Cottonwood County, Minnesota
Cottonwood County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 11,687, its county seat is Windom. The county was created on May 1857, named for the river in Germantown Township. Minnesota Governor Austin appointed three county commissioners, they met at a home about six miles northwest of Windom on the Des Moines River at Big Bend. During this meeting, they designated the commissioners' districts and changed various county officers; the county organization was completed on July 29, 1870. The first general election was held in the county that November; the first deed of record was filed on January 10, 1870. The first land assessments were made in 1871, the first taxes were paid in 1872; the Cottonwood County Courthouse, an example of Neoclassical architecture, is listed in the National Register of Historic Places. Mountain Park, located southeast of Mountain Lake, has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places, since 1973. A 1976 archeological dig unearthed evidence of Fox Indian inhabitation there dating from 500 B.
C. The park is host of the oldest human habitation yet to be discovered in Minnesota; the Jeffers Petroglyphs, near Jeffers, contains pre-European Native American rock carvings. Listed in the National Register of Historic Places; the Heron Lake Outflow flows easterly through the lower part of Cottonwood County. The county terrain consists of low rolling hills, devoted to agriculture; the terrain slopes to the east, with the northern portion sloping north and the lower portion sloping south. The highest point is on the midpoint of the west border, at 1,535' ASL; the county has a total area of 649 square miles, of which 639 square miles is land and 10 square miles is water. The northeast part of the county drains north to the Minnesota River through numerous small creeks, the Cottonwood River and Watonwan River; the southwest part of the county drains south through the Des Moines River. These two watersheds come together at the Mississippi River near Iowa. Most wetlands in the county have been drained for agricultural use.
As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 12,167 people, 4,917 households, 3,338 families in the county. The population density was 19.0/sqmi. There were 5,376 housing units at an average density of 8.41/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 95.23% White, 0.34% Black or African American, 0.23% Native American, 1.63% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 1.35% from other races, 1.14% from two or more races. 2.19% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 50.2% were of German and 18.6% Norwegian ancestry. There were 4,917 households out of which 28.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.10% were married couples living together, 6.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.10% were non-families. 28.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.94. The county population contained 25.00% under the age of 18, 6.50% from 18 to 24, 23.20% from 25 to 44, 23.20% from 45 to 64, 22.10% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 94.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,943, the median income for a family was $40,237. Males had a median income of $28,993 versus $19,934 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,647. About 7.40% of families and 11.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.40% of those under age 18 and 8.70% of those age 65 or over. Cottonwood County voters are reliably Republican. In only one national election since 1964 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate. Delft National Register of Historic Places listings in Cottonwood County, Minnesota John A. Brown, History of Cottonwood and Watonwan counties, Minnesota: Their People and Institutions: With Biographical Sketches of Representative Citizens and Genealogical Records of Many of the Old Families. In Two Volumes. Indianapolis, IN: B. F. Bowen and Company, 1916.
Volume 1|Volume 2 Cottonwood County Minnesota Highway Map, Cottonwood County Highway Department, 2003. DeLorme's Gazetteer. Cottonwood County website
Des Moines River
The Des Moines River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in the upper Midwestern United States, 525 miles long from its farther headwaters. The largest river flowing across the state of Iowa, it rises in southern Minnesota and flows across Iowa from northwest to southeast, passing from the glaciated plains into the unglaciated hills near the capital city of Des Moines, named after the river, in the center of the state; the river continues to flow at a southeastern direction away from Des Moines flowing directly into the Mississippi River. The Des Moines River forms a short portion of Iowa's border with Missouri in Lee County; the Avenue of the Saints, a four-lane highway from St. Paul, Minnesota to St. Louis, passes over this section; the Des Moines River rises in two forks. The West Fork rises out of Lake Shetek in Murray County in southwestern Minnesota, it flows south-southeast into Emmet County, past Estherville. The East Fork rises out of Okamanpeedan Lake in northern Emmet County on the Iowa-Minnesota border and flows south, through Algona.
The two forks join in southern Humboldt County 5 miles south of Humboldt at Frank Gotch State Park. The combined stream flows southward through Fort Dodge. South of Boone it passes through the Ledges State Park, it flows through downtown Des Moines turns southeastward, flowing through Ottumwa. It forms 20 miles of the border between Iowa and Missouri before joining the Mississippi from the northwest at Keokuk, it receives the Boone River from the northeast 20 miles southwest of Fort Dodge. It receives the Raccoon River from the west in the city of Des Moines. Above the city of Des Moines, it is impounded to create the Saylorville Lake reservoir. About midway below Saylorville and above Ottumwa, near Pella, the river is impounded to create the Lake Red Rock reservoir. One of the earliest French maps that depicts the Des Moines refers to it as "R. des Otentas," which translates to "River of the Otoe". The Meskwaki and Sauk people referred to the river as "Ke-o-shaw-qua", from which Keosauqua, derives its name.
The Dakota Indians, who lived near its headwaters in present-day Minnesota, referred to it as "Inyan Shasha" in their Siouan language. Another Siouan name was "Eah-sha-wa-pa-ta," or "Red Stone" river referring the bluffs at Red Rock or the reddish Sioux Quartzite bedrock near its headwaters; the origin of the name Des Moines is obscure. Early French explorers named it La Rivière des Moines meaning "River of the Monks." The name may have referred to early Trappist monks who built huts near the mouth of the river at the Mississippi. William Bright writes that Moines was an abbreviation used by the French for Moingouena or Moingona, an Algonquian subgroup of the Illinois people; the Native American term was /mooyiinkweena/, a derogatory name applied to the Moingouena by the Peoria people, a related subgroup. The meaning of the native word, according to an early French writer, is visage plein d'ordure, or in plain English, "shit-face", from mooy-, "face", -iinkwee, "shit", -na, "indefinite actor".
The 1718 Guillaume Delisle map labels it as "le Moingona R." During the mid-19th century, the river supported the main commercial transportation by water across Iowa. River traffic began to be superseded by the railroads constructed from the 1860s; the river has a history of seasonal flooding. For example, in May 1944 the Riverview Park had just opened for the season on May 19, 1944. At around dawn on May 23, the levee began to collapse; the river was too much to hold back. The breach in the levee grew to nearly 100 feet wide, the river water enveloped all of the park and the surrounding area; the Great Flood of 1993 on the river and its tributary the Raccoon, in the summer of 1993, forced the evacuation of much of the city of Des Moines and nearby communities. In another period of flooding, on June 13, 2008, officials issued a voluntary evacuation order for much of downtown and other areas bordering the Des Moines River; the river had reached flood stage in many locations, Mayor Frank Cownie said the evacuations were an attempt "to err on the side of citizens and residents."
According to the Geographic Names Information System, the Des Moines River has been known as: La Riviere des Moins Le Moine River Monk River Nadouessioux River Outontantes River River Demoin River of the Maskoutens River of the Peouareas List of Iowa rivers List of longest rivers of the United States List of Minnesota rivers List of Missouri rivers Illinois Country French colonization of the Americas Des Moines History DesMoinesRiver.org U. S. Army Corps of Engineers: Des Moines River Basin
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Watonwan County, Minnesota
Watonwan County is a county located in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 11,211, its county seat is St. James; the county was organized in 1860. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 440 square miles, of which 435 square miles is land and 4.8 square miles is water. The county is drained by its tributaries. Minnesota State Highway 4 Minnesota State Highway 15 Minnesota State Highway 30 Minnesota State Highway 60 Bergdahl Lake: in Madelia Township Bullhead Lake: in Rosendale Township Butterfield Lake: in Butterfield Township Case Lake: in Fieldon Township Cottonwood Lake: in Adrian Township Ewy Lake: in Butterfield Township Fedji Lake: in Madelia Township Irish Lake: in Odin Township Long Lake: in Long Lake Township Mary Lake: in Long Lake Township Mud Lake: in Odin Township Kansas Lake: in Long Lake Township School Lake: in Odin Township St. James Lake: in St. James Township Sulem Lake: in Odin Township Wilson Lake: in Madelia Township Wood Lake: in Adrian Township, but the northern fifth stretches into Brown County Brown County Blue Earth County Martin County Jackson County Cottonwood County As of the 2000 census, there were 11,876 people, 4,627 households, 3,141 families residing in the county.
The population density was 27 people per square mile. There were 5,036 housing units at an average density of 12 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 88.54% White, 0.37% Black or African American, 0.21% Native American, 0.87% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 8.78% from other races, 1.21% from two or more races. 15.19% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 40.9% were of German, 17.3% Norwegian and 5.8% Swedish ancestry. There were 4,627 households out of which 32.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.60% were married couples living together, 7.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.10% were non-families. 28.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.10. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.60% under the age of 18, 7.80% from 18 to 24, 24.30% from 25 to 44, 21.70% from 45 to 64, 18.60% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 95.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,441, the median income for a family was $42,321. Males had a median income of $29,242 versus $19,788 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,413. About 7.80% of families and 9.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.50% of those under age 18 and 8.80% of those age 65 or over. Echols Godahl Grogan South Branch Sveadahl Tenmile Corner National Register of Historic Places listings in Watonwan County, Minnesota John A. Brown, History of Cottonwood and Watonwan counties, Minnesota: Their People and Institutions: With Biographical Sketches of Representative Citizens and Genealogical Records of Many of the Old Families. In Two Volumes. Indianapolis, IN: B. F. Bowen and Company, 1916. Volume 1 | Volume 2
Minnesota's 1st congressional district
Minnesota's 1st congressional district extends across southern Minnesota from the border with South Dakota to the border with Wisconsin. The First District is a rural district built on a strong history of agriculture, although this is changing due to strong population growth in Rochester and surrounding communities; the First District is home to several of Minnesota's major mid-sized cities, including Rochester, Winona, Owatonna, Albert Lea, New Ulm, Worthington. This district is represented by Republican Jim Hagedorn of Blue Earth. From early statehood until the latest redistricting after the 2000 census, the first district covered only southeast Minnesota. During the 20th century it was considered solidly Republican, though in recent years this is changing. In 2004, John Kerry received 48% of the vote in this Congressional district. Two years in 2006, Republican Representative Gil Gutknecht was defeated by Democrat Tim Walz. In March 2017, Walz announced that he would not run for reelection to Congress, instead would run for governor of Minnesota.
The district leans Republican with a CPVI of R + 5. Minnesota's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c