Jacksonville is a city in Pulaski County, United States, a suburb of Little Rock. As of the 2010 census, the population of the city was 28,364, it is part of the Little Rock–North Little Rock–Conway Metropolitan Statistical Area with 729,135 people as of 2014. The city is named for Nicholas Jackson, a landowner who deeded the land for the railroad right-of-way to the Cairo & Fulton Railroad in 1870; the community evolved from the settlement surrounding the railroad depot incorporating in 1941. In 1941, construction began on the Arkansas Ordnance Plant, which served as the primary facility for the development of fuses and detonators for World War II. Following the war, AOP ceased operations and the land was sold for commercial interests, including the development of the Little Rock Air Force Base in 1955. Today, portions of AOP still remain, including the Arkansas Ordnance Plant Guard House, on the National Register of Historic Places and the Jacksonville Museum of Military History. Despite Pulaski County being an Arkansas county, not a "dry" county, as it allows the sales of beer and liquor, the municipal limits of Jacksonville are "moist", as it does not allow the sales of alcohol in stores, but allows the sale of alcohol in some restaurants with special permits.
Jacksonville is located at 34°52′13″N 92°6′55″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 28.2 square miles, of which 28.1 square miles is land and 0.12 square miles, or 0.42%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 29,916 people, 10,890 households, 8,004 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,134.2 people per square mile. There were 11,890 housing units at an average density of 450.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 64.17% White, 27.88% Black or African American, 0.50% Native American, 1.98% Asian, 0.13% Pacific Islander, 1.14% from other races, 2.58% from two or more races. 6.24% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 10,890 households out of which 40.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.1% were married couples living together, 14.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.5% were non-families. 22.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.08. In the city, the population was spread out with 29.0% under the age of 18, 12.8% from 18 to 24, 33.2% from 25 to 44, 17.6% from 45 to 64, 7.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $35,460, the median income for a family was $40,381. Males had a median income of $26,708 versus $21,804 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,369. About 11.9% of families and 14.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.5% of those under age 18 and 7.9% of those age 65 or over. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Jacksonville has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. Since 1927, Jacksonville had been part of the Pulaski County Special School District, one of the largest school districts in Arkansas.
In the years leading up to September, 2008, parts of the Jacksonville community expressed a desire to split from the PCSSD. This measure was approved by the board of the PCSSD during that month, clearing the way for the formation of what would become Jacksonville North Pulaski School District. In a response to a petition signed by more than 2,000 voters, the Arkansas Board of Education ordered an election to carve a new school district out of the existing Pulaski County Special School District. Jacksonville voters approved of the separation on September 16, 2014 with a vote of 3,672 for and 202 against. According to JNPSD officials, the district would be administered by the Pulaski County Special School District until its final detachment, which became effective July 1, 2016; the district consists of one middle school and one high school. The schools include Jacksonville High School, Jacksonville Middle School, Bayou Meto Elementary School, Arnold Drive Elementary School, Tolleson Elementary School, Dupree Elementary School, Pinewood Elementary School and Taylor Elementary School.
A number of operated daycare services and church-affiliated schools are available throughout the city. In addition, Arkansas State University-Beebe maintains a degree center at Little Rock Air Force Base for post-secondary education; the Central Arkansas Library System includes the Esther Dewitt Nixon Library in Jacksonville. Grady Adkins, pitcher for Chicago White Sox 1928-29 Glen Rice, NBA champion in 2000 Homer Martin Adkins, governor of Arkansas from 1941 to 1945, was born in Jacksonville in 1890 Kris Allen, American Idol Season 8 winner Lisa Blount, memorable role An Officer and a Gentleman Clinton McDonald, defensive tackle for NFL's Tampa Bay Buccaneers of Seattle Seahawks, Super Bowl XLVIII champion.
Jacksonville Jumbo Shrimp
The Jacksonville Jumbo Shrimp known as the Jacksonville Suns, are a minor league baseball team based in Jacksonville, Florida. The team is a member of the Southern League and is the class Double-A affiliate of the Miami Marlins. Two teams named the Suns have played in Jacksonville since 1962: a class Triple-A International League team from 1962–1968, the current Double-A team from 1970 to 2016. From 1985–1990 the team was known as the Jacksonville Expos, when they were affiliated with the Montreal Expos MLB team; the team rebranded itself as the Jacksonville Jumbo Shrimp on November 2, 2016 and began the 2017 season under the new name. The modern Jacksonville club has played in the Southern League longer than any other; the Suns won the International League title in 1968 and the Southern League championship in 1996, 2001, 2005, 2009, 2010 and 2014. They play at the Baseball Grounds of Jacksonville, an 11,000-person capacity, $34 million park that opened in 2003. Since moving to the facility the Suns were a top selling franchise in the Southern League.
In 2016, Forbes listed the Jumbo Shrimp as the 28th-most valuable Minor League Baseball team with a value of $27.5 million. Jacksonville has had minor league baseball nearly every year since the early 20th century. From 1904 to 1961 the city was home to minor league teams such as the Jacksonville Jays, the Jacksonville Tars, the Jacksonville Braves, as well as the Jacksonville Red Caps of the Negro Leagues; the former three teams all played in the South Atlantic League, which became the modern Southern League in 1964. The first team known as the Jacksonville Suns began play in the Triple-A International League in 1962; the team had been founded in Havana, where they were known as the Havana Sugar Kings. Following the Cuban Revolution in 1959 the team relocated to Jersey City, New Jersey, but soon folded; the president was local baseball fixture Sam W. Wolfson the owner of the Jacksonville Braves. During this period a number of Major League stars played for the Suns, including Tommy John, Nolan Ryan, Tom Seaver, the team won the International League championship in 1968.
Following that season the team's parent club, the New York Mets, decided to relocate the team to Virginia, where they became the Norfolk Tides. Jacksonville was without baseball in 1969, but in 1970 a new Suns team began play in the Double-A Southern League; the team was affiliated with both the Montreal Expos and the Milwaukee Brewers in its inaugural season, with the Cleveland Indians in 1971, with the Kansas City Royals from 1972–1984. Affiliation switched back to the Expos from 1985–1990, during which period the team was known as the Jacksonville Expos. Since it has been affiliated with the Seattle Mariners, the Detroit Tigers, the Los Angeles Dodgers, most the Miami Marlins; the Suns have appeared in the Southern League playoffs 15 times, won the championship in 1996, 2001, 2005, 2009, 2010 and 2014. After winning the championship in 2009 and defending it in 2010, the Jacksonville Suns became the third team in Southern League history to defend a championship. Coincidentally, both previous teams to defend their championship were based in Montgomery: the Montgomery Rebels who defended their title between 1972-1973 and 1975-1977.
In 1998 with the Suns, Gabe Kapler won the Southern League Most Valuable Player Award, after leading the league with 28 home runs, leading the league in hits, doubles, RBIs, extra-base hits, total bases, sacrifice flies. In 2014, the Suns finished the regular season on a ten-game winning streak, edging out the Mississippi Braves by one game to win the second half South Division title outright. Including the playoffs, the 2014 Suns won 16 of their final 17 games on the year enroute to the franchise's sixth Southern League title; the Suns have played in the Southern League longer than any other team, their 41-year period in Jacksonville has become the longest continuous association between any city and a class Double-A team. The Suns played at Wolfson Park from 1962 until it was demolished in 2002. Since 2003 they have played at Baseball Grounds of Jacksonville, an 11,000 seat, $34 million field created as part of the Better Jacksonville Plan. Since moving to the Baseball Grounds the Suns have led the Southern League in attendance, drawing over one million fans in their first four years.
The Suns' success has led to speculation. In November 2016 the Jacksonville Suns were renamed the Jacksonville Jumbo Shrimp. All Jacksonville Jumbo Shrimp games are televised live on MiLB. TV; the play-by-play broadcaster is Roger Hoover. Team relocated to Norfolk, VA in 1969. No team in Jacksonville that year. - 2001 Championship series cancelled because of 2001 terrorist attacks. Teams declared co-champions. Jacksonville Jumbo Shrimp players Jacksonville Suns players Jacksonville Expos players Jacksonsville Jumbo Shrimp
Jacksonville is a city in Morgan County, United States. The population was 19,446 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Morgan County. It is home to Illinois College, MacMurray College, Illinois School for the Deaf, the Illinois School for the Visually Impaired. Jacksonville is the principal city of the Jacksonville Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Morgan and Scott counties. Jacksonville was established by European Americans on a 160-acre tract of land in the center of Morgan County in 1825, two years after the county was founded; the founders of Jacksonville, Illinois consisted of settlers from New England. These people were "Yankee" settlers, to say they were descended from the English Puritans who settled New England in the 1600s, they were part of a wave of New England farmers who headed west into what was the wilds of the Northwest Territory during the early 1800s. Most of them arrived as a result of the completion of the Erie Canal and the end of the Black Hawk War.
The Yankee migration to Illinois was a result of several factors, one of, the overpopulation of New England. The old stock Yankee population had large families bearing up to ten children in one household. Most people were expected to have their own piece of land to farm, due to the massive and nonstop population boom, land in New England became scarce as every son claimed his own farmstead; as a result, there was not enough land for every family to have a self-sustaining farm, Yankee settlers began leaving New England for the Midwestern United States. When they arrived in what is now Jacksonville there was nothing but dense virgin forest and wild prairie, the "Yankee" New Englanders laid out farms, constructed roads, erected government buildings and established post routes, they brought with them many of their Yankee New England values, such as a passion for education, establishing many schools as well as staunch support for abolitionism. They were members of the Congregationalist Church though some were Episcopalian.
Due to the second Great Awakening some of them had converted to Methodism and Presbyterianism while some others became Baptist, before moving to what is now Jacksonville. Jacksonville, like some other parts of Illinois, would be culturally continuous with early New England culture for most of its early history.</ref>The town grew at a rapid rate, a town square was developed. In 1829, the Presbyterian Reverend John M. Ellis worked to found a new "seminary of learning" in the new state of Illinois. A group of Congregational students at Yale University heard about his plans and headed westward to establish the new school; these students were a part of the famous "Yale Bands," groups of students who established several colleges in the frontier, what is now the Midwest. Illinois College was one of the first institutions of higher learning in the Midwest; the college stimulated the growth of Jacksonville. A new courthouse was built on the square, churches were constructed, railroads were planned, stores and taverns were built.
By 1834, Jacksonville had the largest population of any city in the state of Illinois, vastly outnumbering Chicago. In the 1830s, the town was on the path of Native Americans who were being forcibly removed by the federal government to west of the Mississippi; the Potawatomi passed through here in 1838 on what they called their Trail of Death as they were forced from their traditional homelands to the dry and barren Indian Territory to the west. Jacksonville's education complex and standing in the state was developed by the establishment of state institutions: the Illinois School for the Deaf and the Illinois School for the Visually Impaired; the Illinois Conference Female Academy was founded for education for girls. By 1850, Illinois College had issued Illinois' first college degrees and opened the first medical school in the state; because of this, Jacksonville earned the nickname of "Athens of the West."In 1851, Illinois opened its first state mental hospital in Jacksonville. Now named the Jacksonville Developmental Center, this facility serves developmentally challenged individuals.
The attorney Abraham Lincoln had legal business in Jacksonville acting either as co-counsel or opposing counsel with David A. Smith, a Jacksonville resident. In what is now Central Park Plaza, Lincoln delivered a strong antislavery speech on September 6, 1856 in support of the presidential campaign of John C. Frémont, lasting over two hours. A mural depicting the event has been painted on the side of a building at the southwest corner of the Park. During the antebellum years, Jacksonville was a major stopping point on the historic Underground Railroad, as refugee slaves moved north to freedom, many going into Canada; the city has an annual commemoration of the Civil War, with a reenactment named for the late Jacksonville resident U. S. Army General Benjamin Grierson; this event has been suspended. In 1911 as part of the progressive movement, Jacksonville adopted the city commission form of government, the first mayor being George W. Davis. In the summer of 1965, in order to keep up with customer demand for records by the Beatles, the wildly popular English band, Capitol Records opened a vinyl record pressing plant on the western outskirts of Jacksonville, at 1 Capitol Way.
The plant produced a number of collectible pressings. This plant served the Capitol Records Club, producing vinyl LPs and audiocassettes, CDs, DVDs of a number of artists. At its peak, operating as EMI Records, the plant employed over 1,000 workers, it was a significant location in the music industry. For example, all seven albu
Illinois (Sufjan Stevens album)
Illinois is a 2005 concept album by American singer-songwriter Sufjan Stevens. His fifth studio album, it features songs referencing places and persons related to the U. S. state of Illinois. Illinois is Stevens' second based on a U. S. state—part of a planned series of fifty that began with the 2003 album Michigan and that Stevens has since acknowledged was a joke. Stevens recorded and produced the album at multiple venues in New York City using low-fidelity studio equipment and a variety of instruments between late 2004 and early 2005; the artwork and lyrics explore the history, culture and geography of the state—Stevens developed them after analyzing criminal and historical documents. Following its release, Stevens promoted Illinois with a world tour. Critics praised the album for complex orchestrations. In particular, reviewers noted Stevens' progress as a songwriter since the release of Michigan. Illinois was named the best-reviewed album of 2005 by review aggregator Metacritic, was included on several reviewers' "best of the decade" lists—including those of Paste, NPR, Rolling Stone.
The album amounted to Stevens' greatest public success to date. The varied instrumentation and experimental songwriting on the album invoked comparisons to work by Steve Reich, Neil Young, the Cure. Besides numerous references to Illinois, Stevens continued a theme of his songwriting career by including multiple references to his Christian faith. Stevens launched his 50-state project in 2003 with the album Michigan and chose to focus on Illinois with this recording because "it wasn't a great leap", he liked the state because he considered it the "center of gravity" for the American Midwest. Before creating the album, Stevens read literature by Illinois authors Saul Bellow and Carl Sandburg, studied immigration records and history books for the state—he made the deliberate decision to avoid current events and focused on historical themes, he took trips through several locations in Illinois and asked friends and members of Internet chat rooms for anecdotes about their experiences in the state.
Although he began work in 2004 on Oregon-themed songs and considered releasing a Rhode Island 7", Stevens has since not released another album focused on a state, saying in a November 2009 interview with Paste that "the whole premise was such a joke," and telling Andrew Purcell of The Guardian in October 2009 "I have no qualms about admitting was a promotional gimmick." An Arkansas-related song was released through NPR as "The Lord God Bird" and material intended for New Jersey and New York became The BQE. All of the songs on Illinois were written, recorded and produced by Stevens, with most of the material being recorded at The Buddy Project studio in Astoria, in Stevens' Brooklyn apartment; as with his previous albums, Stevens recorded in various locations, with additional piano recorded in St. Paul's Church in Brooklyn. Stevens created the album without collaboration, focusing on the writing and technical creation of the album by himself: "I was pretty nearsighted in the construction of Illinois.
I spent a lot of time a few months in isolation working on my own and in the studio. I let things germinate and cultivate independently, without thinking about an audience or a live show at all."Stevens employed low-fidelity recording equipment, which allowed him to retain creative control and keep costs low on recording Illinois. His process involved recording to 32 kHz 8-track tape using inexpensive microphones such as the Shure SM57 and AKG C1000, he employed Pro Tools for mixing and other production tasks. After consulting with Michael Kaufmann and Lowell Brams of Asthmatic Kitty about the amount of material he had recorded, Stevens decided against a double album, saying that would be "arrogant". In 2006, several tracks recorded during these sessions were sent to Seattle-based musician and producer James McAllister for additional instrumentation and production, were released in 2006 on the follow-up album The Avalanche: Outtakes and Extras from the Illinois Album. Among these outtakes are three separate recordings of the song "Chicago"—including the "Multiple Personality Disorder Version", produced during a subsequent tour.
The "Adult Contemporary Easy Listening Version" of the song was supposed to appear on the Illinois album, but was changed at the last minute. Illinois was released on July 4, 2005, through Rough Trade Records in Europe and was distributed domestically by Asthmatic Kitty Records starting July 5, 2005. Although he had no plans to perform this material live, less than two weeks after the release of Illinois, Stevens embarked on a North American tour to promote the album, performing with a string section of eight to ten members named the Illinoisemakers, he deliberately chose to avoid television as a promotional tool and focused on the tour performances themselves. He was supported on some dates by opening acts Liz Janes and Laura Veirs as well as Illinois collaborator Shara Nova's solo project My Brightest Diamond, he toured in support of the album again from September through November 2006, this time including dates in several European cities. During the 2006 dates and his band transitioned from wearing University of Illinois
Jacksonville is a city in Jackson County, United States 5 miles west of Medford. It was named for Jackson Creek, which flows through the community and was the site of one of the first placer gold claims in the area, it includes Jacksonville Historic District, designated a U. S. National Historic Landmark in 1966; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 2,785, up from 2,235 at the 2000 census. Jacksonville was founded following discovery of gold deposits in 1851–1852. With the creation of Jackson County, it became the county seat, a role, transferred to nearby Medford in 1927. Jacksonville was home to the first Chinatown in Oregon, founded by immigrants from San Francisco. Physical evidence of this chapter of history was uncovered early in March 2004 when road work uncovered artifacts dating to the 1850s and 1860s. Construction was halted, their findings included broken Chinese bowls and tea cups, handmade bottles, fragments of opium paraphernalia and Chinese coins. As the gold deposits were worked out in the 1860s and the railway bypassed Jacksonville in 1884, the city's economy slowed.
This had the unintended benefit of preserving a number of structures, which led to Jacksonville's being designated a National Historic District in 1966, covering over 100 buildings. It was cited as a "mid-19th century inland commercial city significant for its magnificent group of surviving unaltered commercial and residential buildings; the city was the principal financial center of southern Oregon until it was bypassed by the railroad." Jacksonville is in west-central Jackson County, 5 miles west of Medford in the valley of Jackson Creek at the base of Miller Mountain. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.89 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,785 people, 1,377 households, 808 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,473.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,548 housing units at an average density of 819.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.6% White, 0.4% African American, 0.6% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.6% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.9% of the population. There were 1,377 households, of which 18.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.5% were married couples living together, 6.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.3% were non-families. 36.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.02 and the average family size was 2.62. The median age in the city was 54.9 years. 15.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.2% male and 53.8% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,235 people, 1,034 households, 661 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,230.7 people per square mile. There were 1,102 housing units at an average density of 606.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.11% White, 0.72% Native American, 0.36% Asian, 0.31% African American, 0.40% from other races, 2.10% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.46% of the population. The largest ancestry groups in Jacksonville, include: German, Irish and Italian. There were 1,034 households, out of which 22.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.4% were married couples living together, 7.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.0% were non-families. 30.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.68. Jacksonville's population is spread out with 18.9% under the age of 18, 4.3% from 18 to 24, 20.1% from 25 to 44, 32.0% from 45 to 64, 24.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 48 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $41,250, the median income for a family was $57,333. Males had a median income of $42,917 versus $28,661 for females.
Jacksonville's per capita income is $28,152. About 5.3% of families and 6.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.8% of those under age 18 and 8.6% of those age 65 or over. Jacksonville is home to Jacksonville Elementary School; the Great Northfield Minnesota Raid was filmed around Jacksonville. The 1946 Technicolor film Western Canyon Passage takes place in Jacksonville. Though it is fiction, the location itself, a small gold mining town, is important to the theme and plot. Jacksonville is home to the Britt Festival, a seasonal music festival that takes place at an open-air amphitheater; the site was selected in 1963 because of the acoustic qualities of the surrounding hills. The popular concert series draws national pop, country and contemporary music acts, it is named after a pioneer and owner of the land now used for Britt Park. The Southern Oregon Historical Society was formed in 1946 to save the endangered 1880s Jackson County Courthouse; the society opened the Jacksonville Museum in the courthouse building on July 10, 1950, operated it until it closed in 2006 because of lack of funding.
Jacksonville is the most populous city in Florida, the most populous city in the southeastern United States and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States. It is the seat of Duval County, with which the city government consolidated in 1968. Consolidation gave Jacksonville its great size and placed most of its metropolitan population within the city limits; as of 2017 Jacksonville's population was estimated to be 892,062. The Jacksonville metropolitan area has a population of 1,523,615 and is the fourth largest in Florida. Jacksonville is centered on the banks of the St. Johns River in the First Coast region of northeast Florida, about 25 miles south of the Georgia state line and 328 miles north of Miami; the Jacksonville Beaches communities are along the adjacent Atlantic coast. The area was inhabited by the Timucua people, in 1564 was the site of the French colony of Fort Caroline, one of the earliest European settlements in what is now the continental United States. Under British rule, settlement grew at the narrow point in the river where cattle crossed, known as Wacca Pilatka to the Seminole and the Cow Ford to the British.
A platted town was established there in 1822, a year after the United States gained Florida from Spain. Harbor improvements since the late 19th century have made Jacksonville a major military and civilian deep-water port, its riverine location facilitates Naval Station Mayport, Naval Air Station Jacksonville, the U. S. Marine Corps Blount Island Command, the Port of Jacksonville, Florida's third largest seaport. Jacksonville's military bases and the nearby Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay form the third largest military presence in the United States. Significant factors in the local economy include services such as banking, insurance and logistics; as with much of Florida, tourism is important to the Jacksonville area tourism related to golf. People from Jacksonville may be called "Jacksonvillians" or "Jaxsons"; the area of the modern city of Jacksonville has been inhabited for thousands of years. On Black Hammock Island in the national Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve, a University of North Florida team discovered some of the oldest remnants of pottery in the United States, dating to 2500 BC.
In the 16th century, the beginning of the historical era, the region was inhabited by the Mocama, a coastal subgroup of the Timucua people. At the time of contact with Europeans, all Mocama villages in present-day Jacksonville were part of the powerful chiefdom known as the Saturiwa, centered around the mouth of the St. Johns River. One early map shows. French Huguenot explorer Jean Ribault charted the St. Johns River in 1562, calling it the River of May because, the month of his discovery. Ribault erected a stone column at his landing site near the river's mouth, claiming the newly discovered land for France. In 1564, René Goulaine de Laudonnière established the first European settlement, Fort Caroline, on the St. Johns near the main village of the Saturiwa. Philip II of Spain ordered Pedro Menéndez de Avilés to protect the interest of Spain by attacking the French presence at Fort Caroline. On September 20, 1565, a Spanish force from the nearby Spanish settlement of St. Augustine attacked Fort Caroline, killed nearly all the French soldiers defending it.
The Spanish renamed the fort San Mateo, following the ejection of the French, St. Augustine's position as the most important settlement in Florida was solidified; the location of Fort Caroline is subject to debate but a reconstruction of the fort was established on the St. Johns River in 1964. Spain ceded Florida to the British in 1763 after the French and Indian War, the British soon constructed the King's Road connecting St. Augustine to Georgia; the road crossed the St. Johns River at a narrow point, which the Seminole called Wacca Pilatka and the British called the Cow Ford; the British introduced the cultivation of sugar cane and fruits, as well the export of lumber. As a result, the northeastern Florida area prospered economically more than it had under the Spanish. Britain ceded control of the territory to Spain in 1783, after being defeated in the American Revolutionary War, the settlement at the Cow Ford continued to grow. After Spain ceded the Florida Territory to the United States in 1821, American settlers on the north side of the Cow Ford decided to plan a town, laying out the streets and plats.
They named the town Jacksonville, after President Andrew Jackson. Led by Isaiah D. Hart, residents wrote a charter for a town government, approved by the Florida Legislative Council on February 9, 1832. During the American Civil War, Jacksonville was a key supply point for hogs and cattle being shipped from Florida to feed the Confederate forces; the city was blockaded by Union forces. Though no battles were fought in Jacksonville proper, the city changed hands several times between Union and Confederate forces. In the Skirmish of the Brick Church in 1862, Confederates won their first victory in the state. However, Union forces captured a Confederate position at the Battle of St. Johns Bluff, occupied Jacksonville in 1862. Slaves escaped to freedom in Union lines. In February 1864 Union forces left Jacksonville and confronted a Confederate Army at the Battle of Olustee, going down to defeat. Union forces held the city for the remainder of the war. In Ma
The Jacksonville Jaguars are a professional football franchise based in Jacksonville, Florida. The Jaguars compete in the National Football League as a member club of the American Football Conference South division; the team plays its home games at TIAA Bank Field. The Jaguars and the Carolina Panthers joined the NFL as expansion teams for the 1995 season. Since their inception, the Jaguars have won division championships in 1998 and 1999 and 2017 and have qualified for the playoffs seven times, most in 2017 after a ten-season playoff drought. From their inception until 2011, the Jacksonville Jaguars' majority owner was Wayne Weaver; the team was purchased by Pakistani-born businessman Shahid Khan for an estimated $770 million. In 2015, Forbes estimated the team value at $1.48 billion. In 1989, the prospective ownership group Touchdown Jacksonville! was organized. The group included future Florida Governor Jeb Bush and Jacksonville developer Tom Petway, came to be led by shoe magnate Wayne Weaver, founder of Nine West.
In 1991, the NFL announced plans to add two expansion teams in 1994, its first expansion since the 1976 addition of the Seattle Seahawks and the Tampa Bay Buccaneers. Touchdown Jacksonville! announced its bid for a team, Jacksonville was chosen as one of five finalists, along with Charlotte, St. Louis and Memphis. Jacksonville was considered the least expansion candidate for several reasons; the Jacksonville metropolitan area and television market were smaller than those of nearly every team in the league. Jacksonville was the 54th largest television market, only Green Bay had a smaller TV market Although Jacksonville was the 15th largest city in the nation at the time, it has always been a medium-sized market because the surrounding suburbs and rural areas are far smaller than the city itself. There were 635,000 people in Jacksonville proper according to the 1990 census, but only 900,000 people in the metropolitan area. Additionally, the Gator Bowl was outdated, the ownership group struggled to negotiate a lease with the city.
The troubled negotiations over the Gator Bowl lease led the ownership group to withdraw from the NFL expansion bidding in July 1993. Charlotte was awarded the first franchise – the Carolina Panthers – in October 1993; the naming of the second expansion city was delayed a month. Most pundits speculated. At the time, St. Louis was considered the favorite for the second franchise, with Baltimore's three bids considered strong. However, in a surprising move, the NFL owners voted 26–2 in favor of awarding the 30th franchise to Jacksonville. After the Gator Bowl game on December 31, 1993, the old stadium was demolished and replaced with a reinforced concrete superstructure. All that remained of the old stadium was the west upper concourse and a portion of the ramping system. To accommodate construction, the 1994 and 1995 games of "The World's Largest Outdoor Cocktail Party" were split between the home fields of Florida and Georgia, the 1994 Gator Bowl was played at Ben Hill Griffin Stadium in Gainesville.
In January 1994 Wayne Weaver chose Tom Coughlin as the first-ever head coach of the Jaguars. Coughlin had worked in the NFL as a position coach, but he had been neither a head coach nor a coordinator in the NFL; the Jaguars' hiring of Coughlin contrasted with the hiring moves made by their fellow expansion team. The same month that Weaver hired Coughlin as his head coach, Carolina Panthers owner Jerry Richardson went a more conventional route and hired former Buffalo Bills general manager Bill Polian as the Panthers' first GM; as it emerged that Weaver had no intention of hiring a general manager, it became apparent that Coughlin would have most of the authority regarding hiring decisions. Coughlin spent his year as "head coach without a team" preparing for the personnel moves that would come from the expansion draft, free agency, the rookie draft in the spring of 1995. Along with the Carolina Panthers, the Jacksonville Jaguars entered the NFL as the first expansion teams in 20 years. Both teams participated in the 1995 NFL expansion draft, with the Jaguars taking Steve Beuerlein with the first pick.
Beuerlein lost his starting job to former Green Bay Packers backup Mark Brunell. The Jaguars finished their inaugural season with a record of 4–12. Both the Jaguars and the Panthers broke the previous record for most wins by an expansion team set by the Cincinnati Bengals in 1968; the inaugural season featured many of the players who would lead Jacksonville into the playoffs in the team's next four seasons, including quarterback Mark Brunell, offensive lineman Tony Boselli running back James Stewart, wide receiver Jimmy Smith. The team played its first regular season game at home in front of a crowd of 72,363 on September 3, 1995, a 10–3 loss against the Houston Oilers; the team picked up its first win in Week 4 as the Jaguars defeated the Oilers 17–16 on October 1 in Houston. The next week against the Pittsburgh Steelers, the Jaguars earned their first home win by defeating the eventual AFC Champions 20–16; the team's other two wins came in a season sweep of the Cleveland Browns including a Week 17 24–21 victory sealed by a Mike Hollis 34-yard field goal in the Browns' f