The Ferrari 330 was a series of V12 powered automobiles produced by Ferrari in 2+2 GT Coupé, two-seat Berlinetta and race car versions between 1963 and 1968. The first, the 2+2 330 America, was a 250 GT/E with a larger 3.3 litre engine. Production ended in 1968 with the introduction of the Ferrari 365 series. All 330 models used an evolution of the 400 Superamerica's 4.0 L Colombo V12 engine. It was changed, with wider bore spacing and an alternator replacing a generator; the 1963 330 America shared the outgoing 250 GTE's chassis but not its engine, being powered by the new 4.0 L Tipo 209 V12, with 300 hp at 6600 rpm. As for the 250-series, "330" refers to the approximate displacement of each single cylinder. Like the 250 GTE the 330 America fitted 185VR15 Pirelli Cinturato tyres About 50 330 Americas were built before being replaced by the larger 330 GT 2+2; the provisional 330 America was replaced in January 1964 by the new 330 GT 2+2. It was first shown at the Brussels Show, early that year.
It was much more than a re-engined 250, with a sharper nose and tail, quad headlights, a wide grille. The wheelbase was 50 mm longer. A dual-circuit Dunlop braking system was used with discs all around, though it separated brakes front to back rather than diagonally as on modern systems; when leaving the factory the 330 GT fitted Pirelli Cinturato 205VR15 tyres. The 1965 Series II version featured a five-speed gearbox instead of the overdrive four-speed of the prior year. Other changes included the switch back to a dual-light instead of quad-light front, alloy wheels, the addition of optional air conditioning and power steering. Prior to the introduction of the'Series II' 330 GTs, a series of 125'interim' cars were produced, with the quad-headlight external configuration of the Series I cars, but with the five-speed transmission and'suspended' foot pedals of the'Series II' cars. 625 Series I and 455 Series II 330 GT 2+2 cars had been built when the car was replaced by the 365 GT 2+2 in 1967. Production of the smaller 330 GTC and GTS models overlapped with the GT 2+2 for more than a year.
The 330 GTC and 330 GTS were more like their 275 counterparts than the 330 GT 2+2. They shared the short wheelbase of the 275 as well as its independent rear suspension & the same tyres 205VR14 Michelin XWX; these models were more refined than earlier Ferraris and easier to drive. It has been stated that this "was the first Ferrari in which you could enjoy a radio"; the GTC berlinetta was introduced at the Geneva Motor Show in March, 1966. It was a two-seater coupé with a Pininfarina-designed body. A 1967 GTC was given one-off bodywork by Zagato at the behest of American importer Luigi Chinetti in 1974; this car was called the "Zagato Convertibile". The GTS spider followed at the Paris Motor Show. About 600 coupés and 100 spiders were produced before the 1968 introduction of the 365 GTC and GTS. In the early 1970s, Ferrari allowed Swiss specialist Felber to use the Ferrari name on a retro roadster using 330 GTC underpinnings. Six or seven examples of the Felber FF were built between 1974 and 1977, with hand-made aluminium bodywork by Panther Westwinds, who helped develop the car.
Four 330 LMB GT racing cars were built in 1963. This model is known as the 330 LM. First presented in March 1963 alongside the mid-engined 250 P, they were a development of the 250 GTOs and fitted with the 4-litre 330 engine, here rated at 390 hp at 7,500 rpm. Although the front is visually similar to the 250 GTOs, the main structure came from the 250 Lusso; the four 330 LMBs are distinct from the three 1962 330 GTOs. The wheelbase, at 2,420 mm, was 20 mm longer than either the Lusso's or the GTO's; the raised plates on the top of the rear fenders were necessary to clear the rear tires. The 330 LMB did not see much racing, as Ferrari was moving over to the mid-engined layout for racing. One retired at Sebring 1963, while of three starters at Le Mans that year, two retired and the car of Jack Sears and Mike Salmon came in fifth. After this, the LMB saw no more works entries. Four models of mid-engined racing cars used the 330 engine and name as well — the 330 P/P2/P3/P4 range of the mid 1960s; the 330 P4 had 450 hp at 8000 rpm, which combined with its low weight of 792 kg resulted in a top speed of 320 km/h.
Eaton, the Editors of Consumer Guide, eds. Ferrari: The Sports/Racing and Road Cars, New York, NY: Beekman House, ISBN 0-517-381982CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter Eaton, The Complete Ferrari, London: Cadogan Books, pp. 92f. 131–135, 140–150, 163/164, 353f. ISBN 0-947754-10-5 330 GT Registry
Silverstone Circuit is a motor racing circuit in England located next to the Northamptonshire villages of Silverstone and Whittlebury. The circuit straddles the Northamptonshire and Buckinghamshire border, with the current main circuit entry on the Buckinghamshire side; the Northamptonshire towns of Towcester and Brackley and Buckinghamshire town of Buckingham are close by, the nearest large towns are Northampton and Milton Keynes. Silverstone is the current home of the British Grand Prix, which it first hosted in 1948; the 1950 British Grand Prix at Silverstone was the first race in the newly created World Championship of Drivers. The race rotated between Silverstone and Brands Hatch from 1955 to 1986, but relocated permanently to Silverstone in 1987; the circuit hosts the British round of the MotoGP series. On 30 September 2004 British Racing Drivers' Club president Jackie Stewart announced that the British Grand Prix would not be included on the 2005 provisional race calendar and, if it were, would not occur at Silverstone.
However, on 9 December an agreement was reached with Formula One rights holder Bernie Ecclestone ensuring that the track would host the British Grand Prix until 2009 after which Donington Park would become the new host. However, the Donington Park leaseholders suffered economic problems resulting in the BRDC signing a 17-year deal with Ecclestone to hold the British Grand Prix at Silverstone. Silverstone is built on the site of a World War II Royal Air Force bomber station, RAF Silverstone, which opened in 1943; the airfield's three runways, in classic WWII triangle format, lie within the outline of the present track. Silverstone was first used for motorsport by an'ad hoc' group of friends who set up an impromptu race in September 1947. One of their members, Maurice Geoghegan, lived in nearby Silverstone village and was aware that the airfield was deserted, he and eleven other drivers raced over a two-mile circuit, during the course of which Geoghegan himself ran over a sheep that had wandered onto the airfield.
The sheep was killed and the car written off, in the aftermath of this event the informal race became known as the Mutton Grand Prix. The next year the Royal Automobile Club took a lease on the airfield and set out a more formal racing circuit, their first two races were held on the runways themselves, with long straights separated by tight hairpin corners, the track demarcated by hay bales. However, for the 1949 International Trophy meeting, it was decided to switch to the perimeter track; this arrangement was used for the 1951 Grands Prix. In 1952 the start line was moved from the Farm Straight to the straight linking Woodcote and Copse corners, this layout remained unaltered for the following 38 years. For the 1975 meeting a chicane was introduced to try to tame speeds through Woodcote Corner, Bridge Corner was subtly rerouted in 1987; the track underwent a major redesign between the 1990 and 1991 races, transforming the ultra-fast track into a more technical track. The reshaped track's first Formula One race was won by Nigel Mansell in front of his home crowd.
On his victory lap back to the pits Mansell picked up stranded rival Ayrton Senna to give him a lift on his side-pod after his McLaren had run out of fuel on the final lap of the race. Following the deaths of Senna and fellow Grand Prix driver Roland Ratzenberger at Imola in 1994, many Grand Prix circuits were modified in order to reduce speed and increase driver safety; as a consequence of this the entry from Hangar Straight into Stowe Corner was modified in 1995 to make its entry less dangerous. In addition, the flat-out Abbey kink was modified to a chicane in just 19 days ready for the 1994 Grand Prix. Parts of the circuit, such as the starting grid, are 17 metres wide, complying with the latest safety guidelines. After a new pit building, the Silverstone Wing was completed in time for the 2011 British Grand Prix; the start of the track was relocated to between Abbey Corner. Flat out, the right-hander of Abbey leads into the left-hander of Farm before cars brake into the second-gear right-hander Village Corner.
The slower left-hander of the Loop comes after, leads into the flat-out left-hander of Aintree, before cars head down the DRS zone of the Wellington Straight, designed in 2010 to promote overtaking at the track. Turn 6, the left hander of Brooklands, is taken by drivers in second gear and leads into Luffield, another second-gear curve, a right-hand hairpin; the right-handed kink of Woodcote leads cars down the old pit straight, before the difficult sixth-gear right-hander of Copse, with a minimum speed of 175 mph in the dry for Formula One cars. The challenging complex of Maggotts and Chapel – a left–right–left–right–left complex with a minimum speed of 130 mph – leads cars down the 770-metre Hangar Straight with the fifth-gear right-hander of Stowe at the end; the fifteenth turn of the track, has a minimum speed of 125 mph and precedes a short straight, named Vale, which leads cars downhill towards the Club complex. Heavy braking is required for the left-hander of turn 16, understeer can be an issue for the next right-handers of turns 17 and 18, as cars tentatively accelerate round to the start–finish straight.
The fastest lap of the current circuit configuration was 1:25.892 recorded in qualifying for the 2018 British Grand Prix by Lewis Hamilton, while the official race lap record is 1:30.621 set by Lewis Hamilton at the 201
The Ford Galaxie is a full-sized car, built in the United States of America by Ford for model years 1959 through to 1974. The name was used for the top models in Ford's full-size range from 1958 until 1961, in a marketing attempt to appeal to the excitement surrounding the Space Race. For 1962, all full-size Fords wore the Galaxie badge, with "500" and "500/XL" denoting the higher series; the Galaxie 500/LTD was introduced for 1965 followed by the Galaxie 500 7-Litre for 1966. The Galaxie 500 prefix was dropped from the LTD in 1966, from the XL in 1967; the "regular" Galaxie 500 continued below the LTD as Ford's mid-level full-size model from 1965 until its demise at the end of the 1974 model year. The Galaxie was the competitor to the high-volume full sized Chevrolet Impala; the named Ford Galaxy is a large car/minivan available in the European market. The vehicle's name is believed to be derived from the original Ford Galaxie; the 1959 Ford range was introduced in late 1958 with the Fairlane 500 as the top trim level.
During the 1959 model year the Galaxie was added to the range as an additional trim level, assuming the top position from the Fairlane 500. The Galaxie was offered with the same sedan and hardtop body styles as the Fairlane 500 whilst the Sunliner and Skyliner convertibles were moved across from the Fairlane 500 range. Styling varied from the Fairlane 500 with the addition of a Ford Thunderbird-style C pillar on all but the Sunliner. Although a separate series from the Fairlane 500, 1959 Galaxie models carried both Fairlane 500 and Galaxie badging. In keeping with the era, the 1959 Galaxie was a chrome and stainless steel-bedecked vehicle with optional two-tone paint, it was the image of the ostentatious late-1950s American automobiles, though somewhat tamer than its Chevrolet and Plymouth competitors. Ford advertised "safety anchorage" for the front seats; the parking brake was now a pedal. Seat belts, a padded dashboard, child-proof rear door locks were optional, while a deep-dished steering wheel and double-door locks were standard.
Among the models was the Skyliner, moved upward from the Fairlane 500 model, featuring a retractable hardtop that folded down into the trunk space. This feature and expensive, left little trunk room when folded down. Power retractable hardtops have since been used by luxury manufacturers such as Mercedes-Benz and Cadillac, but in all these cases the vehicle was a two-seater, allowing a much smaller top mechanism than the Skyliner's. Not until 2006, when the Pontiac G6 convertible, Peugeot 206 CC and Volkswagen Eos appeared, did another mass-market model with a rear seat appear in this category. A fixture was the previous year's 352 V8, still developing 300 horsepower. 1960 The 1960 Galaxie introduced all-new design with less ornamentation. A new body style was the Starliner, featuring a huge, curving rear observation window on a pillarless, hardtop bodyshell; the thin, sloping rear roof pillar featured three "star" emblems that served as the Galaxie signature badge for all 1960 - 62 models. The formal roofed 2-door hardtop was not available this year, but the roofline was used for the Galaxie 2-door pillared sedan, complete with chromed window frames.
It had been the most popular body style in the line for 1959, sales dropped off sharply. Contrary to Ford's tradition of pie-plate round taillights, the 1960 featured "half-moon" lenses turned downward; the "A" pillar now swept forward instead of backward, making entering and exiting the car more convenient. 1961 For 1961, the bodywork was redone again, although the underpinnings were the same as for 1960. This time, the tailfins were gone. Performance was beginning to be a selling point, the 1961 Galaxie offered a new 390 CID version of Ford's FE series pushrod V8, available with either a four-barrel carburetor or, for higher performance, three two-barrel carburetors; the latter was rated at 401 hp. The 352 was downgraded in favor of the 390; the Starliner was again offered this year, Ford promoted this model with luxury and power equipment, but it was dropped at the end of the year, as the re-introduced square-roof hardtop coupe, the Galaxie Club Victoria, took the bulk of sales. 1962 For 1962, the Galaxie name was applied to all of Ford's full size models, as the Fairlane name was moved to a new intermediate model and Custom was temporarily retired.
New top-line Galaxie 500 models offered plusher interiors, more chrome trim outside, a few additional luxury items over and above what was standard on the plainer Galaxie models. Base Galaxie models were available in two- and four-door sedans as well as the plain Ranch Wagon. In an effort to stimulate midseason sales, Ford introduced a group of sporty cars along with a "Lively Ones" marketing campaign; these models featured the bucket seats and console that were popularized by the Chevrolet Corvair Monza, included a Fairlane 500 Sports Coupe, a Falcon Futura. The full-size line was available with new bucket-seats-and-console "Lively One," the Galaxie 500/XL. Ford stated in its sales literature that XL stood for "Xtra Lively." The 223 cu in "Mileage Maker" 6-cylinder was the base engine. The 292 cu in V8 was standard on the 500/XL; the XL had sportier trim out. This model was Ford's response to Chevrolet's Super Sport option for the big Impala, introduced the previous year and saw a significant rise in sales for 1962.
Mallory Park is a motor racing circuit situated in the village of Kirkby Mallory, just off the A47, between Leicester and Hinckley, in central England. Used for grass-track until 1955, a new oval hard-surfaced course was constructed for 1956, with a extension forming a loop with a hairpin bend. With the car circuit measuring only 1.35 miles it is amongst the shortest permanent race circuits in the UK. However, chicanes introduced to reduce speeds in motorcycle events mean that the Superbike Circuit is now longer, at 1.41 miles. Shorter UK circuits are Lydden Hill, Brands Hatch Indy circuit, Scotland's Knockhill and Silverstone's diminutive Stowe circuit; the circuit has a number of formations, founded on a basic one-mile oval, with the majority of configurations including the northerly extension to the tight, 180° Shaw's Hairpin. At the other end of the circuit lies the long right-hand Gerard's Bend. Gerard's is about a third of a mile long and turns through nearly 200°, it was named after local racing hero Bob Gerard, who opened the newly reconstructed circuit on 25 April 1956.
Unusually, there are a number of large lakes occupying half of the circuit infield. Despite its short length and Shaw's Hairpin, the tightest corner of any UK track, Mallory is a fast circuit. To reduce speeds for motorcycle racing a pair of chicanes have been introduced, together with a revised exit to Gerard's. Edwina's was added toward the end of the straight following Gerard's, named after former managing director of the circuit Edwina Overend, the Bus Stop Chicane on the descent to the sweeping left kink, the Devil's Elbow, a blind, off camber left-hander before the start–finish line on Kirkby Straight. In 2003 a new complex was added toward the end of Gerard's curve; this sequence of bends was designed to reduce speeds on entry to Edwina's, to prevent motorcycles from colliding as they jockey for position into the chicane. Mallory Park does not have any true permanent garage facilities, although there are a handful of open garages in the pitlane; the estate at Mallory Park has many historical connections, the oldest being the unique Anglo-Saxons defended moat, now known as Kirkby Moats, while a Roman road passes through the estate.
Fast forward to the 18th century, when in 1762, Sir Cleoberry Noel became Viscount Wentworth, the title descended on the distaff side. Lord Byron married into the Wentworth family and it is said on his visits to Mallory, he wrote beneath the shade of the Lebanon cedar tree which still stands in the grounds of Kirkby Hall; the last occupant of Kirkby Hall was Herbert Clarkson. During the Second World War, the circuit started life Royal Air Force Station Kirkby Mallory, a standby landing ground during WWII and closed in 1947; the hall was a large house, demolished in 1952, leaving only the stable block and the coach house which now forms the circuit offices, hotel and restaurant. The estate of 300 acres was sold by auction in 1953 and was bought by a Mr. Moult of Derby who planned to have horse racing on the disused pony trotting track. Following the war, Mallory became a pony trotting circuit in the late 1940s, which defined the outline of the oval track still in use today. After the financial collapse of the equestrian club responsible for the circuit, the track was hired by various motorcycle clubs for grass track motorcycle and motorcycle sidecar racing.
For example, between September 1949 until 1954, the Leicester Query Motorcycle Club held grass track races. In 1955, the estate was purchased by Clive Wormleighton, under whose influence, the present tarmac was constructed at a cost of £60,000 in 1956. Upon completion of the building work, a circuit test was held on 26 April, when local Grand Prix driver Bob Gerard and Maurice Cann conducted a Cooper-Bristol Formula Two car and a Moto Guzzi motorcycle around the track, Gerald managing an 81 mph lap; the first race was held on 29 April, when the Leicester Query Club organised a motorcycle meeting. A large crowd in excess of 20,000 spectators attended the Grand Opening event on 13 May 1956. 248 riders arrived in Leicestershire for this meeting, which saw George Salter set the first lap record at a speed of 84.08 mph, riding a Norton bike. Cars first appeared at the Whit Monday meeting, in event being organised by Nottingham Sports Car Club; the first car race victory went to D. Rees in an Austin.
Many famous racing stars have raced at Mallory over the years, indeed a young John Surtees raced against his father, Jack Surtees. While Jack was a grass track racer at Mallory, John went on to be only World Champion on both two and four wheels. Famous competitors who have raced at Mallory, include John Surtees who won the first ‘Race of the Year’ in 1958. While, the 1960 race, saw Mike Hailwood set a new lap record of 89 mph. Both Hailwood and Surtees, along with Jim Clark and Colin Chapman are commemorated with Statues at the front gate. Around this time, Clive Wormleighton added the lakes, which were formed by adding the sluice gate across the Brook. Clive Wormleighton continued to run the circuit successfully until 1962 when ownership passed to Grovewood Securities in July, the previous owner remaining in a consultancy capacity until the end of September. Before this, on 11 June 1962 Mallory Park saw it first non-championship Formula One race, won by John Surtees aboard a Lola Mk4 from the entered Lotuses of Jack Brabham and Graham Hill.
Surtees was now a major race winner at Mallory on both 4 wheels. Over the next two years, a considerable amount of money was spent on Mallory with the building
Brands Hatch is a motor racing circuit in West Kingsdown, England. First used as a grasstrack motorcycle circuit on farmland, it hosted 12 runnings of the British Grand Prix between 1964 and 1986 and hosts many British and International racing events; the venue is operated by Jonathan Palmer's MotorSport Vision organisation. Gerhard Berger once said that Brands Hatch is "the best circuit in the world". Paddock Hill Bend is a renowned corner. Brands Hatch offers two layout configurations; the shorter "Indy Circuit" layout is located within a natural amphitheatre offering spectators views of all of the shorter configuration from wherever they watch. The longer "Grand Prix" layout played host to Formula One racing, including events such as Jo Siffert's duel with Chris Amon in 1968 and future World Champion Nigel Mansell's first win in 1985. Noise restrictions and the proximity of the Grand Prix loop to local residents mean that the number of race meetings held on the extended circuit are limited to just a few per year.
The full Grand Prix circuit begins on the Brabham Straight, an off-camber curved stretch, before plunging into the right-hander at Paddock Hill Bend, with gradients of 8%. Despite the difficulty of the curve, due to the straight that precedes it, it is one of the track's few overtaking spots; the next corner, Druids, is a hairpin bend, negotiated after an uphill braking zone at Hailwood Hill. The track curves around the south bank spectator area into the downhill, off-camber Graham Hill Bend, another bent stretch at the Cooper Straight, which runs parallel to the pit lane. After the straight, the circuit climbs uphill though the decreasing-radius Surtees turn, before moving onto the back straight where the track's top speeds can be reached; the most significant elevation changes on the circuit occur here at Pilgrim's Drop and Hawthorn Hill, which leads into Hawthorn Bend. The track loops around the woodland with a series of mid-speed corners, most notably the dip at Westfield and Dingle Dell and the blind Sheene curve.
From there the track emerges from the left hand and cambered Stirlings Bend onto the short straight to Clearways and rejoins the Indy Circuit for Clark Curve with its uphill off-camber approach to the pit straight and the start/finish line. The British Rallycross Circuit at Brands Hatch was designed and constructed by four-times British Rallycross Champion Trevor Hopkins, it is 0.9 miles long and was completed around 1981. Unlike earlier rallycross courses at Brands Hatch, cars start on the startline veer right and downhill on the loose at Paddock Hill Bend. Through the left-right Esses at the bottom, the circuit rejoins the Indy Circuit to travel up and round Druids hairpin, before a 90-degree left through Langley's Gap and across the knife-edge, rejoining the Indy Circuit, but travelling anti-clockwise. From Cooper Straight, the cars back to Paddock. Brands Hatch was the name of a natural grassy hollow, shaped like an amphitheatre. Although the site was used as a military training ground, the fields belonging to Brands Farm were first used as a circuit by a group of Gravesend cyclists led by Ron Argent, with the permission of the local farmer and landowner, Harry White.
Using the natural contours of the land, many cyclists from around London practised and ran time trials on the dirt roads carved out by farm machinery. The first actual race on the circuit was held in 1926, over 4 miles between cyclists and cross-country runners. Within a few years, motorcyclists were using the circuit, laying out a three-quarter-mile anti-clockwise track in the valley, they saw the advantage of competing in a natural arena just a few hundred yards from the A20, with the passage of time, a kidney-shaped circuit came into use. The first motorcycle races were "very informal" with much of the organisation being done on the spot; the racing was on a straight strip where Cooper Straight came to be when the track was tarmacked. Brands Hatch remained in operation during the 1930s, but after being used as a military vehicle park and being subject to many bombing raids during World War II, it needed much work before it could become a professional racing circuit. In 1932, four local motorcycling clubs staged their first meeting that March.
Motorcycle racing resumed after World War II and in 1947, Joe Francis persuaded the BBC to televise a grass track meeting, the first motorcycle event to be televised on British TV. Following World War II, cinders were laid on the track of what was by known as Brands Hatch Stadium and motorcycle racing continued; that was until 1950 when the 500 Club managed to persuade Joe Francis, that the future for his stadium lay in car and motorcycle road racing. The group behind 500 c.c. single-seater racing cars was the 500 Club and it, together with the owners, invested the sum of £17,000 on a tarmac surface. Thus Brands Hatch was born as a motor racing venue, on 16 April 1950, the opening meeting was scheduled for the first purpose-built post-war racing circuit in England, approval having been given by the RAC following a demonstration by a handful of 500s in February. Amongst those giving the demonstration was a young Stirling Moss; the Half-Litre Car Club for 500 cc Formula 3 organised that first race on 16 April, with 7,000 spectators coming to witness these cars complete in 10 races.
The first victory went to a man, to become a legend in Formula 3, Don Parker. Before the year was out, fi
Crystal Palace circuit
Crystal Palace circuit is a former motor racing circuit in Crystal Palace Park in the Crystal Palace area of south London, England. The route of the track is still extant but the roads are now used for access to the Crystal Palace National Sports Centre located in the park, to events within the upper parts of Crystal Palace Park; some parts of the track are closed off but part is used for an annual Sprint Meeting held on the Spring Bank Holiday weekend, until 2017, when it was held on the August holiday weekend. The circuit opened in 1927 and the first race, for motorcycles, was on 21 May 1927; the circuit was 1-mile long, ran on pre-existing paths through the park, including an infield loop past the lake. The surface had tarmac-covered bends. Improvements begun in December 1936 increased the circuit to 2 miles, tarmac covered the entire length. 20 cars entered the first London Grand Prix on 17 July 1937, a race won by Prince Bira in his ERA R2B Romulus at an average speed of 56.5 mph. That year, during the International Imperial Trophy meeting won by Bira, the BBC broadcast the first televised motor racing.
With the outbreak of World War II, the park was taken over by the Ministry of Defence, it would not be until 1953 that race meetings could take place again. The circuit had been reduced in length to 1.39 miles, bypassing the loop past the lake, pressure from the local residents led to an injunction which reduced motor sport events in the park to only five days per year. A variety of races took place, including sports cars, Formula Three, the London Trophy for Formula Two, non-championship Formula One races. Average speeds continued to rise over the years, with the first 100 mph lap average set in 1970 by that year's Formula One world champion, Jochen Rindt. In 1970, the injunction limiting race days expired and racing was increased to 14 days a year. However, driver safety was coming into focus in the early seventies and it became clear that racing around a park at 100 mph was not safe. Expensive improvements were undertaken; the last International meeting was in May 1972, the final lap record going to Mike Hailwood at an average speed of 103.39 mph.
The final meeting was held on 23 September 1972, but club events still continued until the circuit's final closure in 1974. The circuit's location within Greater London made it a popular venue for both film and television settings, The Italian Job filmed on the startline at Crystal Palace for the scene showing initial testing of the Mini Cooper getaway cars and in the paddock area for the scene where a security van is "blown-up"; the Crystal Palace transmitter tower can be seen in the background of this scene. The circuit was used in Ron Howard's film Rush, to recreate the last corner accident between James Hunt and Dave Morgan, for parts of the UFO episode The Responsibility Seat; the first known contemporary motion picture having captured the postwar Crystal Palace circuit is Joseph Losey's 1957 film noir classic, Time Without Pity, featuring driver Leo McKern lapping in a Mercedes 300 SL coupé. Although the circuit no longer exists, it can be driven in the Grand Prix Legends historical motor racing computer simulation game, for which it was recreated in detail.
It was converted to several other racing simulation programs, including the popular rFactor. The circuit was used for the prologue time trial of the Tour of Britain cycle race on 9 September 2007, is used for summer road race league events held on Tuesday evenings. In 1997, the Sevenoaks & District Motor Club started a series of sprint events; the event was attended by some of the star cars from the past. The latter marque chose one of these Palace events to reveal its latest sports car; the events lasted three years before being stopped due to park development work. Following discussions with local council and the London Development Agency, sprint racing again started at the park, with the two-day event held 30/31 May 2010; this event was repeated on the same or adjacent weekend each year, until 2017, when it was held on the August Bank Holiday weekend. The event was suspended in 2018 but is scheduled to take place in May 2019. Redbridge Cycling Centre Hillingdon Cycle Circuit Herne Hill Velodrome For 1969 circuit plan, brief history of the circuit For circuit plan, photo tour of circuit Detailed history of motor racing at Crystal Palace Postwar history of the circuit LRCC official web site MotorSport at the Palace website
Jaguar is the luxury vehicle brand of Jaguar Land Rover, a British multinational car manufacturer with its headquarters in Whitley, England. Jaguar Cars was the company, responsible for the production of Jaguar cars until its operations were merged with those of Land Rover to form Jaguar Land Rover on 1 January 2013. Jaguar's business was founded as the Swallow Sidecar Company in 1922 making motorcycle sidecars before developing bodies for passenger cars. Under the ownership of S. S. Cars Limited the business extended to complete cars made in association with Standard Motor Co, many bearing Jaguar as a model name; the company's name was changed from S. S. Cars to Jaguar Cars in 1945. A merger with the British Motor Corporation followed in 1966, the resulting enlarged company now being renamed as British Motor Holdings, which in 1968 merged with Leyland Motor Corporation and became British Leyland, itself to be nationalised in 1975. Jaguar was spun off from British Leyland and was listed on the London Stock Exchange in 1984, becoming a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index until it was acquired by Ford in 1990.
Jaguar has, in recent years, manufactured cars for the British Prime Minister, the most recent delivery being an XJ in May 2010. The company holds royal warrants from Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Charles. In 1990 Ford acquired Jaguar Cars and it remained in their ownership, joined in 2000 by Land Rover, till 2008. Ford sold both Jaguar and Land Rover to Tata Motors. Tata created Jaguar Land Rover as a subsidiary holding company. At operating company level, in 2013 Jaguar Cars was merged with Land Rover to form Jaguar Land Rover Limited as the single design, sales company and brand owner for both Jaguar and Land Rover vehicles. Since the Ford ownership era and Land Rover have used joint design facilities in engineering centres at Whitley in Coventry and Gaydon in Warwickshire and Jaguar cars have been assembled in plants at Castle Bromwich and Solihull; the Swallow Sidecar Company was founded in 1922 by two motorcycle enthusiasts, William Lyons and William Walmsley. In 1934 Walmsley elected to sell-out and in order to buy the Swallow business Lyons formed S.
S. Cars Limited, finding new capital by issuing shares to the public. Jaguar first appeared in September 1935 as a model name on an SS 2½-litre sports saloon. A matching open two seater sports model with a 3½-litre engine was named SS Jaguar 100. On 23 March 1945 the S. S. Cars shareholders in general meeting agreed to change the company's name to Jaguar Cars Limited. Said chairman William Lyons "Unlike S. S. the name Jaguar is distinctive and cannot be connected or confused with any similar foreign name."Though five years of pent-up demand ensured plenty of buyers production was hampered by shortage of materials steel, issued to manufacturers until the 1950s by a central planning authority under strict government control. Jaguar sold Motor Panels, a pressed steel body manufacturing company bought in the late 1930s, to steel and components manufacturer Rubery Owen, Jaguar bought from John Black's Standard Motor Company the plant where Standard built Jaguar's six-cylinder engines. From this time Jaguar was dependent for their bodies on external suppliers, in particular independent Pressed Steel and in 1966 that carried them into BMC, BMH and British Leyland.
Jaguar made its name by producing a series of successful eye-catching sports cars, the Jaguar XK120, Jaguar XK140, Jaguar XK150, Jaguar E-Type, all embodying Lyons' mantra of "value for money". The sports cars were successful in international motorsport, a path followed in the 1950s to prove the engineering integrity of the company's products. Jaguar's sales slogan for years was "Grace, Pace", a mantra epitomised by the record sales achieved by the MK VII, IX, Mks I and II saloons and the XJ6. During the time this slogan was used; the core of Bill Lyons' success following WWII was the twin-cam straight six engine, conceived pre-war and realised while engineers at the Coventry plant were dividing their time between fire-watching and designing the new power plant. It had a hemispherical cross-flow cylinder head with valves inclined from the vertical; as fuel octane ratings were low from 1948 onwards, three piston configuration were offered: domed and dished. The main designer, William "Bill" Heynes, assisted by Walter "Wally" Hassan, was determined to develop the Twin OHC unit.
Bill Lyons agreed over misgivings from Hassan. It was risky to take what had been considered a racing or low-volume and cantankerous engine needing constant fettling and apply it to reasonable volume production saloon cars; the subsequent engine was the mainstay powerplant of Jaguar, used in the XK 120, Mk VII Saloon, Mk I and II Saloons and XK 140 and 150. It was employed in the E Type, itself a development from the race winning and Le Mans conquering C and D Type Sports Racing cars refined as the short-lived XKSS, a road-legal D-Type. Few engine types have demonstrated such ubiquity and longevity: Jaguar used the Twin OHC XK Engine, as it came to be known, in the Jaguar XJ6 saloon from 1969 through 1992, employed in a J60 variant as the power plant in such diverse vehicles as the British Army's Combat Vehicle Reconnaissance family of vehicles, as well as the Fox armoured reconnaissance vehicle, the Ferret Scout Car, the Stonefield four-wheel-drive all-terrain lorry. Properly maintained, the standard production XK Engine would a