049E with more powerful engines, but the project was cancelled. A different variant surfaced: using the L-1049C as a base, R-3350-972-TC18DA-3 turbo-compound engines were fitted; the aircraft could carry 71 to 95 passengers at a speed of 331 mph. Wingtip tanks of 1,037 gallon total capacity were incorporated. A new Bendix or RCA weather radar could be installed in the nose. New Hamilton Standard or Curtiss Electric propellers were offered; this new version of the L-1049 with over 100 modifications from the L-1049C was unveiled as the L-1049G. Over 100 L-1049G aircraft were ordered by sixteen airlines; the L-1049G flew on December 17, 1954 and entered service with TWA and Northwest in 1955. The nickname "Super G" was adopted for the L-1049G; the L-1049H flew on November 20, 1956. Called "Super H" and "Husky", the L-1049H was a convertible passenger/freight aircraft, mating a C-121C-based fuselage with L-1049G components.
The cargo hold had a volume of 565 ft ³. The aircraft could carry up to 120 people with seats, luggage lockers and toilets all available along with the option of decorating the walls of the aircraft; when not in use, the luggage lockers and seats could be stowed in the lower hold. The aircraft entered service with Qantas a month later; some L-1049G and H aircraft in production were fitted with the TC-18EA series engines used on the L-1649 Starliner. A final variant was planned in 1957, known as the L-1049J. Powered by four R-3350-988-TC-18EA-6 engines, the L-1049J was based on the L-1049H with the wings of the R7V-2 Constellation and an extra fuselage-mounted fuel tank; the first production L-1049 flew on July 14
An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines utilize aircraft to supply these services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for codeshare agreements. Airline companies are recognized with an air operating certificate or license issued by a governmental aviation body. Airlines vary in size, from small domestic airlines to full-service international airlines with double decker airplanes. Airline services can be categorized as being intercontinental, regional, or international, may be operated as scheduled services or charters; the largest airline is American Airlines Group. DELAG, Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-Aktiengesellschaft I was the world's first airline, it was founded on November 16, 1909, with government assistance, operated airships manufactured by The Zeppelin Corporation. Its headquarters were in Frankfurt; the first fixed wing scheduled airline was started on January 1, 1914, from St. Petersburg, Florida, to Tampa, Florida.
The four oldest non-dirigible airlines that still exist are Netherlands' KLM, Colombia's Avianca, Australia's Qantas, the Czech Republic's Czech Airlines. The earliest fixed wing airline in Europe was Aircraft Transport and Travel, formed by George Holt Thomas in 1916. Using a fleet of former military Airco DH.4A biplanes, modified to carry two passengers in the fuselage, it operated relief flights between Folkestone and Ghent. On 15 July 1919, the company flew a proving flight across the English Channel, despite a lack of support from the British government. Flown by Lt. H Shaw in an Airco DH.9 between RAF Hendon and Paris – Le Bourget Airport, the flight took 2 hours and 30 minutes at £21 per passenger. On 25 August 1919, the company used DH.16s to pioneer a regular service from Hounslow Heath Aerodrome to Le Bourget, the first regular international service in the world. The airline soon gained a reputation for reliability, despite problems with bad weather, began to attract European competition.
In November 1919, it won the first British civil airmail contract. Six Royal Air Force Airco DH.9A aircraft were lent to the company, to operate the airmail service between Hawkinge and Cologne. In 1920, they were returned to the Royal Air Force. Other British competitors were quick to follow – Handley Page Transport was established in 1919 and used the company's converted wartime Type O/400 bombers with a capacity for 12 passengers, to run a London-Paris passenger service; the first French airline was Société des lignes Latécoère known as Aéropostale, which started its first service in late 1918 to Spain. The Société Générale des Transports Aériens was created in late 1919, by the Farman brothers and the Farman F.60 Goliath plane flew scheduled services from Toussus-le-Noble to Kenley, near Croydon, England. Another early French airline was the Compagnie des Messageries Aériennes, established in 1919 by Louis-Charles Breguet, offering a mail and freight service between Le Bourget Airport and Lesquin Airport, Lille.
The first German airline to use heavier than air aircraft was Deutsche Luft-Reederei established in 1917 which started operating in February 1919. In its first year, the D. L. R. Operated scheduled flights on routes with a combined length of nearly 1000 miles. By 1921 the D. L. R. Network was more than 3000 km long, included destinations in the Netherlands and the Baltic Republics. Another important German airline was Junkers Luftverkehr, which began operations in 1921, it was a division of the aircraft manufacturer Junkers, which became a separate company in 1924. It operated joint-venture airlines in Austria, Estonia, Hungary, Norway, Poland and Switzerland; the Dutch airline KLM made its first flight in 1920, is the oldest continuously operating airline in the world. Established by aviator Albert Plesman, it was awarded a "Royal" predicate from Queen Wilhelmina, its first flight was from Croydon Airport, London to Amsterdam, using a leased Aircraft Transport and Travel DH-16, carrying two British journalists and a number of newspapers.
In 1921, KLM started scheduled services. In Finland, the charter establishing Aero O/Y was signed in the city of Helsinki on September 12, 1923. Junkers F.13 D-335 became the first aircraft of the company, when Aero took delivery of it on March 14, 1924. The first flight was between Helsinki and Tallinn, capital of Estonia, it took place on March 20, 1924, one week later. In the Soviet Union, the Chief Administration of the Civil Air Fleet was established in 1921. One of its first acts was to help found Deutsch-Russische Luftverkehrs A. G. a German-Russian joint venture to provide air transport from Russia to the West. Domestic air service began around the same time, when Dobrolyot started operations on 15 July 1923 between Moscow and Nizhni Novgorod. Since 1932 all operations had been carried under the name Aeroflot. Early European airlines tended to favor comfort – the passenger cabins were spacious with luxurious interiors – over speed and efficiency; the basic navigational capabilities of pilots at the time meant that delays due to the weather were commonplace.
By the early 1920s, small airlines were struggling to compete, there was a movement towards increased rationalization and consolidation. In 1924, Imperial Airways was formed from the merger of Instone Air Line Company, British Marine Air Navigation, Daimler Airway and Handley Page Transport Co Ltd. to allow British airlines to compete with stiff competition from French and German airlines that were enjoying heavy government subsidies. The ai
A partisan is a member of an irregular military force formed to oppose control of an area by a foreign power or by an army of occupation by some kind of insurgent activity. The term can apply to the field element of resistance movements, examples of which are the civilians who opposed Nazi German, Fascist Italian and Ustaše Croatian rule in several countries during World War II. Rustaham Suren, better known as Surena or Suren was a Parthian spahbed during the 1st century BC, he was the leader of the House of Suren and was best known for defeating the Romans in the Battle of Carrhae. Under his command Parthians decisively defeated a numerically superior Roman invasion force under the command of Marcus Licinius Crassus; the word Partisan is derived from the Italian word Partigiano. The initial concept of partisan warfare involved the use of troops raised from the local population in a war zone who would operate behind enemy lines to disrupt communications, seize posts or villages as forward-operating bases, ambush convoys, impose war taxes or contributions, raid logistical stockpiles, compel enemy forces to disperse and protect their base of operations.
One of the first manuals of partisan tactics in the 18th century was The Partisan, or the Art of Making War in Detachment... published in London in 1760 by de Jeney, a Hungarian military officer who served in the Prussian Army as captain of military engineers during the Seven Years' War of 1756–1763. Johann von Ewald described techniques of partisan warfare in detail in his Abhandlung über den kleinen Krieg; the concept of partisan warfare would form the basis of the "Partisan Rangers" of the American Civil War. In that war, Confederate States Army Partisan leaders, such as John S. Mosby, Jesse James, William Quantrill, or Bloody Bill Anderson, operated along the lines described by von Ewald. In essence, 19th-century American partisans were closer to commando or ranger forces raised during World War II than to the "partisan" forces operating in occupied Europe. Mosby-style fighters would have been considered uniformed members of their state's armed forces. Partisans in the mid-19th century were different from raiding cavalry, or from unorganized/semi-organized guerrilla forces.
Russian partisans played a crucial part in the downfall of Napoleon. Their fierce resistance and persistent inroads helped compel the French emperor to retreat from Russia after invading in 1812. During the Second Boer War, the Boers waged a successful guerrilla campaign against the British. Imperial Russia made use of partisans in World War I, for example Stanisław Bułak-Bałachowicz. In 1922, Benito Mussolini and Fascist troop entered Rome. One of the most important episodes of resistance by Italian armed forces after the armistice was the battle of Piombino, Tuscany. On 10 September 1943, during Operation Achse, a small German flotilla, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Karl-Wolf Albrand, tried to enter the harbour of Piombino but was denied access by the port authorities.. The order to organize partisan groups was issued by Marshal of Poland Rydz-Smigly on the 16th of September, 1939; the first sabotage groups were created in Warsaw on September 18, 1939. Each battalion was to choose 3 soldiers who were to sabotage enemy's war effort behind the front lines.
The sabotage groups were organized. The situation amongst the Polish partisans and the situation of the Polish partisans were both complicated; the founding organizations that lead to the creation of the Home Army or Armia Krajowa known as AK, were themselves organized in 1939. Home Army was the largest Polish partisan organization; the communist Gwardia Ludowa remained indifferent and hostile towards the Home Army, of two Jewish organizations, the Jewish Military Union did cooperate with the Home Army, when the leftist and pro-Soviet Jewish Combat Organization did not. Nota bene, the Polish Socialist Party and the British counterpart were the only two socialist parties in Europe not controlled by Joseph Stalin. Both Jewish combat organizations staged the Ghetto uprising in 1944. Armia Krajowa staged Warsaw Uprising in 1944, amongst other activities. Bataliony Chlopskie fought in Zamosc Uprising; the Polish partisans faced many enemies. The main enemies were the Nazi Germans, Ukrainian nationalists, Lithuanian Nazi collaborators, the Soviets.
In spite of the ideological enmity, the Home Army did launch a massive sabotage campaign after the Germans began Operation Barbarossa. Amongst other acts of sabotage, the Polish partisans damaged nearly 7,000 locomotives, over 19,000 railway cars, over 4,000 German military vehicles and built-in faults into 92,000 artillery projectiles as well as 4710 built-in faults into aircraft engines, just to mention a few and just in between 1941 and 1944. In Ukraine and southeastern Poland, the Poles fought against the Ukrainian nationalists and UPA to protect the ethnic Poles from mass murder visited upon them during Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia, they were aided. At least 60,000 Poles lost their lives, the majority of them civilians, men and children; some of the victims were Poles of Jewish descent who had escaped from the death camp. The majority of the Polish partisans in Ukraine assisted the invading Soviet Army. Few o
Automobile repair shop
An automobile repair shop is an establishment where automobiles are repaired by auto mechanics and technicians. Automotive garages and repair shops can be divided into following categories: The auto parts stores or motor-factors that maintain service operations; this is not common in the United Kingdom but more common in the US. Automobile repair workshops that are independently operated businesses; these may include regional or national chains and franchises including OEM car dealership sites. In the United States, these sites are certified by their respective manufacturer to perform warranty and recall repairs by that manufacturer or distributor. Independent automobile repair shops in the US may achieve certification through manufacturer sponsored programs. European Union law permits motorists more flexibility in selecting. Maintenance and service work does not have to be done by the main dealer providing the garage uses Original Equipment'Matching Quality' parts follows the manufacturer's service schedules.
The Block Exemption Regulation covers service and maintenance during the warranty period and prohibits vehicle manufacturers’ warranties from including restrictive conditions. Specialty automobile repair shops are shops specializing in certain parts such as brakes and exhaust systems, body parts, automobile electrification, automotive air conditioner repairs, automotive glass repairs and installation, wheel alignment or those who only work on certain brands of vehicle or vehicles from certain continents of the world. There are automotive repair shops that specialize in vehicle modifications and customization. Oftentimes, various specialized auto repair shops will have varied infrastructure and facilities, as well as technicians and mechanics with different qualifications. Online automobile repair shops providing doorstep repair services and home delivery of new and used auto parts of different late model and classic cars whose parts are not available in the market. In countries such as the UK, the mobile car body repair sectors has experienced high growth by way of mobile SMART Repair companies providing mobile car body repair services, such as Bumper Repairs, auto body repair, paintless dent repair and paintwork defect repairs to private and commercial consumers within the industry framework of refinishing vehicle damage on a localised basis, where the area of damage being repaired is not in excess of an A4 sheet of paper.
Some repair shops offer both bodywork repair. Automotive repair shops that specialize in bodywork repair are known as body shops, they offer paintwork repairs to scratches and dents, as well as repairs to the bodies of vehicles damaged by collisions. Many body shops now offer paintless dent repair. Other repair shops offer auto glass repair. Automotive repair shops that specialize in auto glass repair are known as auto glass repair shops, they offer auto glass repairs to chips and shattered glass. The types of glass they repair include car windows, quarter glass and rear windows; this type of damage is caused by hail, wild animals, fallen trees, automobile theft and vandalism. Automotive Service Excellence Breakdown Preventive maintenance Reliability centered maintenance Service Labor Time Standards
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
Rhodesia was a country in southern Africa from 1965 to 1979, equivalent in territory to modern Zimbabwe. Rhodesia was the de facto successor state to the British colony of Southern Rhodesia, self-governing since achieving responsible government in 1923. A landlocked nation, Rhodesia was bordered by South Africa to the south, Bechuanaland to the southwest, Zambia to the northwest, Mozambique to the east. In the late 19th century, the territory north of the Transvaal was chartered to the British South Africa Company, led by Cecil Rhodes. Rhodes and his Pioneer Column marched north in 1890, acquiring a huge bloc of territory that the Company would rule until the early 1920s. In 1923, the Company's charter was revoked, Southern Rhodesia attained self-government and established a legislature. Between 1953 and 1963, Southern Rhodesia was joined with Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland in the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland; the decolonisation of Africa in the early 1960s alarmed a significant proportion of Rhodesia's white population.
In an effort to delay the transition to black majority rule, Rhodesia's predominantly white government issued its own Unilateral Declaration of Independence from the United Kingdom on 11 November 1965. The UDI administration sought recognition as an autonomous realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, but reconstituted itself as a republic in 1970; the Rhodesian Bush War, which pitted the government against two African nationalist organisations, ZANU and ZAPU, intensified in the 1970s, prompting Rhodesian premier Ian Smith to concede to multiracial democracy in 1978. However, a provisional government subsequently headed by Smith and his moderate colleague Abel Muzorewa failed in appeasing international critics or halting the bloodshed. By December 1979, Muzorewa had replaced Smith as Prime Minister and secured an agreement with the militant nationalists, allowing Rhodesia to revert to colonial status pending elections under a universal franchise, it achieved internationally recognised independence in April 1980 as the Republic of Zimbabwe.
Rhodesia's largest cities were its capital and Bulawayo. The white population, which grew to nearly 300,000, dominated the country's politics and economy, though they never made up more than eight percent of the total population. Rhodesia developed an economy dependent on agriculture and mining, its largest exports were chrome and steel. International sanctions put; the Parliament of Rhodesia, which included the lower House of Assembly and a senate, was predominantly white, with minority of seats reserved for blacks. After 1970, the country used a semi-presidential system, with a president, prime minister, cabinet; the official name of the country, according to the constitution adopted concurrently with the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in 1965, was Rhodesia. This was not the case under British law, which considered the territory's legal name to be Southern Rhodesia, the name given to the country in 1898 during the British South Africa Company's administration of the Rhodesias, retained by the self-governing colony of Southern Rhodesia after the end of Company rule in 1923.
This naming dispute dated back to October 1964, when Northern Rhodesia became independent from the UK and concurrently changed its name to Zambia. The Southern Rhodesian colonial government in Salisbury felt that in the absence of a "Northern" Rhodesia, the continued use of "Southern" was superfluous, it passed legislation to become Rhodesia, but the British government refused to approve this on the grounds that the country's name was defined by British legislation and so could not be altered by the colonial government. Salisbury went on using the shortened name in an official manner while the British government continued referring to the country as Southern Rhodesia; this situation continued throughout the UDI period. The shortened name was used by many people including the British government in the House of Commons; the British government maintained this stance regarding the June–December 1979 successor state of Zimbabwe Rhodesia, when Zimbabwe Rhodesia returned to colonial status from December 1979 to April 1980, it was as Southern Rhodesia.
Southern Rhodesia subsequently achieved internationally recognised independence in April 1980, when it became the Republic of Zimbabwe. Until after World War II, the landlocked British possession of Southern Rhodesia was not developed as an indigenous African territory, but rather as a unique state that reflected its multiracial character; this situation made it different from other lands that existed under colonial rule, as many Europeans had arrived to make permanent homes, populating the towns as traders or settling to farm the most productive soils. In 1922, faced with the decision to join the Union of South Africa as a fifth province or accept nearly full internal autonomy, the electorate cast its vote against South African integration. In view of the outcome of the referendum, the territory was annexed by the United Kingdom on 12 September 1923. Shortly after annexation, on 1 October 1923, the first constitution for the new Colony of Southern Rhodesia came into force. Under this constitution, Southern Rhodesia was given the right to elect its own thirty-member legislature and cabinet—although the British Crown retained a formal veto over measures affecting natives and dominated foreign policy.
Over the course of the next three decades, Southern Rhodesia experienced a degree of economic expansion and industrialisation almost