Father Jacques Marquette S. J. sometimes known as Père Marquette or James Marquette, was a French Jesuit missionary who founded Michigan's first European settlement, Sault Ste. Marie, founded St. Ignace, Michigan. In 1673, Father Marquette and Louis Jolliet were the first Europeans to explore and map the northern portion of the Mississippi River Valley. Jacques Marquette was born in Laon, France, on June 1, 1637, he came of an ancient family distinguished for its military services. Marquette joined the Society of Jesus at age 17, he studied and taught in France for several years, the Jesuits assigned him to New France in 1666 as a missionary to the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Arriving at Quebec he was at once signed to Trois-Rivières on the Saint Lawrence, where he assisted Gabriel Druillettes and, as preliminary to further work, devoted himself to the study of the local languages, became fluent in six different dialects. In 1668 Father Marquette was moved by his superiors to missions farther up the St. Lawrence River in the western Great Lakes region.
That year he helped Gabriel Druillettes found the mission at Sault Ste. Marie in present-day Michigan. Other missions were founded at St. Ignace in 1671, at La Pointe, on Lake Superior near the city of Ashland, Wisconsin. At La Pointe he encountered members of the Illinois tribes, who told him about the important trading route of the Mississippi River, they invited him to teach their people, whose settlements were farther south. Because of wars between the Hurons at La Pointe and the neighboring Lakota people, Father Marquette left the mission and went to the Straits of Mackinac. Leave was granted, in 1673 Marquette joined the expedition of Louis Jolliet, a French-Canadian explorer, they departed from St. Ignace on May 17, with two canoes and five voyageurs of French-Indian ancestry, they followed Lake Michigan up the Fox River, nearly to its headwaters. From there, they were told to portage their canoes a distance of less than two miles through marsh and oak plains to the Wisconsin River. Many years at that point the town of Portage, Wisconsin was built, named for the ancient path between the two rivers.
From the portage, they ventured forth, on June 17 they entered the Mississippi near present-day Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin. The Joliet-Marquette expedition traveled to within 435 miles of the Gulf of Mexico but turned back at the mouth of the Arkansas River. By this point they had encountered several natives carrying European trinkets, they feared an encounter with explorers or colonists from Spain, they followed the Mississippi back to the mouth of the Illinois River, which they learned from local natives provided a shorter route back to the Great Lakes. They reached Lake Michigan near the site of modern-day Chicago, by way of the Chicago Portage. In September Marquette stopped at the mission of St. Francis Xavier, located in present-day Green Bay, while Jolliet returned to Quebec to relate the news of their discoveries. Marquette and his party returned to the Illinois Territory in late 1674, becoming the first Europeans to winter in what would become the city of Chicago; as welcomed guests of the Illinois Confederation, the explorers were feasted en route and fed ceremonial foods such as sagamite.
In the spring of 1675, Marquette traveled westward and celebrated a public mass at the Grand Village of the Illinois near Starved Rock. A bout of dysentery which he had contracted during the Mississippi expedition sapped his health. On the return trip to St. Ignace, he died at age 37 near the modern town of Michigan. A Michigan Historical Marker at this location reads: The Ojibway Museum on State Street in downtown St. Ignace is in a building, constructed adjacent to Marquette's gravesite during urban development. Father Marquette is memorialized in the names of many towns, geographical locations, parks, a major university, other institutions: Marquette County, Marquette County, Wisconsin The communities of Marquette, Michigan. Marquette Transportation Company, a towboat company using a silhouette of the Pere in his canoe as their emblem. Marquette Building in Chicago, Illinois Marquette Elementary School, Illinois Marquette Park, Illinois Marquette Road, IllinoisIn addition, statues in Marquette's honor have been erected in several places, including the Prairie du Chien Post Office.
Other types of memorials were erected, including those at his birthplace in France. The Legler Branch of the Chicago Public Library displays "Wilderness, Winter River Scene," a restored mural by Midwestern artist R. Fayerweather Babcock; the mural depicts Father Jacques Native Americans trading by a river. Commissioned for Legler Branch in 1934, the mural was fu
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Perry County, Missouri
Perry County is a county located in the southeastern portion of the U. S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the population was 18,971, its county seat is Perryville. The county was organized on November 16, 1820 from Ste. Genevieve County and was named after Oliver Hazard Perry, a naval hero of the War of 1812; the first inhabitants of what is now Perry County were Mississippian Mound Builders who cultivated corn and constructed earthen mounds. The Mississippian Cultures inhabited the region until their decline in the 13th centuries. Remnants of their earthen mounds can be found in the eastern part of the county. By the time of European contact, the area was populated by Native Americans of the Illinois Confederation who inhabited much of eastern Missouri. During the 18th Century, the Perry County area, like the rest of the future State of Missouri, was part of French Louisiana known as the Illinois Country. For most of the 18th Century the area of present-day Perry County was left uninhabited by the French of nearby Ste.
Genevieve. The latter was the first permanent White settlement in the Missouri area. In 1764, when the terms of the 1763 Treaty of Paris were announced in Louisiana, the French settlers found themselves transferred to an alien domination, that of Spain. In general the French were unhappy with the change of rule and the Spanish governance of the territory was an uneasy one punctuated by armed rebellion. In the Ste. Genevieve area, the Spaniards, making a virtue of necessity, tended to let the French govern themselves. During the 1770s and 1780s members of the Peoria Tribe, whose situation had deteriorated under British and American rule in Illinois, migrated west across the Mississippi River into Ste. Genevieve and the lower part of the Bois Brule Bottoms; the French population suffered continued harassment by the Osage to the southwest. In the 1790s, Louis Lorimier, authorized by Spanish officials, invited the Shawnee and Deleware tribes in Ohio to immigrate and settle along Apple Creek in Perry County in the hope that they would act as a buffer between the French to the north and the Osage to the south.
Their largest village, Le Grand Village Sauvage - with a population of some 400, was located in the southern part of the county, just above Apple Creek, near present-day Old Appleton. Within a decade of the Native American immigration, Spanish authorities showed an interest in opening the area to colonization by Americans; the first French settlers were Jean Baptiste Barsaloux and his father Girard Barsaloux who lived in the Bois Brule Bottom in 1787. The first American settlers to Perry County arrived during the latter half of the 1790s and claimed rich land in Bois Brule Bottom; these Americans organized the region's original Baptist Church in 1807. In the early 19th century, a second group of American settlers crossed the Mississippi River to take advantage of Spanish land offers; these were Roman Catholics of English stock from north-central Kentucky. They had come from Maryland to escape religious discrimination and prided themselves on being descendants of Lord Baltimore's original colonists.
The first of these to settle permanently in the future Perry County was Isidore Moore. He arrived in 1801 and became a patriarch of the area, founded Tucker's Settlement. Others soon followed whose family names predominated the decades: Tucker, Cissell, Riney, Layton and Hagan. Most of these settled in the uplands around Perryville in a place called the Barrens because of its open land. Another Maryland Catholic, Joseph Fenwick, established the short-lived Fenwick Settlement at the mouth of Brazeau Creek in the Brazeau Bottoms; when the region was transferred to American sovereignty in 1803-1804, the Barrens became part of the Louisiana Territory. Prior to the admission of Missouri to statehood in 1821, several new migrations altered the religious composition of the future county. In 1817, a large group of Presbyterians from North Carolina settled in the neighborhood of Brazeau, an area bounded by the Mississippi River and the Cinque Hommes Creek and Apple Creek; these settlers organized a church in 1819.
They were soon followed by Methodists from the same state whose family names live on, like Abernathy and Rutledge. In 1826, they built their first log meeting house, replaced by York Chapel; until 1821, the Barrens region formed the southern portion of Ste. Genevieve County; when Missouri was granted statehood, Perry County was organized out of the parent district. It was divided into three townships: Brazeau, Cinque Hommes, Bois Brule, their boundaries, following natural geographical features, were quite irregular. In 1856, the borders were made symmetrical and two new townships, St. Mary's and Saline, were added. After 1821, the descendants of French colonial families from Ste. Genevieve trickled into Perry County, in the middle of the next decade, their ranks swelled by immigrants from France itself, they settled on the lands that were near the present city of Perryville. At about the same time, a small group of Flemings settled in the northeastern part of the county, with the present town of Belgique as their center.
There were Swiss in the same area. The late 1830s saw the beginnings of a heavy German immigration that would permanently alter the ethnic balance of the county. In the fall of 1838, more than 600 Saxon Lutherans, under the leadership of Pastor Martin Stephan, uprooted themselves and migrated to Missouri in what is called The Saxon Lutheran Migration, seeking to avoid the enforced religious conformity brought about by the Prussian Union of churches, they settled in the southeastern corner of the county and moved inland through a series of towns whose names enshrined both
Big Muddy River
The Big Muddy River is a 156-mile-long river in southern Illinois. It joins the Mississippi River just south of Grand Tower; the Big Muddy has been dammed near Benton. The Big Muddy has a mud bottom for most of its length; the Big Muddy drains a 2,344-square-mile watershed. In 1995, water quality was assessed as "fair" to "good". Pollution sources include agricultural practices and municipalities; the watershed of the Big Muddy was covered by the Illinoian Glacier about 300,000 to 132,000 years before present. The Big Muddy basin formed after the retreat of that glacier; the Big Muddy was not covered by about 70,000 to 10,000 years before present. However, during the melting of that glacier, the level of the Mississippi River was much higher. Water backed up into the Big Muddy Basin, forming a lake much like the artificial Rend Lake but covering a larger area; the ancient lake silted in. After the melting of the Wisconsinan glacier, the level of the Mississippi dropped, allowing the lake to drain. A new channel formed within the old lake bed.
This channel meandered in the flat bottom of the Wisconsinan-era lake. This is; the Big Muddy joins the Mississippi River in Jackson County near the La Rue-Pine Hills Ecological Area and less than 1 mile south of Grand Tower Island. The Pine Hills are bluffs overlooking the Big Muddy. During the melting of the Wisconsinan glacier, the Mississippi River flood plain was filled with rushing meltwater in summer. During the winter the flow of meltwater was cut off, the floodplain was a wide stretch of exposed mud. Winter winds created dust storms that covered Southern Illinois with "loess", fine grained, wind born deposits. At the edge of the floodplain, called "loess hills", formed; the Pine Hills are loess hills standing several hundred feet above the floodplain. Prior to the construction of Rend Lake, much of the ancient lake bed was swamp: a forested area, covered by water through most of the winter, during wet summers; when the Big Muddy flooded, the water covered the flat bottom of the ancient lake bed for miles either direction from the meandering channel.
The upper reaches of the Big Muddy are near Illinois. Here the outline of the Wisconsinan Era lake bed is evident in what were the northern reaches of the ancient lake, where the lake bed was only a few hundred feet wide; the steep Illinoian hills are truncated where they meet the flat bottom of the Wisconsinan Era lake bed. Here the tributaries of the Big Muddy are tiny, intermittent streams, meandering though these narrow valleys at the headwaters; the Big Muddy basin contains a significant portion of the planet's coal reserves. Most of this is hidden under its deep mud. At a few places the river has eroded the sides of hills; the first coal mine in Illinois is believed to have been opened in 1810 on the banks of the Big Muddy in Jackson County. The Big Muddy cuts through the Shawnee Hills south of Murphysboro near the confluence with its smaller tributary, Kinkaid Creek. From there, it runs southward twenty miles and meets the Mississippi directly south of Grand Tower. Near its mouth, a small portion of the Big Muddy acts as the dividing line between Jackson and Union counties.
Major tributaries of the Big Muddy include Beaucoup Creek, the Little Muddy River, Casey Creek, the Middle Fork of the Big Muddy and Crab Orchard Creek. Smaller tributaries include Town Creek, Kinkaid Creek, Shoal Creek; the basin includes Kinkaid Lake, Rend Lake, Crab Orchard Lake, Devil's Kitchen Lake, Little Grassy Lake and Cedar Lake. The northern limit of the watershed is north of Kell, about 2 miles into Marion County; this is on Casey Creek. Big Muddy List of Illinois rivers Exploring the Land and Rocks of Southern Illinois, Stanley E. Harris, Jr. et al. Southern Illinois University Press, 1977 Trails & Tails of Illinois, Stu Fliege, University of Illinois Press, 2002
U.S. Route 51
U. S. Route 51 is a major south-north United States highway that extends 1,277 miles from the western suburbs of New Orleans, Louisiana, to within 150 feet of the Wisconsin–Michigan state line. Much of the highway in Illinois and southern Wisconsin runs parallel to or is cosigned with Interstate 39 and much of the route in several states parallels the Illinois Central Railroad; the highway's northern terminus is between Hurley and Ironwood, where it ends with a T interchange at US 2. Its southern terminus is Laplace, ending at US 61. In addition to singing about US 61 on his album Highway 61 Revisited, musician Bob Dylan commemorated US 51, covering the folk song "Highway 51 Blues", earlier recorded by both Curtis Jones and Tommy McClennan, on his eponymous album Bob Dylan; the North Mississippi Allstars paid tribute to the highway in the title track of their album 51 Phantom. In Memphis, all of US 51 south of South Parkway East was renamed from Bellevue Boulevard to Elvis Presley Boulevard. Graceland sits in the subdivision of Whitehaven.
In 2004, the six states that US 51 traverses banded together as the Explore Hwy 51 Coalition to help promote this "All-American Road". The group now offers visitor information for traveling the length of the road. US 51 crosses the Mississippi–Louisiana border a few miles north of Kentwood and continues to parallel I-55 until just below its interchanges with Louisiana Highway 3234 and US 190 it joins I-55 just south of Hammond at exit 28. From Hammond, the two highways, running concurrently, cross the swamps between Ponchatoula and Laplace on viaducts to I-10, where I-55 ends; the old highway is still used for local traffic. US 51 continues southwestward into Laplace where it meets its end at US 61. In the 1930s, this highway was called Jefferson Davis Highway. Before the construction of I-55, US 51 was routed along what is now US 51 Business between Hammond and Ponchatoula. US 51 Business ends at the joined I-55/US 51 south of Ponchatoula. From this point southward, while US 51 is joined with I-55, the former routing of US 51 lies at ground level just to the east of I-55/US 51 and carries no designation.
While the southern terminus of US 51 is in Laplace at U. S. 61, it was once co-signed with U. S. 61 into downtown New Orleans. However, it was slated to head toward New Orleans along the south shore of Lake Pontchartrain via the New Orleans–Hammond Highway, never completed. US 51 enters Mississippi from Tennessee at Southaven and parallels Interstate 55 to the east for much of its length, except for the section between the Tennessee line and Grenada, where it parallels the highway to the west. From Memphis, US 51 passes through Senatobia, Grenada and Canton before reaching Jackson. At the Jackson-Ridgeland line, US 51 overlaps I-55 from Exit 103 to Exit 96A downtown; the split is only temporary as the highway traverses Pearl and State streets and meets I-55 again at Exit 93. The Natchez Trace Parkway is crossed near Clinton; the two highways run together until Exit 72. The highway parallels the interstate through Hazlehurst, Brookhaven and McComb until it reaches the Louisiana border; the Mississippi section of US 51 is defined at Mississippi Code Annotated § 65-3-3.
US 51 up to the Kentucky border in the Mississippi valley. It is planned to be bypassed by Interstate 69 through Tennessee. U. S 51 enters Kentucky at Fulton, continues north through the towns of Clinton and Wickliffe to the Ohio River, where it is multiplexed with U. S highways 60 and 62 over the Ohio. US 51 enters Illinois from Kentucky at the town of Cairo; the route heads northbound to a village near Cairo called Mounds, begins to overlap I-57, following it for 24 miles to Dongola, before splitting and heading north. The route remains two lanes from Dongola to just before Assumption with the exception of a 10-mile section between Centralia and I-64. Past Assumption, US 51 becomes an expressway to Decatur. In Decatur, US 51 follows I-72 to bypass town. US 51 leaves I-72 after eight miles, heads north to Bloomington–Normal as an expressway. At Bloomington–Normal, US 51 follows I-74 for a mile I-55 for seven miles, before following I-39 for 140 miles. US 51 follows I-39, intersecting I-88 along the way.
The highway follows US 20 south of Rockford. I-39/US 51 joins I-90, making US 51 of the only toll roads in Illinois, a U. S. Highway. US 51 exits I-39/I-90 just a mile south of the Wisconsin state line. US 51 follows Illinois Route 75 west to the intersection of IL 251 turns north through South Beloit to enter Wisconsin. In the state of Wisconsin, US 51 enters from Illinois at Beloit. US 51 splits off from I-39/I-90 in South Beloit and continues north through Janesville and Edgerton. In Edgerton, US 51 rejoins I-39/I-90 for 3.5 miles before splitting off towards Stoughton and McFarland. US 51 runs parallel to I-39/I-90 through the eastern portion of Madison, crosses the Interstate in DeForest, rejoins I-39 again at Portage. US 51 runs concurrently with I-39 until I-39's terminus in Wausau and continues on as a mixture of freeway and expressway until just north of the interchange with US 8. From there through Hazelhurst, US 51 is a two-lane road with sporadic three-lane sections. US 51 expands with a central fifth turn lane from Hazelhurst to Arbor Vitae.
Murphysboro is a city in and the county seat of Jackson County, United States. The population was 7,970 at the 2010 census; the city is part of the Metro Lakeland area. The mayor of Murphysboro is Will Stephens; the government consists of 10 city aldermen. Murphysboro is located at 37°46′2″N 89°20′14″W. According to the 2010 census, Murphysboro has a total area of 5.235 square miles, of which 5.15 square miles is land and 0.085 square miles is water. Murphysboro is located 5 miles southeast of Kinkaid Lake. Although Murphysboro is only 10 miles east of the Mississippi River, the nearest access point to the river is in Grand Tower, a 30 minute drive southwest; as part of the humid subtropical climate, Murphysboro can grow a small number of cold hardy palm trees that can live year-round, can be found sparingly around the municipality. Established in September 1843, Murphysboro is the second county seat of Jackson County, its birth is tied to the disastrous fire that destroyed the courthouse in the first county seat, Brownsville.
The fire proved to be the catalyst to move the county seat to a more central location. The name was decided for the new town when William C. Murphy's name was drawn from a hat containing the names of the three commissioners who chose the new location, a 20-acre tract of land donated by Dr. John Logan and Elizabeth Logan; the son of the site's donors, Major General John A. Logan became a volunteer general in the Civil War. General Logan is remembered for a distinguished political career, serving as Illinois’ US Senator from 1871-1877 and 1880-1886, as well as for running for Vice President in 1884. At the time of his death he was considered a presidential hopeful. Logan's greatest legacy, however, is his creation of Memorial Day as a national holiday; the economy of Murphysboro was based on coal for many of its growing years. It was important in industry and transportation. On March 18, 1925, at around 2:30 pm, 234 people were killed when the Tri-State Tornado hit Murphysboro; this number exceeds the death toll of any single community in a tornado event in U.
S. history. Murphysboro was destroyed. Another F5 affected the area on December 18, 1957, the latest tornado of that strength recorded during a year; the Murphysboro Women's Club established the town's public library in 1925. The first library was the former home of Sarah "Sallie" Oliver Logan, opening in 1938; this library was replaced with the current location, Sallie Logan Public Library, in 1975. On May 8, 2009 a derecho windstorm destroyed houses, brought down power lines, left the town without electricity for a week. One man was killed by a falling tree limb; the surrounding woodlands and recreational trails were impacted. This event is colloquially remembered as the "May 8th storm" or "May 8th." In 2017, the total solar eclipse of August 21, 2017 had its point of longest duration near Murphysboro, at a point about 8 kilometers to the southeast in Giant City State Park. As of the census of 2000, there were 13,295 people, 3,704 households, 2,129 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,751.3 people per square mile.
There were 4,183 housing units at an average density of 865.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 79.82% White, 15.80% African American, 0.39% Native American, 1.03% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 1.10% from other races, 1.77% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.72% of the population. There were 3,704 households out of which 26.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.8% were married couples living together, 14.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.5% were non-families. 37.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.20 and the average family size was 2.91. In the city, the population was spread out with 14.7% under the age of 18, 40.6% from 18 to 24, 18.5% from 25 to 44, 13.8% from 45 to 64, 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 23 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.5 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $25,551, the median income for a family was $34,987. Males had a median income of $28,216 versus $20,011 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,527. About 15.8% of families and 21.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.4% of those under age 18 and 10.9% of those age 65 or over. In recent years and tourism organizations have been at the front of renewing interest in the town as a center of historical and cultural tourism. Murphysboro's General John A. Logan Museum, the Murphysboro Tourism Bureau, the Chamber of Commerce, Friends of Murphysboro have been working together to restore interest in the maintenance of architectural treasures such as the Band Shell in Riverside Park, an example of the type of large-scale project of the Works Progress Administration; the Logan Museum Neighborhood has been the site of a project designed to convert some of the neighborhood's homes into exhibit and gallery spaces. The Neighborhood consists of the Sheyley House, the Hughes House, the Horsfield Printshop, the Bullar House.
The Bullar Hous
Carbondale is a city in Jackson County, United States, within the Southern Illinois region informally known as "Little Egypt." The city developed from 1853 because of the stimulation of railroad construction into the area. Today the major roadways of Illinois Route 13 and U. S. Route 51 intersect in the city; the city is 96 miles southeast of St. Louis, Missouri, on the northern edge of the Shawnee National Forest. Carbondale is the home of the main campus of Southern Illinois University; as of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 25,902, it is the state's 20th-most-populated city outside the Chicago Metropolitan Area. In addition, the city is the most populous in Southern Illinois outside the St. Louis Metro-East region, the most populous city in the Carbondale-Marion-Herrin, Illinois Combined Statistical Area; the CSA has the sixth-most-populous combined statistical area in Illinois. In August 1853, Daniel Harmon Brush, John Asgill Conner, Dr. William Richart bought a 360-acre parcel of land between two proposed railroad station sites and two county seats.
Brush named Carbondale for the large deposit of coal in the area. The first train through Carbondale arrived on Independence Day 1854, traveling north on the main line from Cairo, Illinois. By the time of the American Civil War, Carbondale had developed as a regional center for transportation and business, surrounded by agricultural development; this part of Illinois was known as "Little Egypt" because of the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, where the town of Cairo is located. The city has had a college since 1856 beginning with the Presbyterian founded Carbondale College, converted to an elementary school. Carbondale won the bid for the new state teacher training school for the region, Southern Illinois Normal University opened in 1874; this gave the town new industry, new citizens, a supplement to public schools. In 1947, the name was changed to Southern Illinois University, it has become the flagship of the Southern Illinois University system. This institution, now recognized as a national research university, has nearly 18,000 students enrolled and offers a wide variety of undergraduate and graduate specialties.
On April 29, 1866, one of the first formal Memorial Day observations following the Civil War was held at the city's Woodlawn Cemetery. Local resident, General John A. Logan, gave the principal address. Logan, as co-founder of the Civil War veteran's group the "Grand Army of the Republic, issued General Order #11 on March 3, 1868, calling for a national day of remembrance for Civil War dead; this order served as the basis for the creation of a formal Memorial Day. Logan called observance day "Decoration Day" and proposed it for May 30, to assure flowers would be in bloom nationwide. In the early 20th century, Carbondale was known as the "Athens of Egypt," due to the expansion of the college and university, the region's moniker of "Little Egypt." The phrase dates to at least 1903. By 1922, the Carbondale Free Press was using the phrase on its flag; the area was in totality during the solar eclipse of August 21, 2017, with Giant City State Park, just south of the city, experiencing the longest period of totality during the eclipse, earning it the nickname, "Eclipse Crossroads of America:.
It will be within the path of totality of the solar eclipse of April 8, 2024, making it one of only a handful of cities within the direct paths of both eclipses. Carbondale is located at 37°44′N 89°13′W, it is at 415 feet above sea level. Carbondale has been in totality path of one previous solar eclipse on August 21, 2017 and hosted the longest duration of totality with 2 minutes 41.6 seconds just to its south in Makanda Township, additionally will be in the path of another April 8, 2024. According to the 2010 census, Carbondale has a total area of 17.519 square miles, of which 17.09 square miles is land and 0.429 square miles is water. Carbondale lies with four distinct seasons; the monthly daily average temperature ranges from 32.4 °F in January to 78.1 °F in July. On average, there are 40 days of 90 °F + highs, 16 days where the high fails to rise above freezing, 2.3 nights of sub-0 °F per year. It has an average annual precipitation including an average 11 inches of snow. Extremes in temperature range from −25 °F on January 11, 1977 up to 113 °F on August 9, 1930.
Carbondale receives thunderstorms on an average of 50 days per year. In the spring, these storms can be severe, with high winds, damaging hail, tornadoes; as of the census of 2000, there were 25,597 people, 10,018 households, 3,493 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,152.0 people per square mile. There were 11,005 housing units at an average density of 925.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 66.08% White, 23.14% Black or African American, 0.22% Native American, 6.67% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 1.42% from other races, 2.40% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.05% of the population. There were 9,981 households out of which 17.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 22.1% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.5% were non-families. 43.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or o