George Tod Collins was an Australian rules footballer who played for the Essendon Football Club in the Victorian Football League. Although his given name was George he was known as Tod Collins, Collins played mostly as a half back flanker and was a strong marker of the ball. He captained Essendon in 1901 and 1902, the former a premiership team, Collins had previously been a member of the inaugural VFL premiership side with Essendon in 1897. During his career he was chosen to represent the Victoria interstate team, in 1906 he became captain-coach of Victorian Football Association club Preston but retired five games into the season. Tod Collinss statistics from AFL Tables Tod Collinss profile from AustralianFootball. com Essendon Football Club profile
Australian rules football
The main way to score points is by kicking the oval-shaped ball between the two tall goal posts. The team with the score by the end of the match wins unless a draw is declared. During general play, players may position themselves anywhere on the field, the primary methods are kicking and running with the ball. There are rules on how the ball can be handled, for example, throwing the ball is not allowed and players must not get caught holding the ball. A distinctive feature of the game is the mark, where players anywhere on the field who catch a ball from a kick are awarded possession, possession of the ball is in dispute at all times except when a free kick or mark is paid. Players can tackle using their hands or use their body to obstruct opponents. The game features frequent physical contests, spectacular marking, fast movement of players and the ball and high scoring. The sports origins can be traced to matches played in Melbourne, Victoria in 1858. Its annual Grand Final is the highest attended club championship event in the world, the sport is played at amateur level in many countries and in several variations.
The games rules are governed by the AFL Commission with the advice of the AFLs Laws of the Game Committee, there is evidence of football being played sporadically in the Australian colonies in the first half of the 19th century. The earliest such match, held in St Kilda on 15 June, was between Melbourne Grammar and St Kilda Grammar. Born in Australia, Wills played a nascent form of rugby football whilst a pupil at Rugby School in England and his letter is regarded by many historians as giving impetus for the development of a new code of football today known as Australian football. Two weeks later, Wills friend, cricketer Jerry Bryant, posted an advertisement for a match at the Richmond Paddock adjoining the Melbourne Cricket Ground. This was the first of several kickabouts held that year involving members of the Melbourne Cricket Club, including Wills, Bryant, W. J. Hammersley, trees were used as goalposts and play typically lasted an entire afternoon. Without an agreed code of laws, some players were guided by rules they had learned in the British Isles.
Another significant milestone in 1858 was a match played under experimental rules between Melbourne Grammar and Scotch College, held at the Richmond Paddock. This 40-a-side contest, umpired by Wills and Scotch College teacher John Macadam, began on 7 August and it is commemorated with a statue outside the MCG, and the two schools have competed annually ever since in the Cordner-Eggleston Cup, the worlds oldest continuous football competition. Since the early 20th century, it has suggested that Australian football was derived from the Irish sport of Gaelic football
Collingwood Football Club
The Collingwood Football Club, nicknamed the Magpies or less formally the Pies, is an Australian rules football club which plays in the Australian Football League. This spike in membership registration can mainly be attributed to the winning of the 2010 AFL Premiership and this record was again broken in 2013, with club reaching a new high of 80,000 members. Collingwood is regarded as one of Australias most popular clubs, being the highest attended, Collingwoods home guernsey consists of black and white stripes, matching the colours of an Australian magpie. Throughout its history, the club has developed rivalries with cross-town Melbourne based clubs Carlton, Essendon, historically one of the most successful clubs in the league, Collingwood has won 15 VFL/AFL premierships, the third-most of any team. Collingwood has played in a record 43 grand finals, winning 15, the club fields a seconds team in the Victorian Football League and a womens team in the AFL Womens competition. It owns and operates a team in the National Netball League.
The Collingwood Football Club was established on 12 February 1892, Collingwood played its first game in the Victorian Football Association against Carlton on 7 May 1892. The club won the VFA Premiership in 1896, in 1897, along with fellow VFA clubs Fitzroy, Melbourne, St Kilda, Essendon, South Melbourne and Geelong split from the VFA and formed the Victorian Football League. Collingwood won its first premiership in 1902, defeating Essendon by 33 points, Collingwood was the most successful club of the 1920s and 1930s, appearing in 13 out of a possible 20 Grand Finals during the period. Collingwood were premiers six times during this time, including four consecutive premierships between 1927 and 1930, a VFL/AFL record, and two premierships in 1935 and 1936. The clubs coach during this period was Jock McHale, who served as coach from 1912 to 1949, Collingwood lost two Grand Finals to Melbourne in this decade, but bounced back to win premierships in 1953 and 1958. Collingwoods 1958 premiership is much cherished by the club as it prevented Melbourne from equalling Collingwoods record four premierships in a row, the 1958 premiership was however to be Collingwoods last for 32 years, as the club was to suffer a string of Grand Final defeats in coming decades.
A string of eight Grand Final losses, often by narrow margins, between 1960 and 1981 gave rise to a perception that the club was prone to choking, a phenomenon wittily dubbed Colliwobbles. Whether this perception is accurate remains a subject of debate, Lou Richards ceremoniously buried the Colliwobbles at Victoria Park after the clubs 1990 premiership. Collingwood made a return to the finals in 2006, but were defeated by the Western Bulldogs by 41 points, having earned a preliminary final against Geelong, the Pies challenged the eventual premiers, only to fall short by five points. Nathan Buckley would announce his retirement at seasons end after playing just five games in 2007 due to injury, Collingwood finished eighth in 2008 and were assigned an away final against Adelaide at AAMI Stadium. After at one point trailing in the match, the Pies went on to end Adelaides season, having defeated the Saints in both their regular season meetings, the Pies lost convincingly, ending their 2008 season.
The 2009 season saw Collingwood finish inside the top-four for the first time since 2003, but the season ended abruptly for the Magpies, with an 73-point loss to the Cats
Essendon Football Club
The Essendon Football Club is a professional Australian rules football club which plays in the Australian Football League, the sports premier competition. Formed in 1871 as a club and playing as a senior club since 1878. It is historically associated with Essendon, a suburb in the north-west of Melbourne, dyson Heppell is the current team captain. A founding member club of both the Victorian Football Association, in 1877, and the Victorian Football League, in 1896, the club claims to have over at least one million supporters Australia wide. Essendon has won 16 VFL/AFL premierships which, along with Carlton, is the most of any club in the competition, the club was founded by members of the Royal Agricultural Society, the Melbourne Hunt Club and the Victorian Woolbrokers. The Essendon Football Club is thought to have formed in 1872 at a meeting it the home of a well-known brewery family, the McCrackens, whose Ascot Vale property hosted a team of local junior players. Robert McCracken, the owner of several city hotels, was the founder and first president of the Essendon club and his son, Alex would become president of the newly formed VFL.
Alexs cousin, who had played with Melbourne, was the teams first captain. The club played its first recorded match against the Carlton second twenty on 7 June 1873, Essendon played 13 matches in its first season, winning seven, with four draws and losing two. The club was one of the junior members of the Victorian Football Association in 1877. During its early years in the Association, Essendon played its matches at Flemington Hill. In 1878, Essendon played in the first match on what would be considered by modern standards to be a field at Flemington Hill. In 1879 Essendon played Melbourne in one of the earliest night matches recorded when the ball was painted white, in 1883 the team played four matches in Adelaide. In 1891 Essendon won their first VFA premiership, which they repeated in 1892,1893 and 1894, one of the clubs greatest players, Albert Thurgood played for the club during this period. Essendon was undefeated in the 1893 season, at the end of the 1896 season Essendon along with seven other clubs formed the Victorian Football League.
Essendons first VFL game was in 1897 was against Geelong at Corio Oval in Geelong, Essendon won its first VFL premiership by winning the 1897 VFL finals series. Essendon again won the premiership in 1901, defeating Collingwood in the Grand Final, the club won successive premierships in 1911 and 1912 over Collingwood and South Melbourne respectively. The nickname first appeared in print in the local North Melbourne Advertiser in 1889 and it was known firstly as Essendon Town and, after 1905, as Essendon
Hawthorn Football Club
The Hawthorn Football Club, nicknamed the Hawks, is a professional Australian rules football club in the Australian Football League. The club, founded in 1902, is the youngest of the Victorian-based teams in the AFL and has won thirteen VFL/AFL premierships and it is renowned as the only club having won premierships in each decade of the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, 2000s and 2010s. The team play in brown and gold vertically striped guernseys, the clubs Latin motto is spectemur agendo, the English translation being By our deeds let us be known. The Hawks origins are in the inner-eastern Melbourne suburb of Hawthorn and at Glenferrie Oval, however, have not been played there since 1973. In 2006, Hawthorns training and administration facilities were relocated to Waverley Park in the middle of the major supporter base in Melbournes outer-eastern region. Hawthorns current Victorian Football League affiliate team is the Box Hill Hawks Football Club, the official club history books and many supporters strongly believe that the clubs origins date back to its founding in 1873 at a meeting at the Hawthorne Hotel.
Although a Hawthorn Football Club did indeed form at this time – and it is likely that today’s club is actually the third club to carry the name ‘Hawthorn Football Club’. In The Daily Telegraph of 12 May 1883 it is stated that “The Hawthorn Club having disbanded and this club ceased in 1890. No Hawthorn club existed from 1890 to 1892, a new representative club, called the ‘Hawthorn Football Club’, was formed in 1893. It competed in the Victorian Junior Football Association until 1898, without a ground to play on, the club was disbanded in 1899. In March 1902, Alf Kosky formed a club from the various clubs under the banner of Hawthorn Football Club to compete in the Metropolitan Junior Football Association. The club merged with Boroondara in 1905 and adopted Boroondaras colours of a black guernsey with red sash, in 1906 Hawthorn merged with successful junior club the Hawthorn Rovers to form the Hawthorn City Football Club as a result of Glenferrie Oval opening. The club was reformed in 1912, changing to a gold guernsey with a blue V, the council applied to the Victorian Football Association for inclusion which was granted in 1914 when Hawthorn replaced the disbanded Melbourne City club.
The first task for the club was to decide on club colours, their jumper of blue, at a Special General Meeting held on 17 February 1914, a Mr J. Brain proposed brown and gold as the new colours and the motion was carried. The Mayblooms won three games and a draw in their first season in the VFA, the effect of World War I with players enlisting caused the club to finish last in 1915. The VFA went into recess in 1916 and 1917, upon Hawthorn’s resumption in 1919 it was more competitive winning eight games and finishing sixth out of ten teams. Hawthorn dropped to eighth in 1920 but in 1921 they won seven games, bill Walton was appointed captain-coach of Hawthorn in 1922. He was however refused a clearance by Port Melbourne and as a result spent the season playing for them, twice that season, he had the unusual situation of playing a VFA game against the club that he coached
Albert John The Great Thurgood was an Australian rules footballer in the Victorian Football Association, Victorian Football League and the Western Australian Football Association. He is considered one of the great players of the VFA and VFL. He usually played at centre-half-forward, but his versatility enabled him to be switched to any position on the ground, born on 11 January 1874 at Errol Street, North Melbourne, to John Thurgood, a builder and Amelia, née Buckland. After his education at Brighton Grammar School, he joined the Essendon Football Club in the Victorian Football Association, Thurgood played for Essendon in the VFA and played in three of its four successive premierships. At six feet tall and twelve stone, Thurgood possessed qualities that made him a key position player, he was extraordinarily fast, a superb mark. His greatest asset was his kicking, usually playing at centre half-forward, he could regularly kick distances up to 65-70 yards and beyond. Thurgood kicked 64 goals in 1893 and 63 in 1894, and in an 1893 game against Richmond scored twelve of Essendons fourteen goals and he played 57 VFA games for Essendon and kicked 183 goals.
In 1895 he left Essendon to seek work in Western Australia, during his stint there he topped the WAFA goal kicking list on three consecutive occasions between 1895 and 1897, helping the side lift premierships in the first two of those years. He returned to Victoria in 1898 and sought to resume his career with Essendon in the newly formed Victorian Football League, forced to sit out of football in 1898, he finally took the field for Essendon in 1899 and headed the clubs goalkicking list in 1900 and 1902. The same year he supposedly won Essendons Club Champion award, in 1902 there were widespread allegations that he had laid down against Collingwood in the challenge final, which Essendon lost by the heavy margin for the time of 33 points. In disgust, Thurgood demanded, and was refused, a clearance to the Magpies and he was tempted back to Essendon four years later, but after playing eight games he was forced to retire permanently when he sustained a serious ankle injury. Thurgood married Ida Alma Mary Thomas at Fairfield on 26 April 1899 and he was a better than average cricketer – managing three first XI matches for the North Melbourne Cricket Club during the 1890s – and golfer.
After his retirement from football Thurgood became active in horse-racing, for years as a bookmaker. He ran a number of horses, including Amazonia which won the Bagot Handicap in 1921 and was placed third in the Melbourne Cup that year. Thurgood died in 1927 as the result of a car accident and was buried with Anglican rites in Brighton Cemetery and his wife and two daughters survived him. In 1996 Thurgood was inducted into the Australian Football Hall of Fame and he was named in the Essendon Team of the Century which was selected in their VFL/AFL centenary year of 1997. In 2004 he was inducted into the WA Football Hall of Fame and he is a relative of former Hawthorn player Josh Thurgood. Albert Thurgoods profile from AustralianFootball. com Australian Dictionary of Biography Australian Football Hall of Fame Albert John The Great Thurgood Gravesite at Brighton General Cemetery
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Melbourne Football Club
The Melbourne Football Club, nicknamed the Demons, is an Australian rules football club, playing in the Australian Football League. It is named after and based in the city of Melbourne, Melbourne is the worlds oldest professional club of any football code. The clubs origins can be traced to an 1858 letter in which Tom Wills, captain of the Victoria cricket team, Melbourne has won 12 VFL/AFL premierships, the latest in 1964. The club celebrated its 150th anniversary in 2008 by naming 150 Heroes as well as creating a logo which appeared on its official guernsey. The football club has been a section of the Melbourne Cricket Club since 2009. In the winter and spring of 1858, an organised football team known as Melbourne played in a series of scratch matches in the parklands outside the Melbourne Cricket Ground. Other figures associated with this embryonic Melbourne side include cricketers Jerry Bryant, William Hammersley and teacher Thomas H. Smith. During meetings held on 17 and 21 May 1859, Hammersley and Smith met near the MCG at the Parade Hotel, owned by Bryant, the resulting ten codified rules are the laws from which Australian rules football evolved.
The first mention of a match played under the new code was between Melbourne and South Yarra in July 1859, with Hammersley as Melbournes inaugural captain. In 1861, Melbourne participated in the Caledonian Societys Challenge Cup, the club pushed for its rules to be the accepted rules, however many of the early suburban matches were played under compromised rules decided between the captains of the competing clubs. By 1866 several other clubs had adopted an updated version of Melbournes rules, drafted at a meeting chaired by Wills cousin. Harrison was a key figure in the years of the club, he often served as captain and, in years. Due to his reputation and administrative efforts, he was officially named Father of Australian Football in 1908. During the 1870s, Melbourne fielded teams in the Seven Twenties, after a visit to England by one of the clubs officials, the colours of red and green were officially adopted by the club. Shortly following, the club wearing a predominately red strip. The name Redlegs was coined after a Melbourne official returned from a trip to England with one set of red, Melbourne wore the red set while the blue set were, given to the Carlton Football Club.
This may be the source of Carltons nickname, The Blueboys, in 1877, the club became a foundation member of the Victorian Football Association. During the same year the took part in the first interstate football match involving a South Australian side, Victorian
George Stuckey was an Australian rules footballer who played with and captained the Essendon Football Club in the Victorian Football League. Stuckey played as both a wingman and half back during his career and was the first captain of the VFL team Essendon, by leading his side to the premiership in 1897, the inaugural VFL season, he thus became the first VFL premiership captain. He remained captain until the end of the 1900 season and was a player again in 1901. During his career he represented Victoria at interstate football and his brother, was a prominent cricket player for Victoria. In 2010 Stuckey was inducted into the Essendon Hall of Fame, list of Victoria first-class cricketers George Stuckeys statistics from AFL Tables Profile at Essendonfc. com Cricinfo profile Trailblazer Long wins legend status at Windy Hill, SMH,17 March 2010
The Argus (Melbourne)
The Argus was a morning daily newspaper in Melbourne that was established in 1846 and closed in 1957 and was considered to be the general Australian newspaper of record for this period. Widely known as a newspaper for most of its history. The main competitor over the life of the newspaper was David Symes more liberal-minded The Age, the newspaper was originally owned by William Kerr, a journalist who had worked with the Sydney Gazette before moving to Melbourne in 1839 to work on John Pascoe Fawkners Port Phillip Patriot. The first edition was published on 2 June 1846, the paper was known for its scurrilous abuse and sarcasm and by 1853 Kerr lost ownership through a series of libel suits. The paper was published under the name of Edward Wilson. The paper was to become a stablemate to the weekly The Australasian which was to become The Australasian Post in 1946. During the Depression in 1933 it launched the Melbourne Evening Star in competition with The Herald newspaper of The Herald and Weekly Times Ltd, in 1949 the paper was acquired by the London-based Daily Mirror newspaper group.
On 28 July 1952, The Argus became the first newspaper in the world to publish colour photographs in a daily paper. The paper had interests in radio and, in 1956, the new medium of television, being part of the consortium General Telecasters Victoria, and its television station GTV-9. The companys newspaper operation experienced severe loss of profitability in the 1950s, attributable to increased costs of newsprint, in 1957 the paper was discontinued and sold to the Herald and Weekly Times group, which undertook to re-employ Argus staff and continue publication of selected features. HWT made an allocation of shares to the UK owners, the final edition was published on 19 January 1957. The companys other print and broadcasting operations were unaffected, the takeover of The Argus by the powerful Mirror Group, of Fleet Street, led to hopes of a renaissance for The Argus. Fresh capital, new ideas, and new strategies from London, but instead, the new arrivals from England finished up destroying their new possession