2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Equality is an unincorporated community in Coosa and Tallapoosa counties, United States. Equality was listed as an incorporated community within the boundaries of Coosa County during the 1920 and 1930 U. S. censuses. Adalius Thomas, former NFL football player Pauley Perrette, actress best known for playing Abby Sciuto on the U. S. TV series NCIS
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
Camp Hill, Alabama
Camp Hill is a town in Tallapoosa County, United States. It was incorporated in 1895. At the 2010 census the population was 1,014, down from 1,273 in 2000. Camp Hill is the home to Lyman Ward Military Academy. On July 15, 1931, a white mob raided a meeting of the Alabama Sharecroppers' Union, being held in a church in Camp Hill. A shootout between the mob and union members followed. According to Hosea Hudson, all those arrested were released without trial due to public and international pressure—albeit too late to have a chance at raising a crop that year. Camp Hill is located at 32°47′57″N 85°39′10″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 9.1 square miles, of which 9.1 square miles is land and 0.11% is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,273 people, 519 households, 337 families residing in the town; the population density was 140.4 people per square mile. There were 614 housing units at an average density of 67.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 84.92% Black or African American, 14.38% White, 0.31% from other races, 0.39% from two or more races.
1.02% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 519 households out of which 30.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 29.5% were married couples living together, 30.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.9% were non-families. 33.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.09. In the town, the population was spread out with 29.4% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 27.0% from 25 to 44, 22.2% from 45 to 64, 12.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 82.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 77.3 males. The median income for a household in the town was $20,655, the median income for a family was $26,719. Males had a median income of $22,833 versus $20,038 for females; the per capita income for the town was $11,794. About 21.0% of families and 24.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.8% of those under age 18 and 31.5% of those age 65 or over.
As of the census of 2010, there were 1,014 people, 450 households, 269 families residing in the town. The population density was 111.4 people per square mile. There were 581 housing units at an average density of 63.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 88.4% Black or African American, 10.2% White, 0.5% from other races, 0.8% from two or more races..7% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 450 households out of which 21.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 26.9% were married couples living together, 28.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.2% were non-families. 36.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.96. In the town, the population was spread out with 22.1% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 20.7% from 25 to 44, 32.6% from 45 to 64, 14.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 41.8 years. For every 100 females, there were 77.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $18,663, the median income for a family was $23,646. Males had a median income of $27,083 versus $16,694 for females; the per capita income for the town was $12,627. About 37.2% of families and 38.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 55.8% of those under age 18 and 31.3% of those age 65 or over. Bill Higdon, former Major League Baseball player The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Camp Hill has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps
Daviston is a town in Tallapoosa County, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 214, down from 267 in 2000. Daviston, incorporated February 16, 1887, is believed to be the first incorporated rural town in Tallapoosa County; the first mayor was J. D. Dunn. Daviston was a natural evolution of the opening of Indian lands in 1832. Much of the Federal Horse Path was within Creek Indian lands in 1832. With construction of Chapman Road from West Point, Georgia to Fort Williams, Alabama on the Coosa River, land areas opened up to white settlement. Daviston became a hub of migration, it had grist and saw mills, a blacksmith shop, buggy shop, coffin shop, general mercantile, public well, federal distillery, six saloons or inns and doctors. The first land deed found was dated 1836 to S. W. Monk; the post office was established in 1853 with John Davis as the first postmaster. The story told over the years is; when he submitted the name to the government, due to poor penmanship or a mistake, "Davis Town" became Daviston and has since remained.
In 1883, Walker Allen and his twin, moved to Daviston. Walker Allen was elected principal of Daviston School. In 1884, a wooden two-story building was started on land given by J. T. Moncus to be called Daviston College, it became a high school around 1912. The building burned in 1923. Another building was burned before being used. A third building received accreditation that year. Lillie Thompson, who graduated in 1916, was the first graduate of Daviston High School; the school closed in 1988. At the time of closing, it was the smallest school in Alabama with 120 K-12 students. Thirty-eight principals served from 1883-1988. For 105 years, Daviston School served as the center of the community. In 1998, a committee formed to initiate a Daviston School Reunion to be held annually in the center of the town on the second Saturday of November. Daviston is located at 33°3′19″N 85°38′21″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 9.2 square miles, of which 9.2 square miles is land and 0.11% is water.
As of the census of 2000, there were 267 people, 109 households, 74 families residing in the town. The population density was 29.1 people per square mile. There were 117 housing units at an average density of 12.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 82.02% White and 17.98% Black or African American. 1.50% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 109 households out of which 34.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.3% were married couples living together, 14.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.2% were non-families. 26.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.01. In the town, the population was spread out with 24.7% under the age of 18, 6.7% from 18 to 24, 32.6% from 25 to 44, 23.6% from 45 to 64, 12.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.8 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $31,250, the median income for a family was $37,500. Males had a median income of $26,250 versus $16,875 for females; the per capita income for the town was $14,239. About 15.9% of families and 18.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.7% of those under the age of eighteen and 20.0% of those sixty five or over. Floyd Mann, Alabama Public Safety director from 1959 to 1963