Speed skating is a competitive form of ice skating in which the competitors race each other in travelling a certain distance on skates. Types of speed skating are long track speed skating, short track speed skating, marathon speed skating. In the Olympic Games, long-track speed skating is referred to as just "speed skating", while short-track speed skating is known as "short track"; the ISU, the governing body of both ice sports, refers to long track as "speed skating" and short track as "short track skating". An international federation was founded in the first for any winter sport; the sport enjoys large popularity in the Netherlands and South Korea. There are top international rinks in a number of other countries, including Canada, the United States, Italy, Japan and Kazakhstan. A World Cup circuit is held with events in those countries plus two events in the Thialf ice hall in Heerenveen, Netherlands; the standard rink for long track is 400 meters long, but tracks of 200, 250 and 3331⁄3 meters are used occasionally.
It is one of the one with the longer history. International Skating Union rules allow radius of curves. Short track speed skating takes place on a smaller rink the size of an ice hockey rink, on a 111.12 m oval track. Distances are shorter than in long-track racing, with the longest Olympic individual race being 1500 meters. Event are held with a knockout format, with the best two in heats of four or five qualifying for the final race, where medals are awarded. Disqualifications and falls are not uncommon. There are variations on the mass-start races. In the regulations of roller sports, eight different types of mass starts are described. Among them are elimination races, where one or more competitors are eliminated at fixed points during the course. Races have some rules about disqualification if an opponent is unfairly hindered. In long track speed skating any infringement on the pairmate is punished, though skaters are permitted to change from the inner to the outer lane out of the final curve if they are not able to hold the inner curve, as long as they are not interfering with the other skater.
In mass-start races, skaters will be allowed some physical contact. Team races are held. Relay races are held in short track and inline competitions, but here, exchanges may take place at any time during the race, though exchanges may be banned during the last couple of laps. Most speed skating races are held on an oval course. Oval sizes vary. Inline skating rinks are between 125 and 400 metres, though banked tracks can only be 250 metres long. Inline skating can be held on closed road courses between 400 and 1,000 metres, as well as open-road competitions where starting and finishing lines do not coincide; this is a feature of outdoor marathons. In the Netherlands, marathon competitions may be held on natural ice on canals, bodies of water such as lakes and rivers, but may be held on artificially frozen 400 m tracks, with skaters circling the track 100 times, for example; the roots of speed skating date back over a millennium to Scandinavia, Northern Europe and the Netherlands, where the natives added bones to their shoes and used them to travel on frozen rivers and lakes.
In contrast to what people think, ice skating has always been an activity of joy and sports and not a matter of transport. For example, winters in the Netherlands have never been stable and cold enough to make ice skating a way of travelling or a mode of transport; this has been described in 1194 by William Fitzstephen, who described a sport in London. In Norway, King Eystein Magnusson King Eystein I of Norway, boasts of his skills racing on ice legs; however and speed skating was not limited to the Netherlands and Scandinavia. It was iron-bladed skates. By 1642, the first official skating club, The Skating Club Of Edinburgh, was born, and, in 1763, the world saw its first official speed skating race, on the Fens in England organized by the National Ice Skating Association. While in the Netherlands, people began touring the waterways connecting the 11 cities of Friesland, a challenge which led to the Elfstedentocht. By 1851, North Americans had discovered a love of the sport, indeed the all-steel blade was developed there.
The Netherlands came back to the fore in 1889 with the organization of the first world championships. The ISU was born in the Netherlands in 1892. By the start of the 20th century and speed skating had come into its own as a major popular sporting activity. Organized races on ice skates developed in the 19th century. Norwegian clubs hosted competitions with races in Christiania drawing five-digit crowds. In 1884, the Norwegian Axel Paulsen was named Amateur Champion Skater of the World after winning competitions in the United States. Five years a sports club in Amsterdam held an ice-skating event they called a world championship, with participants from Russia
Terry McDermott (speed skater)
Richard Terrance "Terry" McDermott is an American gold and silver medal winning Olympic speed skater. McDermott was a surprise winner in the 500 m at the 1964 Winter Olympics in Innsbruck when he beat the favorite in that distance, reigning Olympic champion Yevgeny Grishin, by half a second, his coach at the time was the 500 m bronze medal winner of the 1936 Winter Olympics. McDermott's international career consisted of the 500 m at the Olympic Winter Games of 1960, 1964 and 1968. In 1968 he skated in unfavorable conditions, late in the day, yet he finished only 0.2 seconds behind the winner. McDermott was inducted in the National Speedskating Hall of Fame on June 4, 1977. At the 1980 Winter Olympics in Lake Placid, McDermott took the Olympic Oath representing the judges. McDermott worked as a barber from 1963 to 1967, after that as a manufacturer's representative in the Detroit area. In parallel he served as a speed skating official. On February 9, 1964, he was a guest on The Ed Sullivan Show, an appearance, overshadowed by the first U.
S. performance of The Beatles. He resides in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, he is married to Virginia, has 5 children and an elder sister Marilyn. Eng, Trond. All Time International Championships, Complete results 1889–2002. Askim, Norway, WSSSA Skøytenytt, 2002. Terry McDermott at SkateResults.com
Lake Placid, New York
Lake Placid is a village in the Adirondack Mountains in Essex County, New York, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,521; the village of Lake Placid is near the center of the town of North Elba, 50 miles southwest of Plattsburgh. Lake Placid, along with nearby Saranac Lake and Tupper Lake, comprise what is known as the Tri-Lakes region. Lake Placid hosted the 1980 Winter Olympics. Lake Placid hosted the 2000 Goodwill Games, the 1972 Winter Universiade and will host the 2023 Winter Universiade. Lake Placid was founded in the early 19th century to develop an iron ore mining operation. By 1840, the population of "North Elba" was six families. In 1845, Gerrit Smith arrived in North Elba and not only bought a great deal of land around the village but granted large tracts to former slaves, he demonstrated his support of Abolitionism. The abolitionist John Brown heard about Smith's reforms, left his anti-slavery activities in Kansas to buy 244 acres of land in North Elba; this parcel became known as the "Freed Slave Utopian Experiment," Timbucto.
Shortly before his execution in 1859, John Brown asked to be buried on his farm, preserved as the John Brown Farm State Historic Site. As leisure time increased in the late 19th century, Lake Placid was discovered as a resort by the wealthy, who were drawn to the fashionable Lake Placid Club. Melvil Dewey, who invented the Dewey Decimal System, designed what was called "Placid Park Club" in 1895; this inspired the village to change its name to Lake Placid, which became an incorporated village in 1900. Dewey kept the club open through the winter in 1905, which aided the development of winter sports in the area. Nearby Saranac Lake had hosted an international winter sporting event as early as 1889, was used year-round by patients seeking treatment for tuberculosis at sanatoria; the fresh, clean mountain air was considered good for them and was a common treatment for tuberculosis at the time. By 1921, the Lake Placid area could boast a ski jump, speed skating venue, ski association. In 1929, Dr. Godfrey Dewey, Melvil's son, convinced the International Olympic Committee Lake Placid had the best winter sports facilities in the United States.
The Lake Placid Club was the headquarters for the IOC for the 1932 and the 1980 Winter Olympics in Lake Placid. In addition to the John Brown Farm and Gravesite, the Mount Van Hoevenberg Olympic Bobsled Run, New York Central Railroad Adirondack Division Historic District, United States Post Office are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Lake Placid hosted the Winter Olympics in 1932 and 1980. During the 1932 games, the trails outside of the village served for the cross-country skiing events and the cross-country skiing part of the Nordic combined event. Lake Placid, St Moritz, Innsbruck are the only sites to have twice hosted the Winter Olympic Games. Jack Shea, a resident of the village, became the first person to win two gold medals when he doubled in speed skating at the 1932 Winter Olympics, he carried the Olympic torch through Lake Placid in 2002 shortly before his death. His grandson, Jimmy Shea, competed in the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, Utah, in his honor, winning gold in the Skeleton.
In the U. S. the village is remembered as the site of the 1980 USA–USSR hockey game. Dubbed the "Miracle on Ice", a group of American college students and amateurs upset the favored Soviet national ice hockey team, 4–3, two days won the gold medal. Another highpoint during the Games was the performance of American speed-skater Eric Heiden, who won five gold medals. Lake Placid decided against it. Lake Placid shifted its interest toward bidding for the 2020 Winter Youth Olympics, but it again did not submit a bid. Lake Placid is well known among winter-sports enthusiasts for both Alpine and Nordic. Whiteface Mountain, in nearby Wilmington about 13 miles from Lake Placid, offers skiing, gondola rides, mountain biking, is the only one of the High Peaks that can be reached by an auto road. Whiteface Mountain has a vertical elevation of 3,430 feet, the highest vertical elevation of mountains in Eastern North America; the area has one of only 16 bobsled runs in the Western Hemisphere. In 2010, U. S. News & World Report highlighted Lake Placid as one of the "6 Forgotten Vacation Spots" in North America.
Many people use Lake Placid as a base from which to climb the 46 High Peaks in the Adirondack Mountains. Those who complete these climbs may join the Adirondack 46ers. Lake Placid built its first golf course in 1898, one of the first in the U. S. and has more courses than any other venue in the Adirondacks. Many of its courses were designed by well-known golf course architects, such as John Van Kleek, Seymour Dunn, Alexander H. Findlay, Alister MacKenzie; the geographic features of the Adirondacks were considered reminiscent of the Scottish landscape, where the game started, thus a fitting canvas for original play, or "mountain golf." Lake Placid is near the West Branch of the Ausable River, a well-known stretch of water for fly fishing. More than 6 miles of the West Branch are designated as year-round catch-and-release, artificial-lures-only water. Since 1999 it has been a site for the annual Ironman Lake Placid Triathlon, the second oldest Ironman in North America and one of only ten official Ironman Triathlons to be held in the continental U.
S. ESPN's Great Outdoor Games were inaugurated here in July 2000.
Speed skating at the 1924 Winter Olympics – Men's 500 metres
The 500 metres speed skating event at the 1924 Winter Olympics was held on 26 January 1924 at the Stade Olympique de Chamonix. One of four speed skating events to be contested at these Games, this was the first event contested at the Winter Olympics; the event was won by American Charles Jewtraw. The event required competitors to skate quarter laps of the 400 metre track. Under the rules of the International Skating Union, athletes raced in pairs in a straight time-trial event. Prior to the event, the pairs were determined by the drawing of lots. With 31 speed skaters from 13 nations due to compete, this was reduced to 27 from 10 nations after the withdrawal of four athletes, including Christfried Burmeister, due to be Estonia's only representative at the inaugural Winter Games, he did not attend Chamonix but word failed to reach Games organisers in time. This resulted in a slight reordering of skaters. Leading up the Games, the Finnish team was training in Davos where Clas Thunberg had set a time of 43.8 seconds, four tenths slower than Oscar Mathisen's world record.
Mathisen himself was unable to attend the Games due to his status as a professional. The Americans contested metric events at Saranac Lake where Jewtraw clocked 46.6s. He set a new world record in the 100 yard event in 9.4 seconds. Whilst Roald Larsen of Norway skated 44.6s in Frogner. Joe Moore of the United States and Eric Blomgren of Sweden became the first athletes to compete at the Winter Olympics, with Moore setting the first Olympic record covering the distance in 45.6 seconds. Asser Wallenius of Finland, bettered Moore's time by 0.6 second to move into first position with 11 skaters to go. Next to skate was the eventual silver medallist Norway's Oskar Olsen who crossed the line in 44.2 seconds. The defending world champion Clas Thunberg and Norway's Roald Larsen had to settle for sharing the bronze medal with a time of 44.8 seconds. The gold medal performance came from pair 15; the Canadian took the lead, but was soon overtaken by Jewtraw finishing in a time of a 44 seconds flat. Jewtraw coming from a poor family found the sport expensive but found sponsorship from Lake Placid businessman Jack Mabbit.
He had made a comeback to compete. After the gold medal, he skated two more Olympic races before retiring once more. Prior to this competition, the existing world and Olympic records were; the following records were set during this competition. The event began at 10:00; the officials for the events were as follows
Arnold Clas Robert Thunberg was a Finnish speed skater who won five Olympic gold medals – three at the inaugural Winter Olympics held in Chamonix in 1924 and two at the 1928 Winter Olympics held in St. Moritz, he was the most successful athlete at both of these Winter Olympics, sharing the honour for 1928 Winter Olympics with Johan Grøttumsbraaten of Norway. No other athlete won such a high fraction of all Olympic events at a single Games, he was died in Helsinki. Thunberg began with speed skating rather late, at the age of 18, having led a somewhat rowdy life as a compulsive smoker and drinker before he concentrated on his sport. However, from the age of 28 – when he turned up at his first European Allround Championships – and for the following ten years, he was by far the most-winning skater. Thunberg's greatest strengths were the 500 through 5000 metres, he never won an international 10000 metre event, although he did win a silver medal on the 10000 metres at the 1924 Winter Olympics – beaten by three seconds by compatriot Julius Skutnabb.
Thunberg won three gold medals at the 1924 Olympics – the allround event, the 1500 metres and the 5000 metres. He remains the only person to have won an Olympic gold medal in allround speed skating, as despite the status of allround as the premier skating event, at least up until the 1990s, the event was abolished in the Olympics from 1928 onwards. Thunberg won five World Allround Championships titles from 1923 to 1931, four European Allround Championships titles, he took two more gold medals at the 1928 Winter Olympics, to end with five, these two medals made him the oldest Olympic Speed Skating Champion, at the age of 34. However, despite his amazing run, he was vulnerable on the long distances. If his 500 and 1,500 metre events did not go according to plan he could be beaten – as shown in the 1927 season when the 22-year-old Bernt Evensen pipped him to both the World and European title. Evensen, could never string together the long run of victories that Thunberg ended up with. Despite his amazing career record, Thunberg never reached the top of Adelskalender – a statistical invention which ranks skaters according to their personal bests and converts them into allround performances, using a table.
Oscar Mathisen's personal bests on the three longest distances were too good for Thunberg to match. However, Mathisen –, born five years before Thunberg – turned professional during World War I, meaning that the two never met in an ISU-sanctioned event. Over the course of his career, Thunberg skated four world records: Source: SpeedSkatingStats.com Note that Thunberg's personal record on the 3000 m was not recognised as an official world record. Thunberg has an Adelskalender score of 192.633 points. His highest ranking on the Adelskalender was a second place. An overview of medals won by Thunberg at important championships he participated in, listing the years in which he won each: Source: SpeedSkatingStats.com
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A Democrat, he won a record four presidential elections and became a central figure in world events during the first half of the 20th century. Roosevelt directed the federal government during most of the Great Depression, implementing his New Deal domestic agenda in response to the worst economic crisis in U. S. history. As a dominant leader of his party, he built the New Deal Coalition, which realigned American politics into the Fifth Party System and defined American liberalism throughout the middle third of the 20th century, his third and fourth terms were dominated by World War II. Roosevelt is considered to be one of the most important figures in American history, as well as among the most influential figures of the 20th century. Though he has been subject to much criticism, he is rated by scholars as one of the three greatest U.
S. presidents, along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. Roosevelt was born in Hyde Park, New York, to a Dutch American family made well known by Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th president of the United States and William Henry Aspinwall. FDR attended Groton School, Harvard College, Columbia Law School, went on to practice law in New York City. In 1905, he married his fifth cousin once removed, Eleanor Roosevelt, they had six children. He won election to the New York State Senate in 1910, served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President Woodrow Wilson during World War I. Roosevelt was James M. Cox's running mate on the Democratic Party's 1920 national ticket, but Cox was defeated by Warren G. Harding. In 1921, Roosevelt contracted a paralytic illness, believed at the time to be polio, his legs became permanently paralyzed. While attempting to recover from his condition, Roosevelt founded the treatment center in Warm Springs, for people with poliomyelitis. In spite of being unable to walk unaided, Roosevelt returned to public office by winning election as Governor of New York in 1928.
He was in office from 1929 to 1933 and served as a reform Governor, promoting programs to combat the economic crisis besetting the United States at the time. In the 1932 presidential election, Roosevelt defeated Republican President Herbert Hoover in a landslide. Roosevelt took office while the United States was in the midst of the Great Depression, the worst economic crisis in the country's history. During the first 100 days of the 73rd United States Congress, Roosevelt spearheaded unprecedented federal legislation and issued a profusion of executive orders that instituted the New Deal—a variety of programs designed to produce relief and reform, he created numerous programs to provide relief to the unemployed and farmers while seeking economic recovery with the National Recovery Administration and other programs. He instituted major regulatory reforms related to finance and labor, presided over the end of Prohibition, he harnessed radio to speak directly to the American people, giving 30 "fireside chat" radio addresses during his presidency and becoming the first American president to be televised.
The economy having improved from 1933 to 1936, Roosevelt won a landslide reelection in 1936. However, the economy relapsed into a deep recession in 1937 and 1938. After the 1936 election, Roosevelt sought passage of the Judiciary Reorganization Bill of 1937, which would have expanded the size of the Supreme Court of the United States; the bipartisan Conservative Coalition that formed in 1937 prevented passage of the bill and blocked the implementation of further New Deal programs and reforms. Major surviving programs and legislation implemented under Roosevelt include the Securities and Exchange Commission, the National Labor Relations Act, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Social Security. Roosevelt ran for reelection in 1940, his victory made him the only U. S. President to serve for more than two terms. With World War II looming after 1938, Roosevelt gave strong diplomatic and financial support to China as well as the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union while the U. S. remained neutral.
Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, an event he famously called "a date which will live in infamy", Roosevelt obtained a declaration of war on Japan the next day, a few days on Germany and Italy. Assisted by his top aide Harry Hopkins and with strong national support, he worked with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in leading the Allied Powers against the Axis Powers. Roosevelt supervised the mobilization of the U. S. economy to support the war effort and implemented a Europe first strategy, making the defeat of Germany a priority over that of Japan. He initiated the development of the world's first atomic bomb and worked with the other Allied leaders to lay the groundwork for the United Nations and other post-war institutions. Roosevelt won reelection in 1944 but with his physical health declining during the war years, he died in April 1945, just 11 weeks into his fourth term; the Axis Powers surrendered to the Allies in the months following Roosevelt's death, during the presidency of Roosevelt's successor, Harry S. Truman.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born on January 30, 1882, in the Hudson Valley town of Hyde Park, New York, to businessman James Roosevelt I and his second wife, Sara Ann Delano. Roosevelt's parents, who were sixth cousins, both came from wealthy old New York families, the Roosevelts, the Aspinwalls and the Delanos, respectively. Roo