Baccharis pilularis, called coyote brush, chaparral broom, bush baccharis, is a shrub in the daisy family native to California, Oregon and Baja California. There are reports of isolated populations in New Mexico, most introduced; the plants are found in a variety of habitats, from coastal bluffs, oak woodlands, grasslands, including on hillsides and in canyons, below 2,000 feet. Coyote brush is known as a secondary pioneer plant in communities such as coastal sage scrub and chaparral, it does not regenerate under a closed shrub canopy. Coast live oak, California bay, Rhus integrifolia, other shade producing species replace coastal sage scrub and other coyote bush-dominated areas when there hasn't been a wildfire or heavy grazing. In California grasslands, it comes in late and invades and increases in the absence of fire or grazing. Coyote bush invasion of grasslands is important because it helps the establishment of other coastal sage species; the Baccharis pilularis shrub is smaller than 3 metres in height.
Erect plants are mixed with prostrate plants. It is glabrous and sticky; the stems are prostrate to erect which branches ascending. The leaves are 8–55 millimetres long and are entire to toothed and oblanceolate to obovate, with three principal veins; the flower heads are in a leafy panicle. The involucres are hemispheric to bell shaped; this species is dioecious. Both staminate and pistillate heads are 3.5–5 millimetres long. Phyllaries are in 4–6 series and glabrous; the receptacles are convex to honeycombed. The staminate flowers range from 20–30 and there are 19–43 pistillate flowers; this and other Baccharis species are nectar sources for most of the predatory wasps, native skippers, native flies in their ranges. SubspeciesBaccharis pilularis subsp. Consanguinea C. B. Wolf — in coastal chaparral Baccharis pilularis subsp. Pilularis — sandy coastal bluffs and beaches in California. Baccharis pilularis is cultivated as an ornamental plant, used in drought tolerant, native plant, wildlife gardens; the cultivar ground cover selections have various qualities of height and spread, leaf colors, textures.
The upright forms are useful for hedges and fence lines, year-round foliage. Coyote brush is deer-resistant; the plants are drought tolerant after maturity, requiring watering once a week until established, about once per month during the first summer. They can mature in one to two years; the plants prefer good drainage. Only male plants of Baccharis pilularis are cultivated for landscaping use. If these are substituted for Baccharis pilularis subsp. Consanguinea in ecological restoration, there will not be as much seed set, nor recruitment of new individuals. Cultivars with the common name "dwarf coyote brush" or "dwarf baccharis" indicating ground cover selections, include: Baccharis pilularis'Pigeon Point'—from Pigeon Point, California coast. Baccharis pilularis "Twin Peaks"—from coast along Sonoma to Monterey Counties. Baccharis pilularis'Santa Ana' California coastal sage and chaparral ecoregion California montane chaparral and woodlands ecoregion Fire ecology Calflora Jepson Manual treatment Native Plant Database profile, Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center, University of Texas at Austin Baccharis pilularis in the CalPhotos Photo Database, University of California, Berkeley
Monterey Bay is a bay of the Pacific Ocean located on the coast of the U. S. state of California. The bay is south of the major cities of San Jose; the county-seat city of Santa Cruz is located at the north end of the bay. The city of Monterey is on the Monterey Peninsula at the south end; the Monterey Bay Area is a local colloquialism sometimes used to describe the whole of the Central Coast communities of Santa Cruz and Monterey counties. The first European to discover Monterey Bay was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo on November 16, 1542 while sailing northward along the coast on a Spanish naval expedition, he named the bay Bahía de los Pinos because of the forest of pine trees first encountered while rounding the peninsula at the southern end of the bay. Cabrillo's name for the bay was lost, but the westernmost point of the peninsula is still known as Point Pinos. On December 10, 1595, Sebastián Rodríguez Cermeño crossed the bay and bestowed the name Bahía de San Pedro in honor of Saint Peter Martyr.
The present name for the bay was documented in 1602 by Sebastián Vizcaíno, tasked by the Spanish government to complete a detailed chart of the coast. He anchored in what is now the Monterey harbor on December 16, named it Puerto de Monterrey, in honor of the Conde de Monterrey viceroy of New Spain. Monterrey is an alternate spelling of Monterrei, a municipality in the Galicia region of Spain from which the viceroy and his father originated. All other place names in the vicinity containing Monterey were so named because of their proximity to the bay; this includes the Presidio of City of Monterey, County of Monterey and Monterey Canyon. The Monterey Canyon, one of the largest underwater canyons in the world, begins off the coast of Moss Landing, in the center of Monterey Bay, it is 249 miles long, although its shape changes because of currents and sediment being left in the area. The canyon is much like that of a continental slope. Monterey Bay is home to many species of marine mammals, including sea otters, harbor seals, bottlenose dolphins.
Killer whales are found along the coast when Gray whales migrate, as they hunt the whales during their migration north. Many species of fish, mollusks such as abalone and squid and sea turtles live in the bay. Several varieties of kelp grow in the bay, some becoming as tall as trees, forming what is known as a kelp forest. Soquel Canyon State Marine Conservation Area, Portuguese Ledge State Marine Conservation Area, Pacific Grove Marine Gardens State Marine Conservation Area, Lovers Point State Marine Reserve, Edward F. Ricketts State Marine Conservation Area and Asilomar State Marine Reserve are marine protected areas in Monterey Bay. Like underwater parks, these marine protected areas help conserve ocean wildlife and marine ecosystems. Clockwise around the bay from north to south. Inland communities are indented: Santa Cruz Live Oak Capitola Soquel Aptos Rio del Mar La Selva Beach Corralitos Freedom Watsonville Pajaro Las Lomas Elkhorn Moss Landing Castroville Salinas Marina Seaside Fort Ord Sand City Del Rey Oaks Monterey New Monterey Pacific Grove Carmel Carmel Valley Carmel Highlands California State University, Monterey Bay Monterey Bay Aquarium Palumbi, Stephen R.
The Death and Life of Monterey Bay: A Story of Revival. Island Press. ISBN 978-1610911900. Monterey Bay travel guide from Wikivoyage Live Monterey Bay Web Cam Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary website
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun
David Jack (businessman)
David Jacks was a powerful Californian landowner and businessman. Born in Scotland, he emigrated to California during the 1849 Gold Rush, soon acquired several thousand acres in and around Monterey, shaping the history of Monterey County in the first decades of American possession, he is credited as being the first to market and popularize Monterey Jack cheese. He took to using David Jacks once in California. David Jacks was born at Crieff, Scotland, the sixth of nine children of William Jacks and the first of three William had by his second wife Janet McEwan. Little is known of Jacks' early life. In 1841 he migrated to America to join two older brothers on Long Island. After several years working as an army contractor in Brooklyn, where he is reputed to have met Captain Robert E. Lee, Jacks read about the 1848 finding of gold in the Sierra Nevada. In November of that year he sailed with an artillery regiment to California, arriving in San Francisco in April 1849. Jacks invested in guns and made a $4,000 profit on revolvers upon landing in San Francisco, took up a job at the city's Customs House.
In 1850 Jacks moved to Monterey taking up a job in the store of a fellow Scotsman, James McKinlay. By 1852 Jack began purchasing land in the area. Jacks soon involved himself in the settlement of Mexican land claims in the new State of California, a process that would lead to his becoming Monterey's dominant landowner. In 1853 the Pueblo of Monterey contracted Delos Rodeyn Ashley to help legalize its title to some 30,000 acres of land on the Monterey Peninsula. Ashley was successful, billed the city nearly $1,000 for his services; when the city could not pay, he suggested the city auction some of its land. They advertised the auction in a newspaper, as required, but in Santa Cruz, they were the only two bidders and purchased the entire tract underlying the city for $1002.50 on 9 February 1859. The sale was controversial, the city of Monterey filed suit against Jacks claiming the sale was illegitimate; the case reached the US Supreme Court in 1903, which ruled in favor of Jack. In 1869 Ashley turned his interest in the land over to Jack.
Included in this tract are what is now the cities of Monterey, Pacific Grove and Del Rey Oaks along with the Del Monte Forest, Fort Ord, now the home of California State University, Monterey Bay. Jacks' business practices created a great deal of antipathy in the community. Jack was a willing lender of money and of mortgages to those living on his land, but was quick to foreclose; as a result, animosity toward him ran high, it has been claimed he had to travel with bodyguards anywhere he went in Monterey County. The author Robert Louis Stevenson, after visiting Monterey, claimed that famed San Francisco orator Denis Kearney had suggested the residents should deal with Jack by having him hanged. Jacks was involved in land development. In 1875, he donated land on the Monterey Peninsula to a Methodist retreat group, which founded the town of Pacific Grove. In 1874 he helped found the Monterey and Salinas Railroad to compete with the dominant Southern Pacific Railroad, though Jack had to sell the line to the SP.
David Jacks has been credited with the popularization of what is today known as Monterey Jack cheese. A dairy Jacks owned along the Salinas River produced a cheese known as Queso Blanco, first made by the Franciscan friars at the nearby Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo; as Jacks' dairy went into partnership with other regional dairies, the cheese was mass marketed, which came to be known at first as "Jacks Cheese", "Monterey Jack". There are competing claims to the origin of the name "Monterey Jack" cheese, including one by Domingo Pedrazzi of Carmel Valley, who argued that his use of a pressure jack gave the cheese its name. There are claims that "Monterey Jack" cheese originated from the Victorine Ranch, south of Malpaso Creek in Carmel Highlands. A devout Presbyterian, Jacks donated a great deal of money to religious causes in life, including support of missionary work, as well as helping to found the Pacific Grove retreat, he was on the board of trustees of the University of the Pacific and helped to keep the school financially afloat in its early years.
Jacks helped to found what is now the community of Del Monte Forest known as Pebble Beach. In the 1880s he sold a large tract of land between Carmel and Pacific Grove to the Pacific Improvement Company, a company controlled by the so-called "Big Four" California railroad barons - Charles Crocker, Mark Hopkins, Leland Stanford, Collis P. Huntington. In 1919 F. B. Morse became manager of the Pacific Improvement Company, formed the Del Monte Properties Company which developed Pebble Beach and the surrounding resorts. In 1907 Jacks retired from the landowning business, turning his holdings over to a corporation controlled by his children, he died on January 1909 in Monterey. David Jacks married Maria Soledad de Romie on April 20, 1861 and produced nine children, with only seven surviving childhood, his last surviving heir, Margaret Anna Jacks, died in April 1962, the remainder of his estate passed to various colleges and universities in California. The gift to Stanford University was the largest at the time since the founding grant, with two endowed professorships and a building in the main quad named for the family.
Along with Monterey Jack cheese, many landmarks in and around Monterey are named for David Jacks. These include Don Dahvee Park and Jacks Peak, the highest point on the Monterey Penin
Monterey County, California
Monterey County the County of Monterey, is a county located on the Pacific coast of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 415,057; the county seat and largest city is Salinas. Monterey County comprises CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, it borders the Monterey Bay. The northern half of the bay is in Santa Cruz County. Monterey County is a member of the regional governmental agency, Association of Monterey Bay Area Governments; the coastline, including Big Sur, State Route 1, the 17 Mile Drive on the Monterey Peninsula, has made the county world-famous. The city of Monterey was the capital of California under Mexican rule; the economy is based upon tourism in the coastal regions and agriculture in the Salinas River valley. Most of the county's people live near the northern coast and Salinas Valley, while the southern coast and inland mountain regions are sparsely populated. Monterey County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood.
Parts of the county were given to San Benito County in 1874. The area was populated by Ohlone and Esselen tribes; the county derives its name from Monterey Bay. The bay was named by Sebastián Vizcaíno in 1602 in honor of the Conde de Monterrey the Viceroy of New Spain. Monterrey is a variation of Monterrei, a municipality in the Galicia region of Spain where the Conde de Monterrey and his father were from. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,771 square miles, of which 3,281 square miles is land and 491 square miles is water; the county is 1.5 times larger than the state of Delaware, similar in population and size to Santa Barbara County. Los Padres National Forest Pinnacles National Park Salinas River National Wildlife Refuge Ventana Wilderness Monterey County has habitat to support the following endangered species: Hickman's potentilla Santa Cruz Long-toed Salamander Santa Cruz Tarweed Southern Steelhead Trout Yadon's piperia Generally, the western/southern parts of the Monterey Peninsula, Carmel Valley and eastern parts of Prundale were the county's most affluent and educated.
These areas had a median household income above that of the California or the U. S. overall and comprised 8%-10% of neighborhoods. Educational attainment was at least on part with, or above and national levels, in these areas while the percentage of people living in poverty was a third or less than national and statewide average. Social deprivation was concentrated in the central and eastern parts of Salinas, central areas of Monterey, Marina and King City. In central and eastern Salinas up to 46% of individuals lived below the poverty line and those without a secondary educations formed a plurality or majority of residents. Overall, the Salinas metropolitan area, defined as coterminous with Monterey County, was among the least educated urban areas in the nation. 8% of neighborhoods, as defined by Census Block Groups, had a median household income above $100,000 per year, about 60% above the national median. This coincided with the top 20 census block groups in the county listed below. Most affluent neighborhoods * Asterisk denotes a hypothetical rank among Monterey County's 226 Census Block Groups.
About 4.5% of neighborhoods, as defined by Census Block Groups, had a median household income below $30,000 per year, about 60% below the national median. This coincided with the 10 poorest of the 20 lowest income neighborhoods listed in the table below. Least affluent neighborhoods * Asterisk denotes a hypothetical rank among Monterey County's 226 Census Block Groups; the 2010 United States Census reported that Monterey County had a population of 415,057. The racial makeup of Monterey County was 230,717 White, 12,785 African American, 5,464 Native American, 25,258 Asian, 2,071 Pacific Islander, 117,405 from other races, 21,357 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 230,003 persons; as of the census of 2000, there were 401,762 people, 121,236 households, 87,896 families residing in the county. The population density was 121 people per square mile. There were 131,708 housing units at an average density of 40 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 55.9% White, 3.8% Black or African American, 1.1% Native American, 6.0% Asian, 0.5% Pacific Islander, 27.8% from other races, 5.0% from two or more races.
46.79% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 6.3% were of German and 5.4% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 52.9% spoke English, 39.6% Spanish and 1.6% Tagalog as their first language. There were 121,236 households out of which 39.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.0% were married couples living together, 11.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.5% were non-families. 21.2%
Salvia mellifera is a small aromatic, evergreen shrub of the genus Salvia native to California, Baja California, Mexico. It is common in the coastal sage scrub of northern Baja California. Black sage has a dark appearance during drought. Black sage is a perennial shrub that grows 1–2 meters tall, it is covered with simple hairs with some glandular hairs, which makes it aromatic. The leaves are about 2.5 -- 7 cm long. The upper surface of the leaf is somewhat glabrous; the inflorescence occurs in 1.6–4 cm wide clusters. The flowers are a pale blue or lavender color, a pale rose color; the upper lip of the flower is 2-lobed. The style and stamens are exserted; the fruit produced by the black sage is a schizocarp composed of four 2–3 mm brown nutlets. Black sage grows in lower chaparral plant communities, it occurs from sea level to 1,200 m elevation. Black sage is able to grow on a variety of different soils, including sandstone, granite and gabbro or basalt, it is semi-deciduous, depending on the location and severity of drought, shallow rooted, drought tolerant by leaf curling rather than drought-avoiding through leaf drop.
Black sage hybridizes with three other coastal scrub Salvias: Salvia apiana, Salvia leucophylla, Salvia clevelandii. It hybridizes with the annuals Salvia columbariae and Salvia carduacea; the Chumash people stems of the plant. This was used to soak one's feet; the plant contains diterpenoids, such as ursolic acid, that are pain relievers. The Black Sage produces a nectar that Black Sage honey is made from; this honey is peppery and strong, is prized as a rare honey due to the plant's dry climate. Black Sage honey can only be made when specific rain conditions are met and the plant produces enough nectar. California chaparral and woodlands USDA Forest Service: SPECIES: Salvia mellifera USDA Natural Resources Conservation Treatment: Salvia mellifera Jepson Flora Project – Salvia mellifera
Arbutus is a genus of 12 accepted species of flowering plants in the family Ericaceae, native to warm temperate regions of the Mediterranean, western Europe, the Canary Islands and North America. The name Arbutus was taken from Latin. Arbutus are small shrubs with red flaking bark and edible red berries. Fruit development is delayed for about five months after pollination, so that flowers appear while the previous year's fruit are ripening. Peak flowering for the genus is in April with peak fruiting in October. Members of the genus are called madrones or madronas in the United States, from the Spanish name madroño. In British Columbia, where the species is common, arbutus is used or and locally, tick tree. All refer to the same species, Arbutus menziesii, native to the Pacific Northwest and Northern and Central California regions, it is Canada's only native broadleaved evergreen tree. Some species in the genera Epigaea and Gaultheria were classified in Arbutus; as a result of its past classification, Epigaea repens has an alternative common name of "trailing arbutus".
A study published in 2001 which analyzed ribosomal DNA from Arbutus and related genera suggests that Arbutus is paraphyletic and the Mediterranean Basin species of Arbutus are more related to Arctostaphylos, Comarostaphylis and Xylococcus than to the western North American species of Arbutus, that the split between the two groups of species occurred at the Paleogene/Neogene boundary. The 12 species are as follows: Arbutus andrachne L. – Greek strawberry tree Arbutus canariensis Duhamel – Canary madrone Arbutus pavarii Pampan. Arbutus unedo L. – Strawberry tree Arbutus arizonica Sarg. – Arizona madrone Arbutus bicolor S. González, M. González et P. D. Sørensen Arbutus madrensis M. González - western Mexico Arbutus menziesii Pursh – Pacific madrone Arbutus mollis Kunth Arbutus occidentalis McVaugh & Rosatti - western Mexico Arbutus tessellata Arbutus xalapensis Kunth – Texas madrone Arbutus × andrachnoides Link: this hybrid has gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit.
Arbutus ×androsterilis Canary Islands Arbutus × thuretiana Demoly Arbutus × reyorum Arctostaphylos tomentosa Lindl. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Spreng. Comarostaphylis discolor Diggs Gaultheria phillyreifolia Sleumer Arbutus species are used as food plants by some Lepidoptera species including emperor moth, Pavonia pavonia and the madrone butterfly; the distribution of the latter species is in fact affected by the distribution of the madrone. Several species are cultivated as ornamental plants outside of their natural ranges, though cultivation is difficult due to their intolerance of root disturbance; the hybrid Arbutus ` Marina' thrives under garden conditions. The Arbutus unedo tree makes up part of the coat of arms of the city of Spain. A statue of a bear eating the fruit of the madroño tree stands in the center of the city; the image appears on city crests, taxi cabs, man-hole covers, other city infrastructure. The Arbutus was important to the Straits Salish people of Vancouver Island, who used arbutus bark and leaves to create medicines for colds, stomach problems, tuberculosis, as the basis for contraceptives.
The tree figured into certain myths of the Straits Salish. The fruit is edible but has minimal flavour and is not eaten. In Portugal, the fruit is sometimes distilled into a potent brandy known as medronho. In Madrid, the fruit is distilled into a sweet, fruity liqueur. Arbutus is a great fuelwood tree since it burns long. Many Pacific Northwest states in the United States use the wood of A. menziesii as a heat source, as the wood holds no value in the production of homes since it doesn't grow in straight timbers. My love's an arbutus is the title of a poem by the Irish writer Alfred Perceval Graves, set to music by his compatriot Charles Villiers Stanford The Canadian songwriter and painter, Joni Mitchell, includes a reference to the “the arbutus rustling” in her song, For The Roses, it sounded like applause. She calls the arbutus tree her “favorite all-time tree.” She had one outside her door in a house. According to the Straits Salish, an anthropomorphic form of pitch would go fishing, but return to shore before it got too hot.
One day he was too late getting back to shore and melted from the heat and several anthropomorphic trees rushed to get him - the first was Douglas fir, who took most of the pitch, the grand fir received a small portion, the madrone received none -, why they say it still has no pitch. According to the Great Flood legends of several bands in the northwest, the madrone helped people survive by providing an anchor on top of a mountain; because of this the Saanich people do not burn madrone out of thanks for saving them. Hileman, Lena C..