2002 in baseball
The following are the baseball events of the year 2002 throughout the world. Regular Season ChampionsWorld Series Champion – Anaheim Angels Postseason – October 1 to October 27Click on any series score to link to that series' page. Higher seed has home field advantage during League Championship Series; the American League Champion has home field advantage during World Series as a result of the pre-2003 "alternating years" rule. Postseason MVPs World Series MVP – Troy Glaus ALCS MVP – Adam Kennedy NLCS MVP – Benito Santiago All-Star Game, July 9 at Miller Park – Tie game, 7-7. January 8 – Ozzie Smith is elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in his first year of eligibility. Smith, named on 91.7 percent of the ballots, became the 37th player in baseball history in being elected to be elected to the hall in his first year on the ballot. February 11 – Major League Baseball owners approve the sales of the Florida Marlins and Montreal Expos clubs. Marlins owner, John Henry, is selling the team to Jeffrey Loria for $158.5 million, while Loria is selling the Expos to Baseball Expos LP, a limited partnership owned by the other 29 MLB teams, for $120 million.
February 12 – New York Mets assistant general manager Omar Minaya is named general manager of the Montreal Expos, Minaya, a native from the Dominican Republic, becomes the first Hispanic by accepting the GM position in Major League Baseball history. Hall of Fame player-manager Frank Robinson is announced as the manager of the Expos, which will be run by MLB during the 2002 season. February 27 – The sale of the Boston Red Sox to a group headed by John Henry becomes official. March 1 – The Boston Red Sox dismissed general manager Dan Duquette and replaced him with Mike Port on an interim basis. March 11 – The Boston Red Sox hire Grady Little as their new manager. March 22 – The Chicago Cubs send Ryan Jorgensen, Julián Tavárez, Dontrelle Willis and minor leaguer José Cueto to the Florida Marlins in exchange for Antonio Alfonseca and Matt Clement. April 2 – In beating the San Diego Padres, 9–0, the Arizona Diamondbacks became the first defending World Champions to open the season with back-to-back shutouts since the 1918-19 Boston Red Sox.
Besides, the last team to start the year with consecutive shutouts was the 1994 San Francisco Giants. Curt Schilling is the winning pitcher against the Padres, following Randy Johnson's 2–0 two–hitter a day before. April 3 The San Francisco Giants defeat the Los Angeles Dodgers, 12–0, as Barry Bonds hits a pair of home runs for the second day in a row. Bonds becomes the second player in MLB history to begin a season with consecutive two-homer games. Eddie Mathews hit a pair of homers in each of the Milwaukee Braves first two games against the Pittsburgh Pirates to start the 1958 season. At Oakland Coliseum, the Oakland Athletics lose to the Texas Rangers, 9–6, as the Rangers score three runs in the 8th inning; the loss snaps the A's string of 20 straight wins at home stretching back to August 24. Oakland move past the 1974–75 Cincinnati Reds for most consecutive home wins over two seasons, as the Reds mark was 17. April 5 – The San Francisco Giants defeat the San Diego Padres 3–1, in 10 innings, on Barry Bonds' fifth home run of the year.
In doing so, Bonds ties the mark for most home runs in the first four games of the season, set by Lou Brock in 1967. April 7 – The Arizona Diamondbacks defeats the Milwaukee Brewers, 2–0, as Curt Schilling strikes out 17 batters in hurling a one–hitter. Raúl Casanova's 2nd–inning single is the only Milwaukee hit. April 11 – The Baltimore Orioles pound the Tampa Bay Devil Rays, 15–6, scoring a franchise–high 12 runs in the 6th inning, they collect a club–high 11 hits in 16 at-bats. April 14 – Baltimore Orioles infielder Mike Bordick begins a streak which leads to a Major League record for the most errorless games and total chances by a shortstop. April 16 – The Detroit Tigers win for the first time this season, defeating the Tampa Bay Devil Rays, 9–3; the Tigers had lost their first 11 games for the fifth-worst start by a major league team. April 21 Rafael Furcal hits three triples to tie the modern major league record, as the Atlanta Braves defeat the Florida Marlins 4–2; the last player to accomplish the feat was Lance Johnson of the Chicago White Sox in 1995.
The Arizona Diamondbacks trounce the Colorado Rockies, 7–1, as Randy Johnson strikes out 17 batters in becoming the first pitcher this year to win five games. It is the sixth time. Ma
Mississippi is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Mississippi is the 32nd most 34th most populous of the 50 United States, it is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Alabama to the east, the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana to the south, Arkansas and Louisiana to the west. The state's western boundary is defined by the Mississippi River. Jackson, with a population of 167,000 people, is both the state's capital and largest city; the state is forested outside the Mississippi Delta area, the area between the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers. Before the American Civil War, most development in the state was along riverfronts, as the waterways were critical for transportation. Large gangs of slaves were used to work on cotton plantations. After the war, freedmen began to clear the bottomlands to the interior, in the process selling off timber and buying property. By the end of the 19th century, African Americans made up two-thirds of the Delta's property owners, but timber and railroad companies acquired much of the land after the financial crisis, which occurred when blacks were facing increasing racial discrimination and disfranchisement in the state.
Clearing of the land for plantations altered the Delta's ecology, increasing the severity of flooding along the Mississippi by taking out trees and bushes that had absorbed excess waters. Much land is now held by agribusinesses. A rural state with agricultural areas dominated by industrial farms, Mississippi is ranked low or last among the states in such measures as health, educational attainment, median household income; the state's catfish aquaculture farms produce the majority of farm-raised catfish consumed in the United States. Since the 1930s and the Great Migration of African Americans to the North and West, the majority of Mississippi's population has been white, although the state still has the highest percentage of black residents of any U. S. state. From the early 19th century to the 1930s, its residents were majority black, before the American Civil War that population was composed of African-American slaves. Democratic Party whites retained political power through disfranchisement and Jim Crow laws.
In the first half of the 20th century, nearly 400,000 rural blacks left the state for work and opportunities in northern and midwestern cities, with another wave of migration around World War II to West Coast cities. In the early 1960s, Mississippi was the poorest state in the nation, with 86% of its non-whites living below the poverty level. In 2010, 37% of Mississippians were African Americans, the highest percentage of African Americans in any U. S. state. Since regaining enforcement of their voting rights in the late 1960s, most African Americans have supported Democratic candidates in local and national elections. Conservative whites have shifted to the Republican Party. African Americans are a majority in many counties of the Mississippi-Yazoo Delta, an area of historic slave settlement during the plantation era; the state's name is derived from the Mississippi River. Settlers named it after the Ojibwe word misi-ziibi. Mississippi is bordered to the north by Tennessee, to the east by Alabama, to the south by Louisiana and a narrow coast on the Gulf of Mexico.
In addition to its namesake, major rivers in Mississippi include the Big Black River, the Pearl River, the Yazoo River, the Pascagoula River, the Tombigbee River. Major lakes include Ross Barnett Reservoir, Arkabutla Lake, Sardis Lake, Grenada Lake with the largest lake being Sardis Lake. Mississippi is composed of lowlands, the highest point being Woodall Mountain, in the foothills of the Cumberland Mountains, 807 feet above sea level; the lowest point is sea level at the Gulf Coast. The state's mean elevation is 300 feet above sea level. Most of Mississippi is part of the East Gulf Coastal Plain; the coastal plain is composed of low hills, such as the Pine Hills in the south and the North Central Hills. The Pontotoc Ridge and the Fall Line Hills in the northeast have somewhat higher elevations. Yellow-brown loess soil is found in the western parts of the state; the northeast is a region of fertile black earth. The coastline includes large bays at Bay St. Louis and Pascagoula, it is separated from the Gulf of Mexico proper by the shallow Mississippi Sound, sheltered by Petit Bois Island, Horn Island and West Ship Islands, Deer Island, Round Island, Cat Island.
The northwest remainder of the state consists of the Mississippi Delta, a section of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain. The plain widens north of Vicksburg; the region has rich soil made up of silt, deposited by the flood waters of the Mississippi River. Areas under the management of the National Park Service include: Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield Site near Baldwyn Gulf Islands National Seashore Natchez National Historical Park in Natchez Natchez Trace National Scenic Trail in Tupelo Natchez Trace Parkway Tupelo National Battlefield in Tupelo Vicksburg National Military Park and Cemetery in Vicksburg Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 50,000: Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 20,000 but fewer than 50,000: Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 10,000 but fewer than 20,000: Mississippi has a humid
2005 in baseball
The following are the baseball events of the year 2005 throughout the world. Chicago White Sox swept the Houston Astros to win the 2005 World Series. 2005 marked the inaugural season of the Washington Nationals, who relocated from Montreal and were known as the Expos. This is Washington, D. C.'s first time having a baseball team since the Washington Senators became the Texas Rangers following the 1971 season. Chris Burke ended the 2005 NLDS with a walk-off home run in the bottom of the 18th inning; the Astros went from 15-30 to the 2005 World Series. They went 22-7 in July. Regular season ChampionsWorld Series Champion – Chicago White Sox Postseason – October 4 to October 26Click on any series score to link to that series' page. Higher seed has home field advantage during League Championship Series. American League has home field advantage during World Series as a result of American League victory in 2005 All-Star Game. National League is seeded 1-3/2-4 as a result of NL regular season champion and NL wild card coming from the same division.
Postseason MVPs World Series MVP – Jermaine Dye ALCS MVP – Paul Konerko NLCS MVP – Roy Oswalt All-Star Game, July 12 at Comerica Park – American League, 7-5. Jerry Coleman wins the Ford C. Frick Award for broadcasters. Peter Gammons receives the J. G. Taylor Spink Award for sportswriters. Major League Baseball awardsNote: The Comeback Player of the Year Award was voted on for the first time by fans. Gold Glove Awards: AL: Kenny Rogers, Jason Varitek, Mark Teixeira, Orlando Hudson, Eric Chavez, Derek Jeter, Ichiro Suzuki, Torii Hunter, Vernon Wells NL: Greg Maddux, Mike Matheny, Derrek Lee, Luis Castillo, Mike Lowell, Omar Vizquel, Jim Edmonds, Andruw Jones, Bobby Abreu Player of the Month – April: Brian Roberts, Derrek Lee. Boggs receives 474 votes. Sandberg receives 393 votes, six more than the needed number. Relief pitchers Bruce Sutter and Rich "Goose" Gossage, outfielders Jim Rice and Andre Dawson, are the only other players to be named on at least half of the ballots cast. January 21 – Roger Clemens and the Houston Astros agree to an $18 million, one-year contract.
Clemens, a seven-time Cy Young Award winner, agrees to a deal that makes him the highest-paid pitcher for the fifth time, following deals with the Boston Red Sox in 1989 and 1991.
Pearl is a city in Rankin County, Mississippi located on the east side of the Pearl River from the state capital of Jackson. The population was 25,092 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Jackson Metropolitan Statistical Area. Today, Pearl is a growing community. After the American Civil War, the bottomlands of the Pearl River were developed for agriculture; the population was sparse until the mid-1900s when the development of the state capital of Jackson in Hinds County to the west spilled over into this county. New residents and industry settled here. Thereafter, growth in the area came from the urban expansion of the capital, control of flood threats from the Pearl River, improved transportation due to accessible interstates and Jackson-Evers International Airport. On September 16, 1968, a community meeting was held to discuss the incorporation of Pearl, with all but six of the 657 attending residents favoring incorporation. A "Boundary Committee" proposed several possible boundaries a little more than a month later.
The following January the community voted for an 11 square miles boundary that included the Pearl River to Airport Road, excluding East Jackson and all areas south of Interstate 20 except Cunningham Heights and Grandview Heights. A majority at that meeting agreed to name the city "Pearl", rather than the alternative proposals of "Riverview" or "Brightsville". Pearl was affected by the violence of the Ku Klux Klan, was white-only for most of the 20th Century. In 1970, Pearl had 10 black residents. By the 1990s Pearl had become more racially integrated, by 2010 blacks made up 23% of the population; the first mayor, Harris Harvey, was elected, along with council members Jimmy Joe Thompson, W. D. McAlpin, James Netherland, Ophelia Byrd, Mack C Atwood, W. L. Maddox, Bobby Joe Davis. With the Mississippi Supreme Court ruling of June 5, 1973, the incorporation could proceed. A week the state legislature issued a charter. On June 29, 1973, Governor William Winter presided over the first annual Pearl Day Celebration, with the swearing in of the city's new officials, who met for the first time on July 3, 1973.
The Pearl Municipal Separate School District was created on May 18, 1976, by an Ordinance of the City of Pearl Mayor and Board of Aldermen. The first franchise by the City of Pearl for cable television installation was granted on July 6, 1976; the Pearl Chamber of Commerce was formed on August 24, 1978. On October 1, 1997, Luke Woodham went on a shooting spree that ended at Pearl High School, killing two and injuring seven, after earlier stabbing his mother to death. Over the years the city has redeveloped the former Pearl High School into City Hall, including the Pearl Police Department, public works departments, city courts. A large auditorium-style Community Center was built next door, its clock tower is inscribed with the names of graduates of Pearl High School for the period 1949 through 1989 while the high school occupied the building. A 25,000 sq ft library opened near City Hall on July 18, 2005. Pearl is located at 32°16′19″N 90°6′19″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.0 square miles, of which 21.8 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles is water.
Neighboring towns include Flowood, Brandon and the state capital Jackson. According to its 2008 Annual Drinking Water Quality Report, Pearl's drinking water comes from the Sparta Sand Aquifer via nine wells that draw the water from it; as of the census of 2000, there were 21,961 people, 8,608 households, 6,025 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,005.9 people per square mile. There were 9,128 housing units at an average density of 418.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 81.18% White, 16.24% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.79% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.78% from other races, 0.75% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.03% of the population. There were 8,608 households out of which 34.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.2% were married couples living together, 15.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.0% were non-families. 25.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.05. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.4% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 31.8% from 25 to 44, 21.4% from 45 to 64, 10.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.6 males. In the most recent census, the racial demographics have changed similar to many other Jackson, MS area suburbs; the following are the most current demographics: White alone 69.8%, African American 23.0%, American Indian and Alaska Native 0.2%, Asian 0.9%, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander 0.2%, Two or More Races 1.7%, Hispanic 6.4%. The median income for a household in the city was $37,617, the median income for a family was $42,013. Males had a median income of $30,860 versus $24,610 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,136. About 9.2% of families and 12.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.3% of those under age 18 and 12.4% of those age 65 or over.
The City of Pearl is led by an elected Board of Aldermen. Each serves a four-year term. All but one of the six aldermen is elected from single-member districts. Law enforcement within the city limits of Pearl is handled by the Pearl
Jackson the City of Jackson, is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Mississippi. It is one of two county seats of Hinds County, along with Mississippi; the city of Jackson includes around 3,000 acres comprising Jackson-Medgar Evers International Airport in Rankin County and a small portion of Madison County. The city's population was estimated to be 165,072 in 2017, a decline from 173,514 in 2010; the city sits on the Pearl River and is located in the greater Jackson Prairie region of Mississippi. Founded in 1821 as the site for a new state capital, the city is named after General Andrew Jackson, honored for his role in the Battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812 and would serve as U. S. president. Following the nearby Battle of Vicksburg in 1863 during the American Civil War, Union forces under the command of General William Tecumseh Sherman began the Siege of Jackson and the city was subsequently burned. During the 1920s, Jackson surpassed Meridian to become the most populous city in the state following a speculative natural gas boom in the region.
The current slogan for the city is "The City with Soul". It has had numerous musicians prominent in blues, gospel and jazz. Jackson is the anchor for Mississippi Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is the state's largest metropolitan area with a 2016 population of 579,332, about one-fifth of Mississippi's population. The region, now the city of Jackson was part of the large territory occupied by the Choctaw Nation, the historic culture of the Muskogean-speaking indigenous peoples who had inhabited the area for thousands of years before European colonization; the Choctaw name for the locale was Chisha Foka. The area now called Jackson was obtained by the United States under the terms of the Treaty of Doak's Stand in 1820, by which The United States acquired the land owned by the Choctaw Native Americans. After the treaty was ratified, American settlers moved into the area, encroaching on remaining Choctaw communal lands. One of the original Choctaw members, in 1849, described what he and his people experienced during this turbulent time when the Europeans had come to take their land.
"We have had our habitations torn down and burned" as well as their "fences burned" while they themselves faced personal abuse and have been "scoured and fettered". Under pressure from the U. S. government, the Choctaw Native Americans agreed to removal after 1830 from all of their lands east of the Mississippi River under the terms of several treaties. Although most of the Choctaw moved to Indian Territory in present-day Oklahoma, along with the other of the Five Civilized Tribes, a significant number chose to stay in their homeland, citing Article XIV of the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, they became state and United States citizens at the time. Today, most Choctaw in Mississippi have reorganized and are part of the federally recognized Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians, they live in several majority-Indian communities located throughout the state. The largest community is located in Choctaw 100 miles northeast of Jackson. Located on the historic Natchez Trace trade route, created by Native Americans and used by European-American settlers, on the Pearl River, the city's first European-American settler was Louis LeFleur, a French-Canadian trader.
The village became known as LeFleur's Bluff. During the late 18th century and early 19th century, this site had a trading post, it was connected to markets in Tennessee. Soldiers returning to Tennessee from the military campaigns near New Orleans in 1815 built a public road that connected Lake Pontchartrain in Louisiana to this district. A United States treaty with the Choctaw, the Treaty of Doak's Stand in 1820, formally opened the area for non-Native American settlers. LeFleur's Bluff was developed; the Mississippi General Assembly decided in 1821. They commissioned Thomas Hinds, James Patton, William Lattimore to look for a suitable site; the absolute center of the state was a swamp, so the group had to widen their search. After surveying areas north and east of Jackson, they proceeded southwest along the Pearl River until they reached LeFleur's Bluff in today's Hinds County, their report to the General Assembly stated that this location had beautiful and healthful surroundings, good water, abundant timber, navigable waters, proximity to the Natchez Trace.
The Assembly passed an act on November 28, 1821, authorizing the site as the permanent seat of the government of the state of Mississippi. On the same day, it passed a resolution to instruct the Washington delegation to press Congress for a donation of public lands on the river for the purpose of improved navigation to the Gulf of Mexico. One Whig politician lamented the new capital as a "serious violation of principle" because it was not at the absolute center of the state; the capital was named for General Andrew Jackson, to honor his victory at the Battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812. He was elected as the seventh president of the United States; the city of Jackson was planned, in April 1822, by Peter Aaron Van Dorn in a "checkerboard" pattern advocated by Thomas Jefferson. City blocks alternated with other open spaces. Over time, many of the park squares have been developed rather than maintained as green space; the state legislature first met in Jackson on December 23, 1822. In 1839, the Mississippi Legislature passed the first state law in the U.
S. to permit married women to administer their own property. Jackson was connected by public road to Vicksburg and
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play with 15 teams in each league; the NL and AL were formed as separate legal entities in 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining separate entities beginning in 1903, the leagues merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000; the organization oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises 256 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs. With the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament. Baseball's first all-professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869; the first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who jumped from one team or league to another. The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era. Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal.
The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, survived potential downturns during the Great Depression and World War II. Shortly after the war, Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier; the 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL new stadiums and artificial turf surfaces began to change the game in the 1970s and 1980s. Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, including at least one player from each team. Today, MLB is composed of 1 in Canada. Teams play 162 games each season and five teams in each league advance to a four-round postseason tournament that culminates in the World Series, a best-of-seven championship series between the two league champions that dates to 1903. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television and the Internet throughout North America and in several other countries throughout the world.
MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015. MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution; this document has undergone several incarnations since its creation in 1876. Under the direction of the Commissioner of Baseball, MLB hires and maintains the sport's umpiring crews, negotiates marketing and television contracts. MLB maintains a unique, controlling relationship over the sport, including most aspects of Minor League Baseball; this is due in large part to the 1922 U. S. Supreme Court ruling in Federal Baseball Club v. National League, which held that baseball is not interstate commerce and therefore not subject to federal antitrust law; this ruling has been weakened only in subsequent years. The weakened ruling granted more stability to the owners of teams and has resulted in values increasing at double-digit rates. There were several challenges to MLB's primacy in the sport between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916.
The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner Rob Manfred. The chief operating officer is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives: president, chief communications officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer, chief baseball officer; the multimedia branch of MLB, based in Manhattan, is MLB Advanced Media. This branch oversees each of the 30 teams' websites, its charter states that MLB Advanced Media holds editorial independence from the league, but it is under the same ownership group and revenue-sharing plan. MLB Productions is a structured wing of the league, focusing on video and traditional broadcast media. MLB owns 67 percent of MLB Network, with the other 33 percent split between several cable operators and satellite provider DirecTV, it operates out of studios in Secaucus, New Jersey, has editorial independence from the league. In 1920, the weak National Commission, created to manage relationships between the two leagues, was replaced with the much more powerful Commissioner of Baseball, who had the power to make decisions for all of professional baseball unilaterally.
From 1901 to 1960, the American and National Leagues fielded eight teams apiece. In the 1960s, MLB expansion added eight teams, including the first non-U. S. Team. Two teams were added in the 1970s. From 1969 through 1993, each league consisted of an West Division. A third division, the Central Division, was formed in each league in 1994; until 1996, the two leagues met on the field only during the All-Star Game. Regular-season interleague play was introduced in 1997. In March 1995 two new franchises, the Arizona Diamondbacks and Tampa Bay Devil Rays, were awarded by MLB, to begin play in 1998; this addition brought the total number of franchises to 30. In early 1997, MLB decided to assign one new team to each league: Tampa Bay joined the AL and Arizona joined the NL; the original plan was to have an odd number of teams in each league, but in order for every team to be able to play daily, this would have required interleague play to be scheduled throughout the entire season. However, it
Minor League Baseball
Minor League Baseball is a hierarchy of professional baseball leagues in the Americas that compete at levels below Major League Baseball and provide opportunities for player development and a way to prepare for the major leagues. All of the minor leagues are operated as independent businesses. Most are members of the umbrella organization known as Minor League Baseball, which operates under the Commissioner of Baseball within the scope of organized baseball. Several leagues, known as independent baseball leagues, do not have any official links to Major League Baseball. Except for the Mexican League, teams in the organized minor leagues are independently owned and operated but are directly affiliated with one major league team through a standardized Player Development Contract; these leagues go by the nicknames the "farm system", "farm club", or "farm team" because of a joke passed around by major league players in the 1930s when St. Louis Cardinals general manager Branch Rickey formalized the system, teams in small towns were "growing players down on the farm like corn".
Major League Baseball and Minor League Baseball teams may enter into a PDC for a two- or four-year term. At the expiration of a PDC term, teams may renew their affiliation, or sign new PDCs with different clubs, though many relationships are renewed and endure for extended time periods. For example, the Omaha Storm Chasers have been the Triple-A affiliate of the Kansas City Royals since the Royals joined the American League in 1969, but the Columbus Clippers changed affiliations, after being associated with the New York Yankees from 1979, to the Washington Nationals in 2007, have been affiliated with the Cleveland Indians since 2009. A few minor league teams are directly owned by their major league parent club, such as the Springfield Cardinals, owned by the St. Louis Cardinals, all of the Atlanta Braves' affiliates except the Florida Fire Frogs. Minor League teams that are owned directly by the major league club do not have PDCs with the parent club and are not part of the reaffiliation shuffles that occur each year.
Today, there are 14 MLB-affiliated minor leagues with a total of 160 revenue-generating teams, located in large and small cities and suburbs across the United States and Canada, there are three MLB-affiliated rookie leagues with a total of 80 teams, located in Arizona and the Dominican Republic, though these teams do not generate revenue. The Mexican League, with 16 teams, is independent but tied with MLB. Several more independent leagues operate in the United States and Canada; the earliest professional baseball league, the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players of 1871 to 1875, comprised all professional teams. This system proved unworkable, however, as there was no way to ensure competitive balance, financially unsound clubs failed in midseason; this problem was solved in 1876 with the formation of the National League, with a limited membership which excluded less competitive and financially weaker teams. Professional clubs outside the NL responded by forming regional associations of their own.
There was a series of ad hoc groupings, such as the New England Association of 1877 and the Eastern Championship Association of 1881. These were loose groups of independent clubs which agreed to play a series of games over the course of one season for a championship pennant; the first true minor league is traditionally considered to be the Northwestern League of 1883 to 1884. Unlike the earlier minor associations, it was conceived as a permanent organization, it along with the NL and the American Association, was a party to the National Agreement of 1883. Included in this was the agreement to respect the reserve lists of clubs in each league. Teams in the NL and the AA could only reserve players, paid at least $1000. Northwest League teams could reserve players paid $750, implicitly establishing the division into major and minor leagues. Over the next two decades, more minor leagues signed various versions of the National Agreement; the minor leagues joined together to negotiate jointly. In the late 1890s, the Western League run by Ban Johnson decided to challenge the NL's position.
In 1900, he changed the name of the league to the American League and vowed to make deals to sign contracts with players who were dissatisfied with the pay and terms of their deals with the NL. This led to a nasty turf war that heated up in 1901 enough to concern Patrick T. Powers, president of the Eastern League, many other minor league owners about the conflict affecting their organizations. Representatives of the different minor leagues met at the Leland Hotel in Chicago on September 5, 1901. In response to the NL–AL battle, they agreed to form the National Association of Professional Baseball Leagues, called the NAPBL, or NA for short; the purpose of the NAPBL at the time was to maintain the independence of the leagues involved. Several continued to work independently. Powers was made the first president of the NAPBL, whose offices were established in Auburn, New York. In 1903, the conflict between the AL and NL ended in the National Agreement of 1903; the NAPBL became involved in the stages of the negotiations to develop rules for the acquisition of players from their leagues by the NL and the AL.
The 1903 agreement ensured that teams would be compensated for the players that they had taken the time and effort to scout and develop, no NA team was required to sell their players, although most did because the cash was an important source of revenue for most teams. The NA leagues were still fiercely