George Edward Foreman is an American former professional boxer who competed from 1969 to 1977, from 1987 to 1997. Nicknamed "Big George", he is an Olympic gold medalist. Outside the sport he is an ordained minister and entrepreneur. After a troubled childhood Foreman took up amateur boxing and won a gold medal in the heavyweight division at the 1968 Summer Olympics. Having turned professional the next year, he won the world heavyweight title with a second-round knockout of then-undefeated Joe Frazier in 1973. Two successful title defenses were made before Foreman's first professional loss to Muhammad Ali in "The Rumble in the Jungle" in 1974. Unable to secure another title opportunity, Foreman retired after a loss to Jimmy Young in 1977. Following what he referred to as a religious epiphany, Foreman became an ordained Christian minister. Ten years he announced a comeback and, in 1994 at age 45, he regained a portion of the heavyweight championship by knocking out 27-year-old Michael Moorer to win the unified WBA, IBF, lineal titles.
Foreman remains the oldest world heavyweight champion in history, the second oldest in any weight class after Bernard Hopkins. He retired in 1997 with a final record of 76 wins and 5 losses. Foreman has been inducted into International Boxing Hall of Fame; the International Boxing Research Organization rates Foreman as the eighth greatest heavyweight of all time. In 2002, he was named one of the 25 greatest fighters of the past 80 years by The Ring magazine; the Ring ranked him as the ninth greatest puncher of all time. He was a ringside analyst for HBO's boxing coverage for twelve years until 2004. Outside boxing, he is a successful entrepreneur and known for his promotion of the George Foreman Grill, which has sold more than 100 million units worldwide. In 1999, he sold the naming rights to the grill for $138 million. George Foreman was born in Texas, he grew up in the Fifth Ward, with six siblings. Although he was raised by J. D. Foreman, whom his mother had married when George was a small child, his biological father was Leroy Moorehead.
By his own admission in his autobiography, George was a troubled youth. He dropped out of school at the age of fifteen and joined the Job Corps. After moving to Pleasanton, with the help of a supervisor he began to train in boxing. Foreman idolized Jim Brown, but gave it up for boxing. Foreman won a gold medal in the boxing/heavyweight division at the 1968 Mexico City Olympic Games. In the final Olympic bout, Foreman defeated Soviet Union's Jonas Čepulis when the referee stopped the fight in the 2nd round. Čepulis' face was bleeding in the first round from Foreman's punches, had to take a standing eight count early in the second round. Čepulis was 10 years older than Foreman. After winning the gold medal fight, Foreman walked around the ring carrying a small U. S. flag and bowing to the crowd. Round of 16: defeated Lucjan Trela by decision, 4-1 Quarterfinal: defeated Ion Alexe referee stopped contest Semifinal: defeated Giorgio Bambini by a second-round knockout Final: defeated Lithuanian Jonas Čepulis referee stopped contest Won his first amateur fight on January 26, 1967 by a first-round knockout in the Parks Diamond Belt Tournament.
Won the San Francisco Examiner's Golden Gloves Tournament in the Junior Division in February 1967. February 1967: Knocked out Thomas Cook to win the Las Vegas Golden Gloves in the Senior Division. February 1968: Knocked out L. C. Brown to win the San Francisco Examiner's Senior Title in San Francisco. March 1968: Won the National AAU Heavyweight title in Toledo, Ohio vs. Henry Crump of Philadelphia in the final. July 1968: Sparred five rounds on two different occasions with former World Heavyweight Champion Sonny Liston. September 21, 1968: Won his second decision over Otis Evans to make the U. S. boxing team for the Mexico City Olympic Games. Foreman had a 16–4 amateur boxing record going into the Olympics, he knocked out the Soviet Union's Jonas Čepulis to win the Olympic Games Heavyweight Gold Medal. He was trained for the Olympic Games by Robert Gault. Amateur record: 22–4 Foreman turned professional in 1969 with a three-round knockout of Donald Walheim in New York, he had a total of 13 fights that year.
In 1970, Foreman continued his march toward the undisputed heavyweight title, winning all 12 of his bouts. Among the opponents he defeated were Gregorio Peralta, whom he decisioned at Madison Square Garden although Peralta showed that Foreman was vulnerable to fast counter punching mixed with an assertive boxing style. Foreman defeated George Chuvalo by technical knockout in three rounds. After this win, Foreman defeated Charlie Polite in Boone Kirkman in three. In 1971, Foreman won seven more fights, winning all of them by knockout, including a rematch with Peralta, whom he defeated by knockout in the tenth and final round in Oakland, a win over Leroy Caldwell, knocked out in the second round. After amassing a record of 32–0, he was ranked as the number one challenger by the WBA and WBC. In 1972, still undefeated and with an impressive knockout record, Foreman was set to challenge undefeated and Undisputed World Heavyweight Champion Joe Frazier. Despite boycotting a title elimination caused by the vacancy resulting from the championship being stripped from Muhammad Ali, Frazier had won the title from Jimmy Ellis and defended his title four times since, including a 15-round unanimous decision over the unbeaten Ali in 1971 after Ali had beaten Os
A film studio is a major entertainment company or motion picture company that has its own owned studio facility or facilities that are used to make films, handled by the production company. The majority of firms in the entertainment industry have never owned their own studios, but have rented space from other companies. There are independently owned studio facilities, who have never produced a motion picture of their own because they are not entertainment companies or motion picture companies; the largest film studio in the world is Ramoji Film City, in India. In 1893, Thomas Edison built the first movie studio in the United States when he constructed the Black Maria, a tarpaper-covered structure near his laboratories in West Orange, New Jersey, asked circus and dramatic actors to perform for the camera, he distributed these movies at vaudeville theaters, penny arcades, wax museums, fairgrounds. The first film serial, What Happened to Mary, was released by the Edison company in 1912; the pioneering Thanhouser film studio was founded in New Rochelle, New York in 1909 by American theatrical impresario Edwin Thanhouser.
The company produced and released 1,086 films between 1910 and 1917 distributing them around the world. In the early 1900s, companies started moving to California. Although electric lights were by widely available, none were yet powerful enough to adequately expose film; some movies were shot on the roofs of buildings in Downtown Los Angeles. Early movie producers relocated to Southern California to escape Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company, which controlled all the patents relevant to movie production at the time; the first movie studio in the Hollywood area was Nestor Studios, opened in 1911 by Al Christie for David Horsley. In the same year, another 15 independents settled in Hollywood. Other production companies settled in the Los Angeles area in places such as Culver City and what would soon become known as Studio City in the San Fernando Valley; the Big 5 By the mid-1920s, the evolution of a handful of American production companies into wealthy motion picture industry conglomerates that owned their own studios, distribution divisions, theaters, contracted with performers and other filmmaking personnel, led to the sometimes confusing equation of "studio" with "production company" in industry slang.
Five large companies, 20th Century Fox, RKO Pictures, Paramount Pictures, Warner Bros. and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer came to be known as the "Big Five," the "majors," or "the Studios" in trade publications such as Variety, their management structures and practices collectively came to be known as the "studio system." The Little 3 Although they owned few or no theaters to guarantee sales of their films, Universal Pictures, Columbia Pictures, United Artists fell under these rubrics, making a total of eight recognized "major studios". United Artists, although its controlling partners owned not one but two production studios during the Golden Age, had an often-tenuous hold on the title of "major" and operated as a backer and distributor of independently produced films. Smaller studios operated with "the majors." These included operations such as Republic Pictures, active from 1935, which produced films that matched the scale and ambition of the larger studio, Monogram Pictures, which specialized in series and genre releases.
Together with smaller outfits such as PRC TKO and Grand National, the minor studios filled the demand for B movies and are sometimes collectively referred to as Poverty Row. The Big Five's ownership of movie theaters was opposed by eight independent producers, including Samuel Goldwyn, David O. Selznick, Walt Disney, Hal Roach, Walter Wanger. In 1948, the federal government won a case against Paramount in the Supreme Court, which ruled that the vertically integrated structure of the movie industry constituted an illegal monopoly; this decision, reached after twelve years of litigation, hastened the end of the studio system and Hollywood's "Golden Age". By the 1950s, the physical components of a typical major film studio had become standardized. Since a major film studio has been housed inside a physically secure compound with a high wall, which protects filmmaking operations from unwanted interference from paparazzi and crazed fans of leading movie stars. Movement in and out of the studio is limited to specific gates, where visitors must stop at a boom barrier and explain the purpose of their visit to a security guard.
Studio premises feature multiple sound stages along with an outside backlot, as well as offices for studio executives and production companies. There is a studio "commissary", the traditional term in the film industry for what other industries call a company cafeteria. Early nitrate film was notoriously flammable, sets were and are still flammable, why film studios built in the early-to-mid 20th century have water towers to facilitate firefighting. Halfway through the 1950s, with television proving to be a lucrative enterprise not destined to disappear any time soon—as many in the film industry had once hoped—movie studios were being used to produce programming for the burgeoning medium; some midsize film companies, such as Republic Pictures sold their studios to TV production concerns, which were bought by larger studios, such as the American Broadcasting Company, purchased by The Walt Disney Company i
Christopher D'Olier Reeve was an American actor who played DC comic book superhero Superman, beginning with the acclaimed Superman, for which he won a BAFTA Award. Reeve appeared in other critically acclaimed films such as The Bostonians, Street Smart and The Remains of the Day, he received a Screen Actors Guild Award and a Golden Globe Award nomination for his performance in the television remake of Rear Window. On May 27, 1995, Reeve was left quadriplegic after being thrown from a horse during an equestrian competition in Culpeper, Virginia, he needed a portable ventilator to breathe for the rest of his life. He lobbied on behalf of people with spinal cord injuries and for human embryonic stem cell research, founding the Christopher Reeve Foundation and co-founding the Reeve-Irvine Research Center. Christopher D'Olier Reeve was born on September 25, 1952, in New York City, the son of Barbara Pitney Lamb, a journalist, Franklin D'Olier Reeve, a teacher, novelist and scholar. Reeve was of entirely English ancestry, with many family lines, in America since the early 17th century.
His paternal grandfather, Colonel Richard Henry Reeve, had been the CEO of Prudential Financial for over 25 years. Reeve's father was a Princeton University graduate studying for a master's degree in Russian at Columbia University before the birth of his son, Christopher. Despite being born wealthy, Franklin Reeve spent summers working at the docks with longshoremen. Reeve's mother had been a student at Vassar College in Poughkeepsie, but transferred to Barnard College to be closer to Franklin, whom she had met through a family connection, they had another son, born on October 6, 1953. Franklin and Barbara divorced in 1956, she moved with her two sons to Princeton, New Jersey, where they attended Nassau Street School; that year, Franklin Reeve married Helen Schmidinger, a Columbia University graduate student. Barbara Pitney Lamb married Tristam B. Johnson, a stockbroker, in 1959. Johnson enrolled Christopher and his brother, Benjamin, in Princeton Country Day School, which merged with Miss Fine's School for Girls to become the co-educational Princeton Day School.
Reeve excelled academically and onstage. The sportsmanship award at Princeton Day School's invitational hockey tournament was named in Reeve's honor. Reeve admitted that he put pressure on himself to act older than he was in order to gain his father's approval. Reeve found his passion for acting in 1962 at age nine when he was cast in an amateur version of the operetta The Yeomen of the Guard. In mid-1968, at age fifteen, Reeve was accepted as an apprentice at the Williamstown Theatre Festival in Williamstown, Massachusetts; the other apprentices were college students, but Reeve's older appearance and maturity helped him fit in with the others. In a workshop, he played a scene from A View from the Bridge, chosen to be presented in front of an audience. After the performance, actress Olympia Dukakis said to him, "I'm surprised. You've got a lot of talent. Don't mess it up." The next summer, Reeve was hired at the Harvard Summer Repertory Theater Company in Cambridge for $44 per week. He played a Russian sailor in The Belyayev in A Month in the Country.
Famed theater critic Elliot Norton called his performance as Belyayev "startlingly effective." The 23-year-old lead actress in the play, a Carnegie Mellon graduate, turned out to be Reeve's first romance. She was engaged to a fellow Carnegie Mellon graduate at the time. Reeve's romance with the actress fizzled a few months when the age difference became an issue. Reeve was involved with Scientology but opted out of becoming a member, he subsequently voiced criticism of the organization. After graduating from Princeton Day School in June 1970, Reeve acted in plays in Maine, he planned to go to New York City to find a career in theater. However, at the advice of his mother, he applied for college, he was accepted into Princeton University in New Jersey. Reeve said that he chose Cornell because it was distanced from New York City and because of the temptations of working as an actor versus finishing college, as he had promised his mother and step-father. Reeve joined the theater department in Cornell, played Pozzo in Waiting for Godot, Segismundo in Life Is a Dream, Hamlet in Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead, Polixenes in The Winter's Tale.
Late in his freshman year, Reeve received a letter from Stark Hesseltine, a high-powered New York City agent who had discovered Robert Redford and who represented actors such as Richard Chamberlain, Michael Douglas, Susan Sarandon. Hesseltine wanted to represent him. Reeve was excited and kept re-reading the letter to make sure of what it said. Reeve was anxious to get on with his career; the two met, but Reeve was surprised to find that Hesseltine supported his promise to his mother and step-father to complete college. They decided that instead of dropping out of school, Reeve would come to New York once a month to meet casting agents and producers to find wor
Eugene Allen Hackman is a retired American actor and novelist. In a career that spanned nearly five decades, Hackman was nominated for five Academy Awards, winning Best Actor in The French Connection and Best Supporting Actor in Unforgiven, he won one SAG Award and two BAFTAs. He first came to fame in 1967 with his performance as Buck Barrow in Bonnie and Clyde, when he received his first Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actor, his major subsequent films include: I Never Sang for My Father, when he received his second Best Supporting Actor nomination. His film roles during the 1990s featured: Unforgiven. Hackman's final film appearance to date was the romantic comedy film Welcome to Mooseport in 2004, co-starring comedian Ray Romano. Hackman was born in San Bernardino, the son of Eugene Ezra Hackman and Anna Lyda Elizabeth, he has Richard. He has Pennsylvania Dutch and Scottish ancestry, his family moved finally settling in Danville, where they lived in the house of his English-born maternal grandmother, Beatrice.
Hackman's father operated the printing press for a local paper. His parents divorced in 1943 and his father subsequently left the family. Hackman decided. Hackman lived in Storm Lake and spent his sophomore year at Storm Lake High School, he lied about his age to enlist in the United States Marine Corps. He served four and a half years as a field radio operator, he was stationed in China. When the Communist Revolution conquered the mainland in 1949, Hackman was assigned to Hawaii and Japan. Following his discharge in 1951, he had several jobs, his mother died in 1962 as a result of a fire. In 1956 he began pursuing an acting career, it was there that he forged a friendship with Dustin Hoffman. Seen as outsiders by their classmates, they were voted "The Least Likely To Succeed.". Furthermore, Hackman got the all time lowest score at the Pasadena Playhouse at the time. Determined to prove them wrong, Hackman moved to New York City. A 2004 article in Vanity Fair described how Hackman and Robert Duvall were all struggling California born actors and close friends, sharing apartments in various two-person combinations while living in New York City in the 1960s.
To support himself between acting jobs, he was working as a uniformed doorman at a Howard Johnson restaurant in New York when, as bad luck would have it, he ran into a despised Pasadena Playhouse instructor who once told him he was not good enough to be an actor. Reinforcing "The Least Likely To Succeed" vote, the man said to him, "See, Hackman, I told you you wouldn't amount to anything." From on, Hackman was determined to become the finest actor he could. The three former roommates have since earned 19 Academy Award nominations for acting, with five wins. Hackman got various bit roles, for example on the TV series Route 66 in 1963, began performing in several Off-Broadway plays. In 1964 he had an offer to co-star in the play Any Wednesday with actress Sandy Dennis; this opened the door to film work. His first role was with Warren Beatty in the leading role. In 1967 he appeared in an episode of the television series The Invaders entitled The Spores. Another supporting role, Buck Barrow in 1967's Bonnie and Clyde, earned him an Academy Award nomination as Best Supporting Actor.
In 1968 he appeared in an episode of I Spy, in the role of "Hunter", in the episode "Happy Birthday... Everybody". In 1968 he starred in the CBS Playhouse episode "My Father and My Mother" and the dystopian television film Shadow on the Land. In 1969 he played a ski coach in an astronaut in Marooned; that year, he played a member of a barnstorming skydiving team that entertained at county fairs, a movie which inspired many to pursue skydiving and has a cult-like status amongst skydivers as a result: The Gypsy Moths. He nearly accepted the role of Mike Brady for the TV series, The Brady Bunch, but was advised by his agent to decline in exchange for a more promising role, which he did. In 1971 he was nominated for the Best Supporting Actor Academy Award again, this time for 1970's I Never Sang for My Father, working alongside Melvyn Douglas and Estelle Parsons; the next year, he won the Academy Award for Best Actor for his performance as New York City Detective Jimmy "Popeye" Doyle in The French Connection, marking his graduation to leading man status.
He followed this with leading roles in the disaster film The Poseidon Adventure and Francis Ford Coppola's The Conversation, nominated for several Oscars. That same year, Hackman appeared in what became one of his most famous comedic roles as The Blindman in Young Frankenstein, he appeared as one of Teddy Roosevelt's former Rough Riders in the Western horse-race saga Bite the Bullet, as well as in that year's sequel French Connection II. In 1975 he appeared in Night Moves, receiving a BAFTA n
Farewell, My Lovely (1975 film)
Farewell, My Lovely is a 1975 American neo noir film, directed by Dick Richards and featuring Robert Mitchum as private detective Phillip Marlowe. The picture is based on Raymond Chandler's novel Farewell, My Lovely, adapted for film as Murder, My Sweet in 1944; the film stars Charlotte Rampling, John Ireland, Jack O'Halloran, Sylvia Miles and Harry Dean Stanton, with an early screen appearance by Sylvester Stallone. Mitchum returned to the role of Marlowe three years in the 1978 film The Big Sleep, making him the only actor to portray Philip Marlowe more than once on the big screen. In 1941 Los Angeles, against a seamy backdrop of police corruption, cheap hotel rooms, illegal gambling and jewel trafficking, private detective Philip Marlowe is holed up in a hotel room and growing more weary by the hour; as he explains to his police lieutenant friend Nulty: "I've got a coat and a gun. Marlowe has been hired by a huge and surly ex-convict, Moose Malloy, to find his old girlfriend Velma, whom he hasn't seen in seven years.
At the same time, Marlowe is investigating the murder of a client named Marriott, a victim of blackmail and a stolen necklace made of jade. While encountering connections to both cases, Marlowe develops an attraction to the married and seductive Helen Grayle; as the body count mounts, Marlowe survives attempts on his life, which include being drugged and held captive by a psychotic brothel madam named Amthor and her thugs. The action comes to a head with a shootout on a gambling boat off the L. A. coast. Robert Mitchum as Philip Marlowe Charlotte Rampling as Helen Grayle John Ireland as Lt. Nulty Sylvia Miles as Jessie Halstead Florian Anthony Zerbe as Laird Brunette Harry Dean Stanton as Detective Billy Rolfe Jack O'Halloran as Moose Malloy Joe Spinell as Nick Sylvester Stallone as Jonnie Kate Murtagh as Frances Amthor John O'Leary as Lindsay Marriott Walter McGinn as Tommy Ray Jim Thompson as Judge Baxter Wilson Grayle Sir Lew Grade had invested in Kastner's film Dogpound Shuffle; the producer approached him to invest in Farewell My Lovely and Grade agreed, knowing the movie could be be pre-sold to TV.
Grade financed The Big Sleep. According to Robert Mitchum, Kastner wanted the role of Philip Marlowe to be played by Richard Burton, with whom Kastner had worked a number of times; however Burton was busy. The star recalled: The producer, Elliott Kastner, comes by with Sir Lew Grade, the British tycoon, he has a black suit, a black tie, a white shirt and a whiter face.'I know nothing about motion pictures,' Sir Lew says.'What I know is entertainment: Ferris wheels, pony rides.' I suggested we buy up the rights to Murder, My Sweet with Dick Powell, re-release it and go to the beach. But, no, they hired Dick Richards, so nervous he can't hold his legs still, they have all the hide rubbed off them, He started doing TV commercials. He was accustomed to, you know, start the camera, expose 120 feet of film and tell somebody to move the beer bottle half an inch clockwise, he does the same thing with people. Mitchum reprised the role of Philip Marlowe three years in The Big Sleep, although that film was set in the present day and in England, rather than shot as a period piece in the detective's customary setting of Los Angeles.
Marlowe's client, Moose Malloy, is played by a former professional prizefighter. Mitchum called O'Halloran "one great find on this picture. At least, he's a find if we can find him again... They hired him for $500 a week, he looked perfect for the part. One time he hit the producer. One of the producers. We had seven of them. We called them the Magnificent Seven. Jack was swinging this poor bastard around his head like an Indian war club. I tried to explain to him:'The guy can be talked to, Jack.' He shakes his head.'Mitch,' he says,'I was crying too hard.'"Mitchum says Charlotte Rampling "arrived with an odd entourage, two husbands or something. Or they were friends and she married one of them and he grew a mustache and butched up, she kept exercising her mouth. I played her on the right side because she had two great big blackheads on her left ear, I was afraid they'd spring out and lodge on my lip."Sylvester Stallone, in an early role prior to Rocky, has a brief role as an employee of the brothel's sadistic madam.
Jim Thompson, author of popular crime novels like The Getaway and The Grifters, appears in the film as Judge Grayle. Joe Spinell, who played Willi Cicci in The Godfather and Stallone's boss in Rocky, is featured as Nicky, a hired thug for Frances Amthor. Spinell was in poor health but it was his friend Robert Mitchum, who made sure that Spinell's scenes were filmed first so that he could get to the doctors if required. Mitchum admitted "This kid Richards, the director, he's got something. It'll be a good picture." Critic Roger Ebert gave the film four out of four stars and wrote, "These opening shots are so evocative of Raymond Chandler's immortal Marlowe, archtypical private eye, haunting the underbelly of Los Angeles, that if we're Chandler fans we hold our breath. Is the ambience going to be maintained, or will this be another campy rip-off? Half an hour into the movie, we relax. Farewell, My Lovely never steps wrong...in the genre itself there hasn't been anything this good since Hollywood was doing Philip Marlowe the first time around.
One reason is that Dick Richards, the director, takes his material and character seriously. He is not uneasy with it, as Robert Altman was when he had Elliott Gould flirt with seriousness in The Long Goodbye. Richards doesn't hedge his bet."Gene Siskel gave the film three stars out of four and wrote th
Alexander Joseph "Lex" Luthor is a fictional supervillain appearing in publications by the publisher DC Comics. The character was created by Joe Shuster. Lex Luthor first has since endured as the archenemy of Superman. Introduced as a mad scientist whose schemes Superman would foil, Lex's portrayal has evolved over the years and his characterisation has deepened. In contemporary stories, Lex is portrayed as a wealthy, power-mad American business magnate, ingenious engineer, philanthropist to the city of Metropolis, one of the most intelligent people in the world. A well-known public figure, he is the owner of a conglomerate called LexCorp, he is intent on ridding the world of the alien Superman, whom Lex Luthor views as an obstacle to his plans and as a threat to the existence of humanity. Given his high status as a supervillain, however, he has come into conflict with Batman and other superheroes in the DC Universe; the character has traditionally lacked superpowers or a dual identity and appears with a bald head.
He periodically wears his Warsuit, a high-tech battle suit giving him enhanced strength, advanced weaponry, other capabilities. The character was introduced as a diabolical recluse, but during the Modern Age, he was reimagined by writers as a devious, high-profile industrialist, who has crafted his public persona in order to avoid suspicion and arrest, he is well known for his philanthropy, donating vast sums of money to Metropolis over the years, funding parks and charities. The character was ranked 4th on IGN's list of the Top 100 Comic Book Villains of All Time and as the 8th Greatest Villain by Wizard on its 100 Greatest Villains of All Time list. Luthor is one of a few genre-crossing villains whose adventures take place "in a world in which the ordinary laws of nature are suspended". Scott James Wells, Sherman Howard, John Shea, Michael Rosenbaum, Jon Cryer have portrayed the character in Superman-themed television series, while Lyle Talbot, Gene Hackman, Kevin Spacey, Jesse Eisenberg have portrayed the character in major motion pictures.
Clancy Brown, Powers Boothe, James Marsters, Chris Noth, Anthony LaPaglia, Steven Blum, Fred Tatasciore, Jason Isaacs, Kevin Michael Richardson, Mark Rolston, John DiMaggio, James Woods and Rainn Wilson, others have provided the character's voice in animation adaptations. In his first appearance, Action Comics #23, Luthor is depicted as a diabolical genius and is referred to only by his surname, he resides in a flying city suspended by a dirigible and plots to provoke a war between two European nations. Lois Lane and Clark Kent investigate. Luthor battles Superman with a green ray but Luthor is defeated by Superman, Lois is rescued. Superman destroys Luthor's dirigible with him still on it, implying Luthor may have died, although stories ending with Luthor's apparent death are common in his earliest appearances. Luthor returns in Superman #4 and steals a weapon from the U. S. Army, capable of causing earthquakes. Superman battles and defeats Luthor, the earthquake device is destroyed by Superman.
The scientist who made the device commits suicide to prevent its reinvention. In a story in the same issue, Luthor is shown to have created a city on the sunken Lost Continent of Pacifo and to have recreated prehistoric monsters, which he plans to unleash upon the world. Superman thwarts his plans, Luthor appears to have been killed by the dinosaurs he created. Luthor returns in Superman #5 with a plan to place hypnotic gas in the offices of influential people, he intends to throw the nation into a depression with the help of corrupt financier Moseley, but the story ends with Superman defeating him. In these early stories, Luthor's schemes are centered around financial gain or megalomaniacal ambitions. Luthor's obsessive hatred of Superman came in the character's development. In Luthor's earliest appearances, he is shown as a middle-aged man with a full head of red hair. Less than a year however, an artistic mistake resulted in Luthor being depicted as bald in a newspaper strip; the original error is attributed to Leo Nowak, a studio artist who illustrated for the Superman dailies during this period.
One hypothesis is that Nowak mistook Luthor for the Ultra-Humanite, a frequent foe of Superman who, in his Golden Age incarnation, resembled a balding, elderly man. Other evidence suggests Luthor's design was confused with that of a stockier, bald henchman in Superman #4; the character's abrupt hair loss has been made reference to several times over the course of his history. When the concept of the DC Multiverse began to take hold, Luthor's red-haired incarnation was rewritten as Alexei Luthor, Lex's counterpart from the Earth-Two parallel universe. In 1960, writer Jerry Siegel altered Luthor's backstory to incorporate his hair loss into his origin. In 1944 Lex Luthor was the first character in a comic book to use an atomic bomb; the United States Department of War asked this story line be delayed from publication, which it was until 1946, to protect the secrecy of the Manhattan Project. The War Department asked for dailies of the Superman comic strip to be pulled in April 1945 which depicted Lex Luthor bombarding Superman with the radiation from a cyclotron.
Luthor vanished for a long time, coming back in Superboy #59 (Sept. 19
Superman (1978 film)
Superman is a 1978 superhero film directed by Richard Donner starring Christopher Reeve as Superman based on the DC Comics character of the same name. An international co-production between the United Kingdom, Switzerland and the United States, the film stars an ensemble cast featuring Marlon Brando, Gene Hackman, Christopher Reeve, Jeff East, Margot Kidder, Glenn Ford, Phyllis Thaxter, Jackie Cooper, Trevor Howard, Marc McClure, Terence Stamp, Valerie Perrine, Ned Beatty, Jack O'Halloran, Maria Schell, Sarah Douglas, it depicts Superman's origin, including his infancy as Kal-El of Krypton and his youthful years in the rural town of Smallville. Disguised as reporter Clark Kent, he adopts a mild-mannered disposition in Metropolis and develops a romance with Lois Lane, while battling the villainous Lex Luthor. Several directors, most notably Guy Hamilton, screenwriters, were associated with the project before Richard Donner was hired to direct. Tom Mankiewicz was given a "creative consultant" credit.
It was decided to film both Superman and its sequel Superman II with principal photography beginning in March 1977 and ending in October 1978. Tensions arose between Donner and the producers, a decision was made to stop filming the sequel, of which 75 percent had been completed, finish the first film; the most expensive film made up to that point with a budget of $55 million, Superman was released in December 1978 to critical and financial success. It received praise for Reeve's performance, was nominated for three Academy Awards, including Best Film Editing, Best Music, Best Sound, received a Special Achievement Academy Award for Visual Effects. Groundbreaking in its use of special effects and science fiction/fantasy storytelling, the film's legacy presaged the mainstream popularity of Hollywood's superhero film franchises. In 2017, Superman was inducted into the Library of Congress' National Film Registry. On the planet Krypton, Jor-El of the Kryptonian high council discovers the planet will soon be destroyed when its red supergiant sun goes supernova.
Despite his insistence, he fails to convince the other council members. To save his infant son, Kal-El, Jor-El launches him in a spaceship to Earth, a planet with a suitable atmosphere where his dense molecular structure will give him superhuman strength and other powers. Shortly after the launch, Krypton's sun explodes; the ship crash-lands on Earth near Kansas. Kal-El, now three years old, is found by Jonathan and Martha Kent, who are astonished when he lifts their truck, they take him back to their farm and raise him as their own, naming him Clark after Martha's maiden name. At 18, soon after Jonathan's death from a heart attack, Clark hears a psychic "call" and discovers a glowing green crystal in the remains of his spacecraft, it compels him to travel to the Arctic where it builds the Fortress of Solitude, resembling the architecture of Krypton. Inside, a hologram of Jor-El explains Clark's true origins, after 12 further years of educating him on his powers and his reason for being sent to Earth, he leaves the Fortress wearing a blue and red suit with a red cape and the House of El family crest emblazoned on his chest and becomes a reporter at the Daily Planet in Metropolis.
He develops a romantic attraction to coworker Lois Lane. Lois becomes involved in a helicopter accident. Clark uses his powers in public for the first time to save her, to the astonishment of the crowd gathered below, he goes on to thwart a jewel thief attempting to scale the Solow Building, captures robbers fleeing police through the Fulton Market by depositing their cabin cruiser on Wall Street, rescuing a girl's cat from a tree in Brooklyn Heights. He saves Air Force One after a lightning strike destroys the port outboard engine, making the "caped wonder" an instant celebrity. Clark visits Lois at her penthouse apartment the next night and takes her for a flight over the city, allowing her to interview him for an article in which she names him "Superman." Meanwhile, criminal genius Lex Luthor learns of a joint U. S. Army and U. S. Navy nuclear missile test, he buys hundreds of acres of worthless desert land out west and has the test's two 500 megaton missiles reprogrammed, one to detonate inside of the San Andreas Fault, the other, rather unintentionally, to detonate in an undisclosed location.
Knowing Superman could stop his plan, Lex deduces that a meteorite found in Addis Ababa is part of Krypton and is radioactive to Superman. After he and his accomplices Otis and Eve Teschmacher retrieve a piece of it, Luthor lures Superman to his underground lair and reveals his plan to cause everything west of the San Andreas Fault to sink into the Pacific Ocean, leaving Luthor's desert as the new West Coast. Luthor exposes him to a mineral from the meteor piece, that weakens Superman greatly. Luthor further taunts Superman by revealing the other missile is headed in the eastbound direction toward Hackensack, New Jersey. Teschmacher is horrified because her mother lives in Hackensack, but Luthor does not care and leaves Superman to die a slow death. Knowing his reputation for keeping his word, Teschmacher rescues Superman on the condition that he will stop the eastbound missile first. After Teschmacher frees him, Superman diverts the eastbound missile into outer space preventing him from reaching the westbound missile before