Central State Hospital (Virginia)
Central State Hospital known as the Central Lunatic Asylum, is a psychiatric hospital in Petersburg, United States. It was the first institution in the country for "colored persons of unsound mind". Central State Hospital serves the Greater Richmond Region of Virginia, providing forensic psychiatry and civil admissions ranging from short-term treatment to long-term intensive treatment for the most mentally ill. In 1848, slaves in Virginia could be admitted to private asylums if their owners paid for their treatment, but not all owners could afford it, whites were always given priority admission, it was believed that when blacks tried to flee captivity, they were suffering from a mental illness called drapetomania, which Samuel A. Cartwright stated to be a consequence of masters who "made themselves too familiar with slaves, treating them as equals"; the Confederacy established a hospital for wounded soldiers at Howard's Grove in 1862. It was reassigned in 1870 to the treatment of "colored persons of unsound mind" and was the first to offer treatment to the black population of Virginia.
Dorothea Dix visited the hospital in 1875, during her travels for mental health reform, donated pictures and musical instruments. In 1885, the patients from Howard's Grove were transferred to a newly built red-brick hospital trimmed with gray granite, it had a central four-storey administration building flanked on either side by a three-story wing containing six wards. This arrangement, known as the Kirkbride Plan, was a symbol of moral treatment; the East and West Buildings were built on either side of the main building in 1890 and 1892 to treat more severe cases. The Legislature of 1893 changed the title of state "asylums" to state "hospitals" and the lunatic asylum was renamed a state hospital. In 1896, a two-story brick pavilion was built and the hospital became one of the first to care for people with epilepsy. Patients were classified and assigned to wards for the recent and acute, demented, tubercular, epileptic and suicidal; the wards for the suicidal were the least furnished. Mayfield Cottage was the oldest brick residence in the county.
The hospital purchased the farm land on which it was built, used it as a storehouse for many years. In 1904, a one-and-a-half-story chapel was built as a multi-purpose space for religious services, dances and graduation ceremonies for the hospital's nursing students, its simple 80x50 foot Gothic Revival design was conceived by Dr. William Francis Drewry and constructed by G. B. Keeler & Son. Twenty-four fire hydrants were installed and a fire house was built. Drying machinery was purchased for the laundry and an internal telephone system was installed. Workshops were established for shoe repair, broom - and mattress-making; these activities were used as occupational therapy. The building for chronic females was built in 1915 for 160 patients along with one for male patients. In 1925, hydrotherapy tubs were installed on the first floor to provide a new form of treatment. From the opening of the hospital until 1915, the supposed causes of psychosis in those admitted included abortion, emancipation, marriage and typhoid fever.
Some of the foods grown on the farm were alfalfa, wheat, pumpkins, watermelon and milk. The building for delinquent and feeble-minded girls was built in 1929 with a 100-foot barred arcade leading to the central building. In 1930, the new medical building was built for 100 beds. More wings were added to it later; the first floor was used for surgery, dentistry, lectures, x-rays, laboratories and drug therapy. The second and third floors were for bedridden patients, so that they were undisturbed by out-patient and ambulatory services downstairs. In 1938 a State Colony for people with epilepsy was established on the grounds of the state hospital and admitted the mentally disabled, it was renamed a training school and hospital in 1954 and a training center in 1971. In the 1950s the patient population reached 4,800 with the construction of a maximum security forensic building and geriatric unit. Overcrowding was an increasing problem: the East View ward had 300 patients in one large room, patients in the criminals' building were sleeping on the floor.
The hospital served only African Americans until the Civil Rights Acts of 1964. From 1967 it nationalities. In 1978 Mayfield Cottage was sold to the Caudle family, who moved the structure a mile away to save it from demolition and opened it as a bed-and-breakfast in 1986. In 1980, around 1,700 patients were sterilized without their consent. With the help of the American Civil Liberties Union, four of the 7,205 people sterilized in the state of Virginia filed a class-action lawsuit requiring the state of Virginia to notify every patient sterilized between 1924 and 1973 and to pay for operations to reverse the procedure. In 2010 the Central State Hospital Chapel was registered on the National Register of Historic Places as a symbol of the state's unequal treatment of African Americans during the period of segregation; the chapel was de-listed in February 2017 after deferred maintenance resulted in structural failure causing the building to collapse. Mental health Central State Hospital official website
John G. Haskell
John Gideon Haskell was an architect who designed portions of the Kansas State Capitol and other public buildings in the state. Haskell was born in Vermont, his father moved to Lawrence, Kansas in 1854 with the New England Emigrant Aid Company while Haskell was attending Brown University and had an architect job in Boston. After his father died in 1857, he moved to Kansas, he joined the Union army during the American Civil War. After the war he was named official state architect and as such finished the work on the Kansas State Capitol, he was recruited by county commissioners of Greenwood County and Chase County in east central Kansas to design their courthouses, which he did in 1871, he designed other courthouses as well. Kansas State Capitol Topeka State Hospital, Topeka Osawatomie State Hospital, Kansas Snow Hall, University of Kansas, Lawrence Bailey Hall, Lawrence Chase County Courthouse, Cottonwood Falls, Kansas English Lutheran Church, Lawrence Ludington House, Lawrence Plymouth Congregational Church, Lawrence Sunnyside School, Jefferson County, Kansas Thacher Building, Topeka Roberts House on Massachusetts Street in Lawrence Bernhard Warkentin Homestead First United Methodist Church, Lawrence Greenwood County Courthouse Barton County Courthouse McPherson County Courthouse, Richardsonian Romanesque Douglas County Courthouse, Richardsonian Romanesque
Mendota Mental Health Institute
Mendota Mental Health Institute is a public psychiatric hospital in Madison, operated by the Wisconsin Department of Health Services. The hospital is accredited by the Joint Commission. Portions of the facility are included in the Wisconsin Memorial Hospital Historic District, District #88002183; the Mendota State Hospital Mound Group and Farwell's Point Mound Group are located at the facility. The facility opened July 1860, as the Wisconsin Hospital for the Insane, it was the first mental hospital in Wisconsin. In 1935, the facility was renamed Mendota State Hospital, in 1974 it became Mendota Mental Health Institute, its highest patient population was 1,300 in 1959. In 1997, there were fewer than 300 patients; the Wisconsin Legislature first acted to construct a state asylum in 1854. They intended the facility to be based on the Worcester State Hospital in Massachusetts and sited on 105 acres of land purchased from former Governor Leonard J. Farwell. Plans fell apart in 1855 due to allegations of corruption and waste and the Legislature repealed the law after $27,000 had been spent on the project.
The legislature acted again on the plan in 1857 and a Board of Commissioners was established to oversee the construction of the State Hospital for the Insane. Former Governor Leonard J. Farwell was selected as president of the commission. Land had been purchased from Farwell for the project and the commission he led confirmed that it was the best location for the hospital. Architect Stephen Vaughn Shipman was commissioned to design the facility based on the Kirkbride Plan. Shipman designed a sister facility near Oshkosh and several other Kirkbride plan asylums in Iowa and Illinois; the main building at the original Wisconsin State Hospital for the Insane opened in 1860 with its west wing added by 1862. As of 1881, the entire structure was 569 feet long with the central portion being four stories and 65 by 120 feet. In 1879 an old chapel was converted into wards increasing capacity to accommodate 550 patients. Around 1904, a three-story 154 by 57 feet addition was made to the facility adjoining and to the north of the original central structure.
It contained two wards and bath facilities. This brought the facility to a "comfortable" capacity of around 600 with a daily average number of patients at 611 for the year ending June 30, 1908. Electric lighting replaced gas and kerosene light in 1906. Before 1927 a new power plant was added along with a laundry facility and shops. A 50-bed building was added for male patients. Closer to 1927, a 65 car garage was added as were new greenhouses, farm buildings and other out buildings. In 1904, a Typhoid fever epidemic killed at least a dozen at Mendota, forced a quarantine of the facility and resulted in Superintendent Bullard's resignation in July 1904; the epidemic was traced to the sewage contaminated waters of Lake Mendota. A new sewage treatment facility was constructed in the 1920s. Prior to this, the facility dumped untreated sewage directly into Lake Mendota. In 1923, the hospital was noted to be the "principal source of dangerous pollution," but that a treatment facility was under construction.
In 1925, the facility added a farm colony three miles north of the complex along Highway 113 in addition to a 226 acres institutional farm. It was added to allow some patients more activity and outdoor time and supplying the facility with additional farm produce. At the end of June 1926 there were 700 patients at the facility with a capacity of 706. By 1932, the facility housed 869 patients with 166 staff members and an official capacity of 790. Scandal erupted in 1934 following several deaths, a poisoning and allegations of beatings and misconduct by caretakers. Legislative hearings were held in 1934 concerning the deaths of Guy Clark Lyman and Marie Anderson in 1931. Anderson was found to have died from arsenic poisoning and Lyman was said to have died of pneumonia, although it was alleged that he was beaten by another patient or staff member. Attempts were made to oust Doctor M. K. Green, Mendota superintendent, but he remained in his position until 1948; the inquiry covered several state facilities and lasted from February to July 1934.
It resulted in around 30 dismissals of staff and officials from state mental health facilities in Mendota and Waupun. The statewide investigation was initiated after the death of a patient at Winnebago State Hospital; the asylum guard was acquitted by a jury on two manslaughter counts, but he was discharged from Winnebago and the Legislative committee sought to compensate the widow for his death. In the 1940s, a number of newspaper reports decried the facility as a "firetrap" with patients occupying attic areas of the building. New structures were built in the 1950s to replace the 90-year-old building. Lorenz Hall, the food service building and power plant structure were dedicated in late November 1956 by Wisconsin Governor Walter J. Kohler, Jr. Lorenz Hall was named for Dr. William Lorenz. Goodland Hall, named for Governor Walter S. Goodland, was still under construction at that time. Kohler said at the dedication that it had been his goal to demolish the old Kirkbride plan buildings at Mendota and Winnebago hospitals.
In one of his last ceremonial functions as Governor he said that he "would never rest until these ancient, gray firetraps are demolished." He lamented. Stovall Hall was named for Dr. William D. Stovall; the original, Kirkbride plan, structure was still around in 1960 for its centennial and was known as "Old Main", but the second and third floors of the wings were not being used f
Danville State Hospital
Danville State Hospital in Danville, Pennsylvania is a mental health facility operated by the Pennsylvania Department of Public Welfare. It was Pennsylvania's third public facility to disabled. Danville State Hospital for the mentally ill, located one mile southeast of Danville, opened in 1872 as the "State Hospital for the Insane at Danville"; the hospital's Main Building, designed by John McArthur, Jr. was a Kirkbride Plan hospital building. By September 30, 1873, 138 male and 72 female patients had been admitted for treatment; the land on which Danville State Hospital stands today was a tract owned by pioneer Daniel Montgomery, co-founder of Danville and for whom the town was named. The 250 acres were bought for $26,600 and Danville citizens backed the project by contributing $16,123.12 of that total. Nine years after the new hospital opened its doors to patients it experienced a large scale fire which gutted the interior of the administration section, all of the female wards, part of the male wards.
The fire happened on between 8 and 9 pm on a Saturday evening. The fire was said to have originated from an explosion of gas in one of the rooms on the second floor of the female wing. Rebuilding the hospital would take another five years. During the rebuilding, the male wards that were not damaged by the fire remained open. Between 1900 and the 1950s, additional land was purchased and many new buildings were constructed; the hospital received full approval of the Central Inspection Board of the American Psychiatric Association for excellence in patient care. The patient population showed a steady increase up to November 1955, when the figure reached 2,801. Since that time, a gradual planned reduction has occurred; as a result, the census in 1968 was 1,899, on June 30, 2002, the hospital census stood at 147. This is in keeping with the modern philosophy of treating patients in the least restrictive setting. In 1976, a Long Term Care Facility was opened to address the needs of geriatric patients who no longer were considered to be in need of psychiatric care.
The Long Term Care Facility closed on May 12, 1998. Since 1985, this hospital has had full accreditation from JCAHO, Medical Assistance; the last JCAHO Survey was March 2003, received a three-year accreditation. As of January 31, 2008, Danville State Hospital had 163 patients. Kirkbride Plan Danville, Pennsylvania List of hospitals in Pennsylvania Official PA DHS Danville Website Danville State Hospital - History and present photos, timeline
Levi Tucker Scofield was a prominent Cleveland, Ohio architect and sculptor, a native of the city. He served in the American Civil War and designed many public buildings and several monuments during his career, he was a third generation Cleveland resident and the Scofield Building, which he designed, is named after him. His Cleveland home is still in existence, he had two sons, William Marshall Scofield and Sherman Wright Scofield who became members of his architectural firm. The Scofields were buried in Lake View Cemetery, his firm designed five Cleveland Public Schools between 1869 and 1883. He was the first Cleveland architect taken into membership in the American Institute of Architects and was a friend and golfing partner of John D. Rockefeller. Schofield Building 2000-2034 East 9th Street Cuyahoga County Soldiers and Sailors Monument, at 1999 Ontario Street. Scofield worked on the Civil War monument for seven and a half years without compensation and contributed over $57,000 to its cost. Athens Lunatic Asylum, Ohio Asylum for the Insane, Ohio North Carolina Penitentiary Cleveland House of Corrections These Are My Jewels, a Civil War Monument installed at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893, moved to the grounds of the Ohio State Capitol A history of Cleveland and its environs: the heart of new Connecticut, Volume 2 By Elroy McKendree pages 391-394 History of the Western Reserve, Volume 3 By Harriet Taylor Upton, Harry Gardner Cutler Levi Tucker Scofield Cleveland City Planning Commission Scofield, Levi T.
North Carolina Architect & Builders Media related to Levi Scofield at Wikimedia Commons
The Kirkbride Plan was a system of mental asylum design advocated by Philadelphia psychiatrist Thomas Story Kirkbride in the mid-19th century. The asylums built in the Kirkbride design referred to as Kirkbride Buildings, were constructed during the mid-to-late-19th century in the United States; the structural features of the hospitals as designated by Dr. Kirkbride were contingent on his theories regarding the healing of the mentally ill, in which environment and exposure to natural light and air circulation were crucial; the hospitals built according to the Kirkbride Plan would adopt various architectural styles, but had in common the "bat wing" style floor plan, housing numerous wings that sprawl outward from the center. The first hospital designed under the Kirkbride Plan was the Trenton State Hospital in Trenton, New Jersey, constructed in 1848. Throughout the remainder of the nineteenth century, numerous psychiatric hospitals were designed under the Kirkbride Plan across the United States.
By the twentieth century, popularity of the design had waned due to the economic pressures of maintaining the immense facilities, as well as contestation of Dr. Kirkbride's theories amongst the medical community. Numerous Kirkbride structures still exist today, though many have been demolished or partially-demolished and repurposed. At least 25 of the original Kirkbride buildings have been registered with the National Register of Historic Places in the United States, either directly or through their location on hospital campuses or in historic districts; the establishment of state mental hospitals in the U. S. is due to reformer Dorothea Dix, who testified to the New Jersey legislature in 1844, vividly describing the state's treatment of lunatics. Dix's effort led to the construction of the New Jersey State Lunatic Asylum, the first complete asylum built on the Kirkbride Plan. Thomas Story Kirkbride, a psychiatrist from Philadelphia, developed his requirements of asylum design based on a philosophy of Moral Treatment and environmental determinism.
The typical floor plan, with long rambling wings arranged en echelon, was meant to promote privacy and comfort for patients. The building form itself was meant to have a curative effect, "a special apparatus for the care of lunacy improved and tastefully ornamented." The idea of institutionalization was thus central to Kirkbride's plan for treating the insane. The Kirkbride Plan asylums tended to be large, imposing institutional buildings, with the defining feature being their "narrow, linear building footprint" featuring staggered wings extending outward from the center, resembling the wingspan of a bat; the standard number of wings for a Kirkbride Plan hospital was eight, with an accommodation of 250 patients. Kirkbride's philosophy behind the staggered wings was to allow individual corridors open to sunlight and air ventilation through both ends, which he believed aided in healing the mentally ill; each wing, according to Kirkbride's original guidelines, would house a separate ward, which would contain its own "comfortably furnished" parlor, clothes room, infirmary, as well as a speaking tube and dumbwaiter to allow open communication and movement of materials between floors.
The furthest wings from the center complex of the building were reserved for the "most excitable," or most physically dangerous and volatile patients. Patient rooms were suggested to be spacious, with ceilings "at least 12 feet high," but only large enough to room a single person; the center complexes of the Kirkbride Plan buildings were designed to house administration, kitchens and reception areas, apartments for the superintendent's family. Architectural styles of Kirkbride Plan buildings varied depending on the appointed architect, ranged from Richardsonian Romanesque to Neo-Gothic. In addition to the intricate building design, Dr. Kirkbride advocated the importance of "fertile" and spacious landscapes on which the hospitals would be built, with views that "if possible, should exhibit life in its active forms." Kirkbride suggested the hospital grounds be a minimum of 100 acres in size. The foliage and farmlands on the hospital grounds were sometimes maintained by patients as part of physical exercise and/or therapy.
Over the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the campuses of these hospitals evolved into sprawling, expansive grounds with numerous buildings. In his proposal, Dr. Kirkbride outlined specific guidelines as to how a Kirkbride Plan hospital should be staffed and operate on a daily basis. Dr. Kirkbride suggested a total of 71, all of whom were required to live within, or in the immediate vicinity of, the hospital; the superintending physician, or physician-in-chief, was required to live in the main hospital or in a building contiguous to it, while his family had the option of residing at the hospital or seeking private lodging. The staff was to have a balanced gender distribution, with 36 female and 35 male staff members. Among the staff of a Kirkbride Plan hospital were the superintending physician, an assisting physician and nurses and teachers of each sex, a chaplain, a nightwatchman. Kirkbride urged that at least two attendants be working in each ward at any given time, stressed the importance of the superintendent's "proper selection" of attendants, given the extent of their management responsibilities: "The duties of attendants, when faithfully performed, are harassing, in many wards, among excited patients, are peculiarly so.
On this account pains should alway
Elbridge Boyden was a prominent 19th-century American architect from Worcester, Massachusetts who designed numerous civil and public buildings throughout New England and other parts of the United States. His best known works are the Taunton State Hospital and Mechanics Hall in Worcester. Boyden was born in Somerset, Vermont on July 4, 1810 to Amos Boyden, a Revolutionary War Veteran, Abigail Boyden; the family moved to Massachusetts where young Elbridge attended public schools. As a young boy, he left school to work in a sawmill. At age sixteen he went to Athol where he was apprenticed to Joel Stratton. Stratton owned two books by Asher Benjamin, where Boyden began his architectural training. In 1830 he began to work for Jonathan Cutting, a builder from Templeton, who had built the First Church in that town. Before long he bought out Cutting's business, worked as a builder and designer in Athol until 1844; that year, facing bankruptcy due to business reversals, he moved to Worcester, where he first worked on an addition to the old Worcester State Lunatic Asylum.
In 1847 he and Phineas Ball, a civil engineer, decided to take an office together in the old Central Exchange Building on Main Street. At this time he established himself as an architect. In 1848 he partnered as Boyden & Joy, they split the following year and he formally associated himself with Ball. The pair operated as Boyden & Ball from 1849 to 1860, dominated the region's architectural practice. In about 1863 his son, George E. Boyden, joined his firm known as E. Boyden & Son; the younger Boyden died in 1885. In 1892 Boyden was one of the founders of the Worcester Chapter of the American Institute of Architects, served as its president from until his death. Boyden was a member of the Sons of the American Revolution, served a term as vice-president of the Massachusetts Chapter, he died in Worcester on March 25, 1898. He married Louisa Davis of Massachusetts. Boyden's earliest works were indicative of his training as a builder in the first half of the nineteenth century, his earliest identified works, three houses from 1847, were all designed in the Greek Revival style solidly in the mainstream.
All on Harvard Street, only one survives. The largest of the three was the Emory Bannister House. Demolished in 1981, it featured a single-story Doric portico; the one that still stands is at 1 Dix Street, moved there from Harvard in 1887 for the Otis Putnam House. The house retains a Doric porch, it was built for Charles Oliver. Other works: 1847 - Elbridge Boyden House, 14 Harvard St, MassachusettsThe architect's own residence. Demolished Boyden's partner from 1848 to 1849, Lewis E. Joy, is an obscure figure at best. All, known is that after leaving Boyden, he worked with William Brown, Worcester's first professional architect working in Lowell. During this brief period, Boyden made great use of the Rundbogenstil Romanesque style, he was one of the earliest adopters of the style, introduced in New York City in 1846 by Richard Upjohn. The earliest of Boyden's projects in this style was an unidentified block of houses on Harvard Street, in 1848. In the following year, 1849, they did the town hall at Gardner, which incorporated gothic elements.
It has been demolished. Elbridge Boyden and Phineas Ball had shared an office since 1847, but did not become formally associated until 1849, it was during this period that Boyden rose to regional prominence, designing buildings all across the state of Massachusetts, in addition to works elsewhere in the northeast. This was begun in 1851 with a sprawling institutional complex; this was Boyden's first design to feature monumental classicism, in the Italianate style. The original campus was completed in 1854, closed in 1975; the dome collapsed in 1999, the remaineder of the original complex was demolished in 2005. Boyden's success at Taunton was followed up by two major academic commissions. Both in 1852, Boyden designed the original campus of Antioch College in Yellow Springs and the Worcester Medical College. Both were symmetrical and monumental Romanesque buildings, modeled on the Smithsonian Institution Building in Washington. Antioch's three original buildings still stand, but Worcester Medical was demolished in 1965.
Prior to its demolition, it had served as the main building of Worcester Academy from 1869. Boyden worked on at least three churches during this time; the first of these, the Congregational Church at Brookfield, hangs on to the Romanesque, has much in common with the later work of John Stevens of Boston. He was commissioned to build the 1858 Town House, the 1858 Townhouse, in Sherborn, with a bequest from Thomas Dowse's will, it is now listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1859 Boyden remodeled the Baptist Church at Athol, designing a new facade and tower for the church; the tower was destroyed in 1938. In 1859 they remodeled the First Congregational Church in Keene, New Hampshire. Like much of Boyden's work at the time, it featured a monumental Italianate facade; this would be only the first of Boyden's many works in Keene. During this time, Boyden & Ball designed many commercial buildings in Worcester. Of these, the first significant one was Horticultural Hall at 18 Front Street.
It was an unusual use of the Romanesque in a commercial setting. The building's fate is not known, may have been incorporated into the current building on the site. Next came the Clark Block at 401-409 Main Street. An impressive structure in its day, hal