Confederate States of America
The Confederate States, officially the Confederate States of America, commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was a breakaway country of 11 secessionist slave states existing from 1861 to 1865. It was never recognized as an Independent country, although it achieved belligerent status by Britain. A new Confederate government was established in February 1861 before Lincoln took office in March, after the Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South – Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina – declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The government of the United States rejected the claims of secession, the Civil War began with the April 12,1861, Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. In spring 1865, after four years of fighting which led to an estimated 620,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered. Jefferson Davis lamented that the Confederacy had disappeared in 1865, Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions from those states, while the legitimate governments of those two states retained formal adherence to the Union.
Also fighting for the Confederacy were two of the Five Civilized Tribes located in Indian Territory and a new, but uncontrolled, Confederate Territory of Arizona. Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of law, while Delaware, though of divided loyalty. A Unionist government in parts of Virginia organized the new state of West Virginia. With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1,1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a war goal, as Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Many joined the Union lines, enrolling in service as soldiers and laborers, the most notable advance was Shermans March to the Sea in late 1864. Much of the Confederacys infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraphs, plantations in the path of Shermans forces were severely damaged. Internal movement became increasingly difficult for Southerners, weakening the economy and these losses created an insurmountable disadvantage in men and finance.
Public support for Confederate President Jefferson Daviss administration eroded over time due to repeated military reverses, economic hardships, after four years of campaigning, Richmond was captured by Union forces in April 1865. Shortly afterward, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant, President Davis was captured on May 10,1865, and jailed in preparation for a treason trial that was ultimately never held. The U. S. government began a process known as Reconstruction which attempted to resolve the political and constitutional issues of the Civil War. By 1877, the Compromise of 1877 ended Reconstruction in the former Confederate states, Confederate veterans had been temporarily disenfranchised by Reconstruction policy. The prewar South had many areas, the war left the entire region economically devastated by military action, ruined infrastructure
Native Americans in the United States
In the United States, Native Americans are people descended from the Pre-Columbian indigenous population of the land within the countrys modern boundaries. These peoples were composed of distinct tribes and ethnic groups. Most Native American groups had historically preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, at the time of first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and mostly Christian immigrants. Some of the Northeastern and Southwestern cultures in particular were matrilineal, the majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of property rights with respect to land that were extremely different. Assimilation became a consistent policy through American administrations, during the 19th century, the ideology of manifest destiny became integral to the American nationalist movement.
Expansion of European-American populations to the west after the American Revolution resulted in increasing pressure on Native American lands and this resulted in the ethnic cleansing of many tribes, with the brutal, forced marches coming to be known as The Trail of Tears. As American expansion reached into the West and miner migrants came into increasing conflict with the Great Basin, Great Plains and these were complex nomadic cultures based on horse culture and seasonal bison hunting. Over time, the United States forced a series of treaties and land cessions by the tribes, in 1924, Native Americans who were not already U. S. citizens were granted citizenship by Congress. Contemporary Native Americans have a relationship with the United States because they may be members of nations, tribes. The terms used to refer to Native Americans have at times been controversial, by comparison, the indigenous peoples of Canada are generally known as First Nations. It is not definitively known how or when the Native Americans first settled the Americas and these early inhabitants, called Paleoamericans, soon diversified into many hundreds of culturally distinct nations and tribes.
The archaeological periods used are the classifications of archaeological periods and cultures established in Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips 1958 book Method and they divided the archaeological record in the Americas into five phases, see Archaeology of the Americas. The Clovis culture, a hunting culture, is primarily identified by use of fluted spear points. Artifacts from this culture were first excavated in 1932 near Clovis, the Clovis culture ranged over much of North America and appeared in South America. The culture is identified by the distinctive Clovis point, a flaked flint spear-point with a notched flute, dating of Clovis materials has been by association with animal bones and by the use of carbon dating methods. Recent reexaminations of Clovis materials using improved carbon-dating methods produced results of 11,050 and 10,800 radiocarbon years B. P, other tribes have stories that recount migrations across long tracts of land and a great river, believed to be the Mississippi River.
Genetic and linguistic data connect the people of this continent with ancient northeast Asians
Henry Cornelius Burnett
Henry Cornelius Burnett was a U. S. Representative from the state of Kentucky and a Confederate States senator, a lawyer by profession, Burnett had held only one public office—circuit court clerk—before being elected to Congress. He represented Kentuckys 1st congressional district prior to the Civil War. This district contained the entire Jackson Purchase region of the state, Burnett promised the voters of his district that he would have President Abraham Lincoln arraigned for treason. Unionist newspaper editor George D. Prentice described Burnett as a big, loud-mouthed fellow who is forever raising points of order and objections, besides championing the Southern cause in Congress, Burnett worked within Kentucky to bolster the states support of the Confederacy. He presided over a sovereignty convention in Russellville in 1861 that formed a Confederate government for the state, the delegates to this convention chose Burnett to travel to Richmond, Virginia to secure Kentuckys admission to the Confederacy.
Burnett raised a Confederate regiment at Hopkinsville, Camp Burnett, a Confederate recruiting post two miles west of Clinton in Hickman County, was named after him. Burnetts actions were deemed treasonable by his colleagues in Congress, and he is one of only five members of the House of Representatives ever to be expelled. Following his expulsion, Burnett served in the Provisional Confederate Congress and he was indicted for treason after the war, but never tried. He returned to the practice of law, and died of cholera in 1866 at the age of 40, Henry Cornelius Burnett was born to Dr. Isaac and Martha F. Burnett on October 25,1825, in Essex County, Virginia. In his early childhood, he moved to Cadiz, Kentucky and he was educated in the common schools of the area and at an academy in Hopkinsville, Kentucky. Following this, he studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1847 and he was a member of the Cadiz Christian Church. On April 13,1847, Burnett married Mary A. Terry and they had four children, Emeline and Terry.
The younger Henry Burnett became a lawyer in Paducah and, later. In the first election following the ratification of the Kentucky Constitution of 1850, Burnett was elected clerk of the court of Trigg County, Kentucky. He resigned in 1853 to run for Congress, that year, he was elected as a Democrat to the 34th Congress, succeeding Speaker of the House Linn Boyd. Burnett supported fellow Kentuckian John C, Breckinridge for president in the 1860 presidential election, but Breckinridge lost to Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln had campaigned against the expansion of slavery beyond the states in which it already existed and his victory in the election resulted in seven Southern states declaring their secession from the Union
The Ohio River, which streams westward from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River in the United States. The 981-mile river flows through or along the border of six states, through its largest tributary, the Tennessee River, the basin includes many of the states of the southeastern U. S. It is the source of drinking water for three million people and it is named in Iroquoian or Seneca, Ohi, yó, lit. Good River or Shawnee and Spelewathiipi, the river had great significance in the history of the Native Americans, as numerous civilizations formed along its valley. For thousands of years, Native Americans used the river as a major transportation, in 1669, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle led a French expedition to the Ohio River, becoming the first Europeans to see it. After European-American settlement, the served as a border between present-day Kentucky and Indian Territories. It was a transportation route for pioneers during the westward expansion of the early U. S.
In his Notes on the State of Virginia published in 1781–82, Thomas Jefferson stated and its current gentle, waters clear, and bosom smooth and unbroken by rocks and rapids, a single instance only excepted. During the 19th century, the river was the boundary of the Northwest Territory. Where the river was narrow, it was the way to freedom for thousands of slaves escaping to the North, many helped by free blacks and whites of the Underground Railroad resistance movement. The Ohio River is a transition area, as its water runs along the periphery of the humid subtropical. It is inhabited by fauna and flora of both climates, in winter, it regularly freezes over at Pittsburgh but rarely further south toward Cincinnati and Louisville. At Paducah, Kentucky, in the south, near the Ohios confluence with the Mississippi, Paducah was founded there because it is the northernmost ice-free reach of the Ohio. The Ohio River is formed by the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers at Point State Park in Pittsburgh, from there, it flows northwest through Allegheny and Beaver counties, before making an abrupt turn to the south-southwest at the West Virginia–Ohio–Pennsylvania triple-state line.
From there, it forms the border between West Virginia and Ohio, upstream of Wheeling, West Virginia, the river follows a roughly southwest and west-northwest course until Cincinnati, before bending to a west-southwest course for most of its length. The course forms the borders of West Virginia and Kentucky. The Ohio drains parts of 15 states in four regions, northeast New York, a small area of the southern border along the headwaters of the Allegheny. Pennsylvania, a corridor from the corner to north central border
Governor of Kentucky
The Governor of the Commonwealth of Kentucky is the head of the executive branch of government in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Fifty-seven men and one woman have served as Governor of Kentucky, the governors term is four years in length, since 1992, incumbents have been able to seek re-election once before becoming ineligible for four years. Throughout the states history, four men have served two terms as governor, and two others have served two consecutive terms. Kentucky is one of only five U. S. states that hold gubernatorial elections in odd-numbered years immediately before the United States Presidential Election, the current governor is Matt Bevin, who was first elected in 2015. The governors powers are enumerated in the state constitution, there have been four constitutions of Kentucky—adopted in 1792,1799,1850, and 1891, respectively—and each has enlarged the governors authority. Among the powers appropriated to the governor in the constitution are the ability to grant pardons, veto legislation, the governor serves as commander-in-chief of the states military forces and is empowered to enforce all laws of the state.
Because Kentuckys governor controls so many appointments to commissions, the office has been considered one of the most powerful state executive positions in the United States. The history of the office of Governor is largely one of long periods of domination by a single party, Federalists were rare among Kentuckians during the period of the First Party System, and Democratic Republicans won every gubernatorial election in the state until 1828. The Second Party System began when the Democratic-Republicans split into Jacksonian Democrats, beginning with the election of Thomas Metcalfe in 1828, the Whigs dominated the governorship until 1851, with John Breathitt being the only Democrat elected during that period. Since 1931, only four Republicans have served as governor of Kentucky, current governor Matt Bevin, in all four Kentucky constitutions, the first power enumerated to the governor is to serve as commander-in-chief of the states militia and military forces. In 1799, a stipulation was added that the governor would not personally lead troops on the battlefield unless advised to do so by a resolution of the General Assembly.
Such a case occurred in 1813 when Governor Isaac Shelby, a veteran of the Revolutionary War, was asked to lead a band of Kentucky troops to aid William Henry Harrison at the Battle of the Thames. For his service, Shelby received the Thanks of Congress and the Congressional Gold Medal, the 1891 constitution further required that, with each application for a pardon, the governor file a statement of the reasons for his decision thereon, which. Shall always be open to public inspection and this requirement was first proposed by a delegate to the 1850 constitutional convention, but it was rejected at that time. The power of the governor to adjourn the General Assembly for a period of up to four months if the two houses cannot agree on a time to adjourn appears in all four constitutions, the governor is empowered to convene the General Assembly on extraordinary occasions. This was an important provision in the days of the Commonwealth. Taylor claimed a state of insurrection existed in the capital, the 1891 constitution added a provision that the governor must specify the reason for any specially-called legislative session, and that no other business could be considered during the session.
There is, however, no requirement that the legislature conduct any business during the called session
Mayfield is a home rule-class city in Graves County, Kentucky, in the United States. It is the seat of its county, the population was 10,024 as of the 2010 U. S. census. Mayfield is in the center of the Jackson Purchase, an eight-county region purchased by Isaac Shelby, Mayfield was established as the county seat of Graves County in 1821, and the county was formally organized in 1823. John Anderson is believed to have been the first settler, arriving in 1819, in December 1821, Anderson was appointed county court clerk and moved about two and a half miles to the site that became Mayfield. According to Trabue Davis, the name originates indirectly from a gambler named Mayfield. He was carried to the site of todays Mayfield, where he carved his name into a tree in hopes that someone would see it and he tried to escape, but he drowned trying to cross what is now called Mayfield Creek. The future town got its name from the creek, the completion of the Memphis, New Orleans, and Northern Railroad in 1858 connected Mayfield with the outside world.
Beginning with the Mayfield Woolen Mills in 1860, manufacturing clothing became the industry in Mayfield for the next hundred years. The town was a market for loose-leaf tobacco. During the Civil War, the Jackson Purchase including Mayfield strongly supported the Confederate cause, the Jackson Purchase has even been called Kentuckys South Carolina. On May 29,1861, a group of Southern sympathizers from Kentucky, most records of the event are lost, probably due to an 1887 fire that destroyed the courthouse. In 1907, Fulton County judge Herbert Carr recalled that the Mayfield Convention adopted a resolution for secession, and they condemned the Federal government for providing Lincoln guns to Union sympathizers in eastern Kentucky. The convention nominated Henry Burnett to represent Kentuckys First District in Congress, the Mayfield Convention was followed by the Russellville Convention, which created the provisional Confederate government of Kentucky. Following the war, these southern sympathies were demonstrated by the dominance of the Democratic Party in local elections.
During the Civil Rights Movement, the schools were slow to integrate. The Mayfield Ten, ten students from the segregated Dunbar High School, were allowed to register at all-white Mayfield High School in 1956. In 2000, Mayfield was shocked by the murder of Jessica Currin, the case was finally closed nearly seven years with the help of a local amateur investigator and a British journalist. On May 10,2016, an EF3 tornado passed just north of the city limits, on August 24,2010 the Board of Zoning reversed its decision to allow a group of refugees to hold Islamic religious services in a local building
Confederate government of Kentucky
The Confederate government of Kentucky was a shadow government established for the Commonwealth of Kentucky by a self-constituted group of Confederate sympathizers during the American Civil War. The shadow government never replaced the government in Frankfort, which had strong Union sympathies. Neither was it able to gain the support of Kentuckys citizens. Nevertheless, the government was recognized by the Confederate States of America. Kentucky was represented by the star on the Confederate battle flag. Bowling Green was designated the Confederate capital of Kentucky, due to the military situation in the state, the provisional government was exiled and traveled with the Army of Tennessee for most of its existence. For a short time in the autumn of 1862, the Confederate Army controlled Frankfort, during this occupation, General Braxton Bragg attempted to install the provisional government as the permanent authority in the Commonwealth. However, Union General Don Carlos Buell ambushed the inauguration ceremony, from that point forward, the government existed primarily on paper and was dissolved at the end of the war.
The provisional government elected two governors, George W. Johnson was elected at the Russellville Convention and served until his death at the Battle of Shiloh. Richard Hawes was elected to replace Johnson and served through the remainder of the war, Kentuckys citizens were split regarding the issues central to the Civil War. The state had strong ties with Ohio River cities such as Pittsburgh and Cincinnati while at the same time sharing many cultural, social. Unionist traditions were strong throughout the Commonwealths history, especially in the east, with economic ties to both the North and the South, Kentucky had little to gain and much to lose from a war between the states. Additionally, many felt that the best protection for slavery was within the Union. The presidential election of 1860 showed Kentuckys mixed sentiments when the state gave John Bell 45% of the popular vote, Breckinridge 36%, Stephen Douglas 18%, and Abraham Lincoln less than 1%. Historian Allan Nevins interpreted the results to mean that Kentuckians strongly opposed both secession and coercion against the secessionists.
The majority coalition of Bell and Douglas supporters was seen as a solid moderate Unionist position that opposed precipitate action by extremists on either side, the majority of Kentuckys citizens believed the state should be a mediator between the North and South. Magoffin proposed a conference of states, followed by a conference of all the states to secure the concessions. Because of the pace of events, neither conference was held
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
Alben W. Barkley
Alben William Barkley was a lawyer and politician from Kentucky who served in both houses of Congress and as the 35th Vice President of the United States from 1949 to 1953. In 1905, he was elected county attorney for McCracken County and he was chosen County Judge/Executive in 1909 and U. S. Representative from Kentuckys First District in 1912, as a Representative, he was a liberal Democrat, supporting President Woodrow Wilsons New Freedom domestic agenda and foreign policy. Endorsing Prohibition and denouncing parimutuel betting, Barkley narrowly lost the 1923 Democratic gubernatorial primary to fellow Representative J. Campbell Cantrill, in 1926, he unseated Republican Senator Richard P. Ernst. In the Senate, he supported the New Deal approach to addressing the Great Depression and was elected to succeed Senate Majority Leader Joseph T. Robinson upon Robinsons death in 1937, during his 1938 re-election bid, his opponent A. B. Happy Chandler accused him of using Works Progress Administration employees to campaign for him, neither candidate was charged with any wrongdoing, but in 1939, Congress passed the Hatch Act, making it illegal for federal employees to campaign for political candidates.
When World War II focused President Franklin D. Roosevelts attention on foreign affairs and he resigned as floor leader after Roosevelt ignored his advice and vetoed the Revenue Act of 1943. The Democratic caucus supported and unanimously re-elected Barkley to the position of Majority Leader, Barkley had a better working relationship with Harry S. Truman, who ascended to the presidency after Roosevelts death in 1945. With Trumans popularity waning entering the 1948 Democratic National Convention, Barkley gave an address that energized the delegates. Truman selected him as his running mate for the upcoming election, Barkley took an active role in the Truman administration, acting as its primary spokesman, especially after the Korean War necessitated the majority of Trumans attention. He retired but was coaxed back into life, defeating incumbent Republican Senator John Sherman Cooper in 1954. Barkley died of an attack while giving a speech at the Washington. Willie Alben Barkley, the eldest of John Wilson and Electa Eliza Barkleys eight children, was born November 24,1877 and his grandmother, midwife Amanda Barkley, delivered him in the log house she lived in with her husband, Alben, in Wheel, Kentucky.
Barkleys parents were tenant farmers who grew tobacco, and his father was an elder in the local Presbyterian church, both parents were religious, opposed to playing cards and alcohol. Occasionally, Barkleys parents would leave him in the care of his grandparents for extended periods, during these times, his grandmother related stories of her relatives. Her childhood playmates included future U. S, Vice President Adlai Stevenson I and James A. McKenzie, a future U. S. Barkley worked on his parents farm and attended school in Lowes, unhappy with his birth name, he adopted Alben William as soon as he was old enough to express his opinion in the matter. In the difficult economy of late 1891, relatives convinced Barkleys father to sell his farm and move to Clinton, to pursue opportunities as a tenant wheat farmer
Paducah is a home rule-class city in and the county seat of McCracken County, United States. The population was 24,864 in 2015, down from 25,024 during the 2010 U. S. Census, twenty blocks of the citys downtown have been designated as a historic district and listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Paducah is the hub of its area, which includes McCracken and Livingston counties in Kentucky. Paducah was first settled as Pekin by James and William Pore c. 1821, the community – favorably located at the confluence of several waterways – occupied a site previously noted as a Chickasaw trading center. The town was out by William Clark in 1827 and renamed Paducah. Instead, it is probable that Clark named the town for the Comanches, Paducah was formally established as a town in 1830 and incorporated as a city by the state legislature in 1838. By this time, steam boats traversed the river system and its facilities were important to trade. In addition, railroads began to be developed that entered the region, a factory for making red bricks, and a foundry for making rail and locomotive components became the nucleus of a thriving River and Rail economy.
It became the site of dry dock facilities for steamboats and towboats, because of its proximity to coalfields further to the east in Kentucky and north in Illinois, Paducah became an important railway hub for the Illinois Central Railroad. This was the primary north-south railway connecting the cities of Chicago and East St. Louis to the Gulf of Mexico at Gulfport and New Orleans. The Illinois Central system provided east-west links to the Burlington Northern and the Atchison, the Illinois Central Railroad began construction of their largest locomotive workshop at Paducah in 1924. Over a period of 190 days, a ravine between Washington and Jones Streets was filled with 44,560 carloads of dirt to enlarge the site to include 23 buildings. The eleven million dollar project was completed in 1927 as the fourth largest industrial plant in Kentucky and it became the largest employer in Paducah with 1,075 employees in 1938. The shops became part of the Paducah and Louisville Railway in 1986, at the outset of the Civil War, Kentucky attempted to take a neutral position.
However, when a Confederate force occupied Columbus, a Union force under General Ulysses S. Grant responded by occupying Paducah. Throughout most of the war, Col. Stephen G. Hicks was in charge of Paducah, on December 17,1862, under the terms of General Order No. 11, US forces required thirty Jewish families to leave their long-established homes, Grant was trying to break up a black market in cotton, in which he suspected Jewish traders were involved. Cesar Kaskel, a prominent local Jewish businessman, dispatched a telegram of complaint to Pres and met with him, together with similar actions by other Jewish businessmen and loud complaints by Congress, he succeeded in seeing the order revoked within a few weeks
Kentucky's 1st congressional district
Kentuckys 1st congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Kentucky. Located in Western Kentucky, the takes in Henderson, Madisonville, Paducah. The district is represented by Republican James Comer who won an election to fill the seat of Rep. Ed Whitfield who resigned September 2016. Comer won election to the term to begin January 3,2017. As of September 2013, there were 505,870 registered voters,302,406 Democrats,174,137 Republicans, and 29,327 Others. All of the Others included 21,711 unclassified Others,7,011 Independents,419 Libertarians,93 Greens,65 Constitutionalists,19 Reforms, until January 1,2006, Kentucky did not track party affiliation for registered voters who were neither Democratic nor Republican. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, the Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present