Beit El is an Israeli settlement and local council located in the Binyamin Region of the West Bank. The Orthodox Jewish town is located in the hills north of Jerusalem, east of the Palestinian city of al-Bireh, adjacent to Ramallah. In September 1997, Beit El was awarded local council status; the head of the local council is Shai Alon. In 2017 its population was 6,101, its current population is 6,500 residents. The international community considers Israeli settlements in the West Bank illegal under international law, but the Israeli government disputes this; the Ulpana neighbourhood was evacuated when it emerged that it was built on private Palestinian land. The World Zionist Organization halted land transactions in the Aleph neighbourhood of Beit El after it emerged that some 250 buildings there were constructed illegally, fraud was suspected. Bethel is mentioned in the Bible as the site where Jacob slept and dreamed of angels going up and down a ladder; some scholars identify Beit El with the site of the biblical Bethel.
The first to establish the village of Beitin as the site of Bethel was Edward Robinson, in 1838. Henry Baker Tristram repeated this claim. J. J. Bimson and David Livingston proposed el-Bireh as the site of Bethel, a view rejected by Jules Francis Gomes, who wrote that "The voices of Livingston and Bimson have hardly been taken by those who worked on the excavations of Bethel." In 1970, private Palestinian land of al-Bireh and Dura al-Qar was seized by military order for a military outpost and on consigned to settlers for the purpose of civilian settlement. In 1977, Beit El was established on this land. Seventeen families settled near the Israel Defense Forces base; the settlement consisted of Beit El Aleph a residential religious community in the southern half of Beit El, whose inhabitants worked in the free professions outside the yishuv and Beit El Bet, situated on the northern hill around the yeshiva founded by Ya'akov Katz and Zalman Baruch Melamed on private land and on land purchased by the Himnuta land development company.
Public buildings and civilian homes and caravans were built on the land. While the government declared that requisition of the land was temporary, in the Beit El case of 1978 the Israeli High Court approved civilian settlement for reasons of general security; the state declared that the right of the settlers to remain in Beit El would expire upon the termination of its military necessity. On 10 April 1979, the Joint Settlement Committee of the Israeli Government and the World Zionist Organization endorsed the split into Beit El A and Beit El B. In 1997, when Beit El was awarded local council status, Beit El A and Beit El B again became a single settlement. Beit El is located on a non-contiguous area, but according to a Yesh Din petition, the neighborhoods are connected by illegal construction. Only Maoz Zur was built on land classified by Israel as state land. Maoz Tzur was established on the land of the IDF base in 1998. A secret database published by Haaretz in 2009 revealed that Beit El was built on private Palestinian lands, without approval.
According to Peace Now, private Palestinian property makes up 96.85% of the land that Beit El, along with its outposts. April 2012, the State continued delaying the demolition. On 7 May 2012, the Supreme Court rejected the State's application to re-open the proceeding and decided that the five buildings, each with 6 apartments, should be demolished before 1 July. End of June, 33 families left the apartments, but despite earlier rulings and promises, in November 2012 the High Court again granted the State a delay regarding demolishing of the buildings. On 3 January 1997, residents of Beit El, led by Ya'akov Katz, occupied the site at night; the Israeli outpost was named Maoz Tzur, after Ephraim Tzur. This name was used for the neighborhood Maoz Tzur, built at the southern edge of Beit El, sometimes erroneously used for Ulpana. Two days the site was voluntarily evacuated in anticipation of further enlargement of Beit El. In 2001, Pisgat Ya'akov was established northeast of Ulpana. In 2003, the land was seized by military order for use as a helipad, although residents said they never saw helicopters at the site.
In February 2001, caravans were placed there and infrastructure was financed by the Ministry of Housing and Construction. In August 2003, there were 20 caravans. Tel Haim and Jabel Artis were merged. Jabel Artis was built on land of the Palestinian Hussein Farahat; the land was registered with forged documents, suggesting it was bought from the 32 year dead Farahat. Circa 2001, the outpost Beit El East appeared, consisting of a caravan neighborhood adjacent to the Beit El Camps shooting ranges, it is built on private Palestinian land with state financing. In 2001, some 3 km south of Beit El, the outpost Giv'at Asaf was set up. Next to Givat Assaf the outpost Oz Zion was established, removed by the IDF forces in December 2012; the World Zionist Organization's Settlement Division is responsible for the exploitation of "state lands" in Israel as well as in the Occupied Territories. When it became clear that some 250 homes in Beit El were fraudulently registered, the WZO decided to suspend the transfer of property rights.
In 1999, the Ulpana neighborhood was established northeast of Beit El. It is named for the two religious high schools for girls located there. In 2003, apartment buildings were constructed by the Company for the Development of Beit El's Yeshiva Complex and Amana. All structures in Ulpana, including public bu
Jusepe de Ribera
Jusepe de Ribera was a Spanish-Italian Tenebrist painter and printmaker known as José de Ribera and Josep de Ribera. He was called Lo Spagnoletto by his contemporaries and early writers. Ribera was a leading painter of the Spanish school. Ribera was born at Xàtiva, near Valencia, the second son of Simón Ribera and his first wife Margarita Cucó, he was baptized on February 17, 1591. His father was a shoemaker on a large scale, his parents intended him for a literary or learned career, but he neglected these studies and is said to have apprenticed with the Spanish painter Francisco Ribalta in Valencia, although no proof of this connection exists. Longing to study art in Italy, he made his way to Rome via Parma, where he painted Saint Martin and the Beggar, now lost, for the church of San Prospero in 1611. According to one source, a cardinal noticed him drawing from the frescoes on a Roman palace facade, housed him. Roman artists gave him the nickname "Lo Spagnoletto", his early biographers rank him among the followers of Caravaggio.
Little documentation survives from his early years, with scholars speculating as to the precise time and route by which he came to Italy. Ribera started living in Rome no than 1612, is documented as having joined the Academy of Saint Luke by 1613, he lived for a time in the Via Margutta, certainly associated with other Caravaggisti who flocked to Rome at that time, such as Gerrit van Honthorst and Hendrick ter Brugghen, among other Utrecht painters active in Rome by 1615. In 1616, Ribera moved to Naples. In November, 1616, Ribera married Caterina Azzolino, the daughter of a Sicilian-born Neapolitan painter, Giovanni Bernardino Azzolino, whose connections in the Neapolitan art world helped to establish Ribera early on as a major figure, whose presence was to bear a lasting impact on the art of the city; the Kingdom of Naples was part of the Spanish Empire, ruled by a succession of Spanish Viceroys. Ribera moved to Naples permanently in the middle of 1616, his Spanish nationality aligned him with the small Spanish governing class in the city, with the Flemish merchant community, from another Spanish territory, who included important collectors of and dealers in art.
Ribera began to sign his work as "Jusepe de Ribera, español". He was able to attract the attention of the Viceroy, Pedro Téllez-Girón, 3rd Duke of Osuna recently arrived, who gave him a number of major commissions, which showed the influence of Guido Reni; the period after Osuna was recalled in 1620 seems to have been difficult. Few paintings survive from 1620 to 1626; these were at least an attempt to attract attention from a wider audience than Naples. His career picked up in the late 1620s, he was accepted as the leading painter in Naples thereafter, he received the Order of Christ of Portugal from Pope Urban VIII in 1626. Although Ribera never returned to Spain, many of his paintings were taken back by returning members of the Spanish governing class, for example the Duke of Osuna, his etchings were brought to Spain by dealers, his influence can be seen in Velázquez and most other Spanish painters of the period. He has been portrayed as selfishly protecting his prosperity, is reputed to have been the chief in the so-called Cabal of Naples, his abettors being a Greek painter, Belisario Corenzio and the Neapolitan, Giambattista Caracciolo.
It is said this group aimed to monopolize Neapolitan art commissions, using intrigue, sabotage of work in progress, personal threats of violence to frighten away outside competitors such as Annibale Carracci, the Cavalier d'Arpino and Domenichino. All of them found the place inhospitable; the cabal ended at the time of Domenichino's death in 1641. De Ribera's pupils included the Flemish painter Hendrick de Somer, Francesco Fracanzano, Luca Giordano, Bartolomeo Passante, he was followed by Giuseppe Marullo and influenced the painters Agostino Beltrano, Paolo Domenico Finoglio, Giovanni Ricca, Pietro Novelli. About 1644, his daughter married a Spanish nobleman in the administration. From 1644, Ribera seems to have suffered serious ill-health, which reduced his ability to work, although his workshop continued to produce works under his direction. In 1647–1648, during the Masaniello rising against Spanish rule, he felt forced for some months to take his family with him into refuge in the palace of the Viceroy.
In 1651 he sold the large house he had owned for many years, when he died on September 2, 1652, he was in serious financial difficulties. In his earlier style, founded sometimes on Caravaggio and sometimes on the wholly diverse method of Correggio, the study of Spanish and Venetian masters may be traced. Along with his massive and predominating shadows, he retained from first to last a great strength in local coloring, his forms, although ordinary and sometimes coarse, are correct. He delighted in subjects of horror. In the early 1630s his style changed away from strong contrasts of dark and light to a more diffused and golden lighting, as may be seen in The Clubfoot of 1642. Salvator Rosa and Luca Giordano were his most distinguished followers.
Esau, in the Hebrew Bible, is the older son of Isaac. He is mentioned in the Book of Genesis, by the prophets Obadiah and Malachi; the New Testament alludes to him in the Epistle in the Epistle to the Hebrews. According to the Hebrew Bible, Esau is the progenitor of the Edomites and the elder brother of Jacob, the patriarch of the Israelites. Esau and Jacob were the sons of Isaac and Rebekah, the grandsons of Abraham and Sarah. Of the twins, Esau was the first to be born with Jacob holding his heel. Isaac was sixty years old. Esau, a "man of the field", became a hunter who had "rough" qualities that distinguished him from his twin brother. Among these qualities were noticeable hairiness. Jacob was a simple man, depending on the translation of the Hebrew word tam. Throughout Genesis, Esau is shown as being supplanted by his younger twin, Jacob. Genesis 25:25 narrates Esau's birth, "Now the first came forth red, all over like a hairy garment; the meaning of the word esau is disputed. It could be related to the Arabic root ġšw, meaning "to cover."
Others have noted the similarity to Arabic ’athaa meaning "hirsute". In Hebrew, the word "hairy" is a wordplay on Seir, the region in which he settled after being 40 years of age; the name Edom is attributed to Esau, meaning "red". Genesis parallels his redness to the "red lentil pottage". Esau became the progenitor of the Edomites in Seir. In Genesis, Esau returned to his twin brother Jacob, famished from the fields, he begs Jacob to give him some "red pottage". Jacob offers Esau a bowl of lentil stew in exchange for Esau's birthright, Esau agrees, thus Jacob acquires Esau's birthright. This is the origin of the English phrase "for a mess of pottage". In Genesis 27:1–40, Jacob uses deception, motivated by his mother Rebecca, to lay claim to his blind father Isaac's blessing, inherently due to the firstborn, Esau. In Genesis 27:5 -- 7, Rebecca is listening; when Esau goes to the field to hunt for venison to bring home, Rebekah says to her son Jacob, "Behold, I heard thy father speak to thy brother Esau, saying:'Bring me venison and prepare a savoury food, that I may eat, bless thee before the Lord before my death.'"
Rebecca instructs Jacob in an elaborate deception through which Jacob pretends to be Esau, in order to steal from Esau his blessing from Isaac and his inheritance — which in theory Esau had agreed to give to Jacob. Jacob follows through with the plan to steal his brother's birthright by bringing the meal his father Isaac requested and pretending to be Esau. Jacob pulled off his disguise by covering himself in hairy lamb skin so that when his blind father went to touch him, his smooth skin did not give him away as an imposter of his hairy brother. Jacob received his father Isaac's blessing; as a result, Jacob becomes the spiritual leader of the family after Isaac's death and the heir of the promises of Abraham. When Esau learns of his brother's thievery, he begs his father to undo the blessing. Isaac responds to his eldest son's plea by saying that he only had one blessing to give and that he could not reverse the sacred blessing. Esau vows to kill Jacob. Once again Rebecca intervenes to save her younger son from being murdered by his elder twin brother, Esau.
Therefore, at Rebecca's urging, Jacob flees to a distant land to work for his uncle Laban. Jacob does not receive his father's inheritance after the impersonation aimed at taking it from Esau. Having fled for his life, Jacob has left the wealth of Isaac's flocks and tents in Esau's hands. Jacob is forced to sleep out on the open ground and work for wages as a servant in Laban's household. Jacob, who had deceived and cheated his brother, is in turn deceived and cheated by his uncle. Jacob asks to marry Laban's daughter Rachel, whom he has met at the well, Laban agrees, if Jacob will give him seven years of service. Jacob does so, but after the wedding finds that beneath the veil is not Rachel but Leah, Laban's elder daughter, he agrees to work another seven years and Jacob and Rachel are wed. However, despite Laban, Jacob becomes so rich as to incite the envy of Laban and Laban's sons. Genesis 32–33 tells of Jacob's and Esau's eventual reconciliation. Jacob sends multiple waves of gifts to Esau as they approach each other, hoping that Esau will spare his life.
Esau refuses the gifts, as he is now wealthy and does not need them. Jacob never apologizes to Esau for his actions. Esau shows forgiveness in spite of this bitter conflict. Genesis Chapter 27 verse 16 of the King James Version Bible: "And she put the skins of the kids of the goats upon his hands and upon the smooth of his neck:" Verse 19: "And Jacob said unto his father, I am Esau thy firstborn. Verse 22-23: "And Jacob went near unto Isaac his father.
Land of Israel
The Land of Israel is the traditional Jewish name for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant. Related biblical and historical English terms include the Land of Canaan, the Promised Land, the Holy Land, Palestine; the definitions of the limits of this territory vary between passages in the Hebrew Bible, with specific mentions in Genesis 15, Exodus 23, Numbers 34 and Ezekiel 47. Nine times elsewhere in the Bible, the settled land is referred as "from Dan to Beersheba", three times it is referred as "from the entrance of Hamath unto the brook of Egypt”; these biblical limits for the land differ from the borders of established historical Israelite and Jewish kingdoms. Jewish religious belief defines the land as where Jewish religious law prevailed and excludes territory where it was not applied, it holds that the area is a God-given inheritance of the Jewish people based on the Torah the books of Genesis and Exodus, as well as on the Prophets. According to the Book of Genesis, the land was first promised by God to the descendants of Abram.
Abram's name was changed to Abraham, with the promise refined to pass through his son Isaac and to the Israelites, descendants of Jacob, Abraham's grandson. This belief is not shared by most adherents of replacement theology, who hold the view that the Old Testament prophecies were superseded by the coming of Jesus, a view repudiated by Christian Zionists as a theological error. Evangelical Zionists variously claim that Israel has title to the land by divine right, or by a theological and moral grounding of attachment to the land unique to Jews; the idea that ancient religious texts can be warrant or divine right for a modern claim has been challenged, Israeli courts have rejected land claims based on religious motivations. During the League of Nations mandatory period the term "Eretz Yisrael" or the "Land of Israel" was part of the official Hebrew name of Mandatory Palestine. Official Hebrew documents used the Hebrew transliteration of the word “Palestine” פלשתינה followed always by the two initial letters of "Eretz Yisrael", א״י Aleph-Yod.
The Land of Israel concept has been evoked by the founders of the State of Israel. It surfaces in political debates on the status of the West Bank, referred to in official Israeli discourse as the Judea and Samaria Area, from the names of the two historical Jewish kingdoms; the term "Land of Israel" is a direct translation of the Hebrew phrase ארץ ישראל, which occurs in the Bible, is first mentioned in the Tanakh in 1 Samuel 13:19, following the Exodus, when the Israelite tribes were in the Land of Canaan. The words are used sparsely in the Bible: King David is ordered to gather'strangers to the land of Israel' for building purposes, the same phrasing is used in reference to King Solomon's census of all of the'strangers in the Land of Israel'. Ezekiel, though preferring the phrase'soil of Israel', employs eretz israel twice at Ezekiel 40:2 and Ezekiel 47:18. According to Martin Noth, the term is not an "authentic and original name for this land", but instead serves as "a somewhat flexible description of the area which the Israelite tribes had their settlements".
According to Anita Shapira, the term "Eretz Yisrael" was a holy term, vague as far as the exact boundaries of the territories are concerned but defining ownership. The sanctity of the land developed rich associations in rabbinical thought, where it assumes a symbolic and mythological status infused with promise, though always connected to a geographical location. Nur Masalha argues that the biblical boundaries are "entirely fictitious", bore religious connotations in Diaspora Judaism, with the term only coming into ascendency with the rise of Zionism; the Hebrew Bible provides three specific sets of borders for the "Promised Land", each with a different purpose. Neither of the terms "Promised Land" or "Land of Israel" are used in these passages: Genesis 15:13–21, Genesis 17:8 and Ezekiel 47:13–20 use the term "the land", as does Deuteronomy 1:8 in which it is promised explicitly to "Abraham and Jacob... and to their descendants after them," whilst Numbers 34:1–15 describes the "Land of Canaan", allocated to nine and half of the twelve Israelite tribes after the Exodus.
The expression "Land of Israel" is first used in a book, 1 Samuel 13:19. It is defined in detail in the exilic Book of Ezekiel as a land where both the twelve tribes and the "strangers in midst", can claim inheritance; the name "Israel" first appears in the Hebrew Bible as the name given by God to the patriarch Jacob. Deriving from the name "Israel", other designations that came to be associated with the Jewish people have included the "Children of Israel" or "Israelite"; the term'Land of Israel' occurs in one episode in the New Testament, according to Shlomo Sand, it bears the unusual sense of'the area surrounding Jerusalem'. The section in which it appears was written as a parallel to the e
Abraham Abram, is the common patriarch of the three Abrahamic religions. In Judaism, he is the founding father of the covenant of the pieces, the special relationship between the Jewish people and God; the narrative in Genesis revolves around the themes of land. Abraham is called by God to leave the house of his father Terah and settle in the land given to Canaan but which God now promises to Abraham and his progeny. Various candidates are put forward. Abraham purchases a tomb at Hebron to be Sarah's grave. Abraham marries Keturah and has six more sons; the Abraham story cannot be definitively related to any specific time, it is agreed that the patriarchal age, along with the exodus and the period of the judges, is a late literary construct that does not relate to any period in actual history. A common hypothesis among scholars is that it was composed in the early Persian period as a result of tensions between Jewish landowners who had stayed in Judah during the Babylonian captivity and traced their right to the land through their "father Abraham", the returning exiles who based their counter-claim on Moses and the Exodus tradition.
Terah, the ninth in descent from Noah, was the father of three sons: Abram and Haran. The entire family, including grandchildren, lived in Ur of the Chaldees. In his youth, Abram worked in Terah's idol shop. Haran was the father of Lot, thus Lot was Abram's nephew. Haran died in Ur of the Chaldees. Abram married Sarah, barren. Terah, with Abram and Lot departed for Canaan, but settled in a place named Haran, where Terah died at the age of 205. God had told Abram to leave his country and kindred and go to a land that he would show him, promised to make of him a great nation, bless him, make his name great, bless them that bless him, curse them who may curse him. Abram was 75 years old when he left Haran with his wife Sarai, his nephew Lot, the substance and souls that they had acquired, traveled to Shechem in Canaan. There was a severe famine in the land of Canaan, so that Abram and Lot and their households, traveled to Egypt. On the way Abram told Sarai to say that she was his sister, so that the Egyptians would not kill him.
When they entered Egypt, the Pharaoh's officials praised Sarai's beauty to Pharaoh, they took her into the palace and gave Abram goods in exchange. God afflicted Pharaoh and his household with plagues, which led Pharaoh to try to find out what was wrong. Upon discovering that Sarai was a married woman, Pharaoh demanded that Sarai leave; when they came back to the Bethel and Hai area, Abram's and Lot's sizable herds occupied the same pastures. This became a problem for the herdsmen; the conflicts between herdsmen had become so troublesome that Abram suggested that Lot choose a separate area, either on the left hand or on the right hand, that there be no conflict amongst brethren. Lot chose to go eastward to the plain of Jordan where the land was well watered everywhere as far as Zoar, he dwelled in the cities of the plain toward Sodom. Abram went south to Hebron and settled in the plain of Mamre, where he built another altar to worship God. During the rebellion of the Jordan River cities against Elam, Abram's nephew, was taken prisoner along with his entire household by the invading Elamite forces.
The Elamite army came to collect the spoils of war, after having just defeated the king of Sodom's armies. Lot and his family, at the time, were settled on the outskirts of the Kingdom of Sodom which made them a visible target. One person who escaped capture told Abram what happened. Once Abram received this news, he assembled 318 trained servants. Abram's force headed north in pursuit of the Elamite army, who were worn down from the Battle of Siddim; when they caught up with them at Dan, Abram devised a battle plan by splitting his group into more than one unit, launched a night raid. Not only were they able to free the captives, Abram's unit chased and slaughtered the Elamite King Chedorlaomer at Hobah, just north of Damascus, they freed Lot, as well as his household and possessions, recovered all of the goods from Sodom, taken. Upon Abram's return, Sodom's king came out to meet with him in the Valley of Shaveh, the "king's dale". Melchizedek king of Salem, a priest of God Most High, brought out bread and wine and blessed Abram and God.
Abram gave Melchizedek a tenth of everything. The king of Sodom offered to let Abram keep all the possessions if he would return his people. Abram refused any deal from the king of Sodom, other than the share to which his allies were entitled; the voice of the Lord came to Abram in a vision and repeated the promise of the land and descendants as numerous as the stars. Abram and God made a covenant ce
Moses was a prophet according to the teachings of the Abrahamic religions. Scholarly consensus sees Moses as a legendary figure. According to the Hebrew Bible, he was adopted by an Egyptian princess, in life became the leader of the Israelites and lawgiver, to whom the authorship of the Torah, or acquisition of the Torah from Heaven is traditionally attributed. Called Moshe Rabbenu in Hebrew, he is the most important prophet in Judaism, he is an important prophet in Christianity, the Bahá'í Faith, a number of other Abrahamic religions. According to the Book of Exodus, Moses was born in a time when his people, the Israelites, an enslaved minority, were increasing in numbers and the Egyptian Pharaoh was worried that they might ally themselves with Egypt's enemies. Moses' Hebrew mother, secretly hid him when the Pharaoh ordered all newborn Hebrew boys to be killed in order to reduce the population of the Israelites. Through the Pharaoh's daughter, the child was adopted as a foundling from the Nile river and grew up with the Egyptian royal family.
After killing an Egyptian slavemaster, Moses fled across the Red Sea to Midian, where he encountered The Angel of the Lord, speaking to him from within a burning bush on Mount Horeb. God sent Moses back to Egypt to demand the release of the Israelites from slavery. Moses said that he could not speak eloquently, so God allowed Aaron, his brother, to become his spokesperson. After the Ten Plagues, Moses led the Exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt and across the Red Sea, after which they based themselves at Mount Sinai, where Moses received the Ten Commandments. After 40 years of wandering in the desert, Moses died within sight of the Promised Land on Mount Nebo. Jerome gives 1592 BCE, James Ussher 1571 BCE as Moses' birth year. In the Book of Deuteronomy, Moses was called "the man of God". Several etymologies have been proposed. An Egyptian root msy, "child of", has been considered as a possible etymology, arguably an abbreviation of a theophoric name, as for example in Egyptian names like Thutmoses and Ramesses, with the god's name omitted.
Abraham Yahuda, based on the spelling given in the Tanakh, argues that it combines "water" or "seed" and "pond, expanse of water", thus yielding the sense of "child of the Nile". The Biblical account of Moses' birth provides him with a folk etymology to explain the ostensible meaning of his name, he is said to have received it from the Pharaoh's daughter: "he became her son. She named him Moses, saying,'I drew him out of the water.'" This explanation links it to a verb mashah, meaning "to draw out", which makes the Pharaoh's daughter's declaration a play on words. The princess made a grammatical mistake, prophetic of his future role in legend, as someone who will "draw the people of Israel out of Egypt through the waters of the Red Sea."The Hebrew etymology in the Biblical story may reflect an attempt to cancel out traces of Moses' Egyptian origins. The Egyptian character of his name was recognized as such by ancient Jewish writers like Philo of Alexandria and Josephus. Philo linked Mōēsēs to the Egyptian word for water, while Josephus, in his Antiquities of the Jews, claimed that the second element, -esês, meant'those who are saved'.
The problem of how an Egyptian princess, known to Josephus as Thermutis and in Jewish tradition as Bithiah, could have known Hebrew puzzled medieval Jewish commentators like Abraham ibn Ezra and Hezekiah ben Manoah. Hezekiah suggested she either took a tip from Jochebed; the Israelites had settled in the Land of Goshen in the time of Joseph and Jacob, but a new pharaoh arose who oppressed the children of Israel. At this time Moses was born to his father Amram, son of Kehath the Levite, who entered Egypt with Jacob's household. Moses had one older sister and one older brother, Aaron; the Pharaoh had commanded that all male Hebrew children born would be drowned in the river Nile, but Moses' mother placed him in an ark and concealed the ark in the bulrushes by the riverbank, where the baby was discovered and adopted by Pharaoh's daughter, raised as an Egyptian. One day after Moses had reached adulthood he killed an Egyptian, beating a Hebrew. Moses, in order to escape the Pharaoh's death penalty, fled to Midian.
There, on Mount Horeb, God appeared to Moses as a burning bush, revealed to Moses his name YHWH and commanded him to return to Egypt and bring his chosen people out of bondage and into the Promised Land. During the journey, God tried to kill Moses because he had not circumcised his son, but Zipporah saved his life. Moses returned to carry out God's command, but God caused the Pharaoh to refuse, only after God had subjected Egypt to ten plagues did the Pharaoh relent. Moses led the Israelites to the border of Egypt, but there God hardened the Pharaoh's heart once more, so that he could destroy the Pharaoh and his army at the Red Sea Crossing as a sign of his power to Israel and the nations. After defeating the Amalekites in Rephidim, Moses led the Israelites to biblical Mount Sinai, where he was given the Ten Commandments from God, written on stone tablets. However, since Moses remained a long time on the mountain, some of the people feared that he might be dead, so they made a statue of a golden calf and worshiped it, thus disobeying and angering God and Moses.
Moses, out of anger, bro
The Luther Bible is a German language Bible translation from Hebrew and ancient Greek by Martin Luther. The New Testament was first published in 1522 and the complete Bible, containing the Old and New Testaments with Apocrypha, in 1534, it was the first full translation of the Bible into German based on the original Hebrew and Greek texts and not the Latin Vulgate translation. The project absorbed Luther's years. Thanks to the recently invented printing press, the result was disseminated and contributed to the development of today's modern High German language. While he was sequestered in the Wartburg Castle Luther began to translate the New Testament from Greek into German in order to make it more accessible to all the people of the "Holy Roman Empire of the German nation." He translated from the Greek text, using Erasmus' second edition of the Greek New Testament, known as the Textus Receptus. Luther did not translate directly from the Latin Vulgate translation, the Latin translation used by the Roman Catholic Church.
Luther published the Bible into a small format of book called an "octavio edition". Like Erasmus, Luther had learned Greek at the Latin schools led by the Brethren of the Common Life; these lay. At that time Greek was taught at universities. To help him in translating into contemporary German, Luther would make forays into nearby towns and markets to listen to people speaking, he wanted to ensure their comprehension by translating as as possible to their contemporary language usage. His translation was published in September 1522. In the opinion of the 19th-century theologian and church historian Philip Schaff, The richest fruit of Luther's leisure in the Wartburg, the most important and useful work of his whole life, is the translation of the New Testament, by which he brought the teaching and example of Christ and the Apostles to the mind and heart of the Germans in life-like reproduction, it was a republication of the gospel. He made the Bible the people's book in church and house; the translation of the entire Bible into German was published in a six-part edition in 1534, a collaborative effort of Luther and many others such as Johannes Bugenhagen, Justus Jonas, Caspar Creuziger, Philipp Melanchthon, Matthäus Aurogallus, Georg Rörer.
Luther worked on refining the translation up to his death in 1546: he had worked on the edition, printed that year. There were 117 original woodcuts included in the 1534 edition issued by the Hans Lufft press in Wittenberg, they reflected the recent trend of including artwork to reinforce the textual message. Luther added the word "alone" to Romans 3:28 controversially so that it read: "So now we hold, that man is justified without the help of the works of the law, alone through faith" The word "alone" does not appear in the Greek texts, but Luther defended his translation by maintaining that the adverb "alone" was required both by idiomatic German and the apostle Paul's intended meaning, that sola was used in theological tradition before him. Apologist James Swan lists numerous Catholic sources that translated Romans 3:28 with the word "alone," or testified to others doing so before Luther. A Bible commentary published in 1864 reports that Initially Luther had a low view of the Old Testament book of Esther and of the New Testament books of Hebrews, James and the Revelation of John.
He called the Letter of James "an epistle of straw," finding little in it that pointed to Christ and His saving work. He had harsh words for the Revelation of John, saying that he could "in no way detect that the Holy Spirit produced it." In his translation of the New Testament, Luther moved Hebrews and James out of the usual order, to join Jude and the Revelation at the end, differentiated these from the other books which he considered "the true and certain chief books of the New Testament. The four which follow have from ancient times had a different reputation." His views on some of these books changed in years, became more positive. Luther chose to place the Biblical apocrypha between the New Testaments; these books and addenda to Biblical canon of the Old Testament are found in the ancient Greek Septuagint but not in the Hebrew Masoretic text. Luther left the translating of them to Philipp Melanchthon and Justus Jonas, they were not listed in the table of contents of his 1532 Old Testament, in the 1534 Bible they were given the well-known title: "Apocrypha: These Books Are Not Held Equal to the Scriptures, but Are Useful and Good to Read".
See Biblical canon, Development of the Christian Biblical canon, Biblical Apocrypha. The Luther Bible was not the first translation of the Bible into German; the previous German translation from 1350, printed by Johann Mentelin in 1466, was linguistically clumsy incomprehensible, translated from the Vulgate. Luther's German Bible and its widespread circulation facilitated the emergence of a standard, modern German language for the German-speaking peoples throughout the Holy Roman Empire, an empire extending through and beyond present-day Germany, it is considered a landmark in German literature, with Luther's vernacular style praised by modern German sources for the forceful vigor with which he translated the Holy Scripture. A large part of Luther's significance was his influence on the emergence of the German language and national identity; this stemmed predominantly from his translation of the Bible into the vernacular, which was