Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Part of the county of Midlothian, it is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore. Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Government, the Scottish Parliament and the supreme courts of Scotland; the city's Palace of Holyroodhouse is the official residence of the monarch in Scotland. The city has long been a centre of education in the fields of medicine, Scots law, philosophy, the sciences and engineering, it is the second largest financial centre in the United Kingdom and the city's historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdom's second most popular tourist destination, attracting over one million overseas visitors each year. Edinburgh is Scotland's second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom; the official population estimates are 488,050 for the Locality of Edinburgh, 513,210 for the City of Edinburgh, 1,339,380 for the city region.
Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region comprising East Lothian, Fife, Scottish Borders and West Lothian. The city is the annual venue of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, it is home to national institutions such as the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland and the Scottish National Gallery. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, is placed 18th in the QS World University Rankings for 2019; the city is famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe, the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of St. Giles and the Canongate, the extensive Georgian New Town, built in the 18th/19th centuries. Edinburgh's Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999. "Edin", the root of the city's name, derives from Eidyn, the name for this region in Cumbric, the Brittonic Celtic language spoken there.
The name's meaning is unknown. The district of Eidyn centred on the dun or hillfort of Eidyn; this stronghold is believed to have been located at Castle Rock, now the site of Edinburgh Castle. Eidyn was conquered by the Angles of Bernicia in the 7th century and by the Scots in the 10th century; as the language shifted to Old English, subsequently to modern English and Scots, The Brittonic din in Din Eidyn was replaced by burh, producing Edinburgh. Din became dùn in Scottish Gaelic, producing Dùn Èideann; the city is affectionately nicknamed Auld Reekie, Scots for Old Smoky, for the views from the country of the smoke-covered Old Town. Allan Ramsay said. A name the country people give Edinburgh from the cloud of smoke or reek, always impending over it."Thomas Carlyle said, "Smoke cloud hangs over old Edinburgh,—for since Aeneas Silvius's time and earlier, the people have the art strange to Aeneas, of burning a certain sort of black stones, Edinburgh with its chimneys is called'Auld Reekie' by the country people."A character in Walter Scott's The Abbot says "... yonder stands Auld Reekie--you may see the smoke hover over her at twenty miles' distance."Robert Chambers who said that the sobriquet could not be traced before the reign of Charles II attributed the name to a Fife laird, Durham of Largo, who regulated the bedtime of his children by the smoke rising above Edinburgh from the fires of the tenements.
"It's time now bairns, to tak' the beuks, gang to our beds, for yonder's Auld Reekie, I see, putting on her nicht -cap!"Some have called Edinburgh the Athens of the North for a variety of reasons. The earliest comparison between the two cities showed that they had a similar topography, with the Castle Rock of Edinburgh performing a similar role to the Athenian Acropolis. Both of them had fertile agricultural land sloping down to a port several miles away. Although this arrangement is common in Southern Europe, it is rare in Northern Europe; the 18th-century intellectual life, referred to as the Scottish Enlightenment, was a key influence in gaining the name. Such luminaries as David Hume and Adam Smith shone during this period. Having lost most of its political importance after the Union, some hoped that Edinburgh could gain a similar influence on London as Athens had on Rome. A contributing factor was the neoclassical architecture that of William Henry Playfair, the National Monument. Tom Stoppard's character Archie, of Jumpers, said playing on Reykjavík meaning "smoky bay", that the "Reykjavík of the South" would be more appropriate.
The city has been known by several Latin names, such as Aneda or Edina. The adjectival form of the latter, can be seen inscribed on educational buildings; the Scots poets Robert Fergusson and Robert Burns used Edina in their poems. Ben Jonson described it as "Britaine's other eye", Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "yon Empress of the North". Robert Louis Stevenson a son of the city, wrote, "Edinburgh is what Paris ought to be"; the colloquial pronunciation "Embra" or "Embro" has been used, as in Robert Garioch's Embro to the Ploy. The earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area was at Cramond, where evidence was found of a Mesolithi
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Bernhard Siegfried Albinus
Bernhard Siegfried Albinus was a German-born Dutch anatomist. Albinus was born at Frankfurt an der Oder, where his father, Bernhard Albinus, was professor of the practice of medicine. In 1702 the latter was transferred to the chair of medicine at Leiden University, it was there that Bernhard Siegfried began his studies in 1709, at the age of 12, having for his teachers such men as Boerhaave and Nikolaus Bidloo. Having finished his studies at Leiden, he went to Paris, under the instruction of Sebastien Vaillant, Jacob Winslow and others, he devoted himself to anatomy and botany. After a year's absence he was, on the recommendation of Boerhaave, recalled in 1719 to Leiden to be a lecturer on anatomy and surgery. Two years he succeeded his father in the professorship of these subjects, speedily became one of the most famous teachers of anatomy in Europe, his classroom being resorted to not only by students but by many practising physicians. In 1745 Albinus was appointed professor of the practice of medicine, being succeeded in the anatomical chair by his brother Frederick Bernhard, who, as well as another brother, Christian Bernhard, attained considerable distinction.
Bernhard Siegfried, twice rector of his university, died at Leiden. Albinus is best known for his monumental Tabulae sceleti et musculorum corporis humani, first published in Leiden in 1747 at his own expense; the artist and engraver with whom Albinus did nearly all of his work was Jan Wandelaar. In an attempt to increase the scientific accuracy of anatomical illustration and Wandelaar devised a new technique of placing nets with square webbing at specified intervals between the artist and the anatomical specimen and copying the images using the grid patterns. Tabulae was criticized by such scholars as Petrus Camper for the whimsical backgrounds added to many of the pieces by Wandelaar, but Albinus staunchly defended Wandelaar. Choulant, L. History and bibliography of anatomic illustration. Trans. and annotated by Mortimer Frank.. Ferguson, J. P. "The skeleton and the rhinoceros." Proceedings of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. 1989 Apr. Huisman, T. "Squares and diopters: the drawing system of a famous anatomical atlas."
Tractrix. 1992. Nordenskióld Erik Bernhard Siegfried Albinus History of Biology, pp. 258–259 Illustration. Bernhard Siegfried Albinus: Tabulae sceleti et musculorum corporis humani. Selected pages scanned from the original work. Historical Anatomies on the Web. US National Library of Medicine
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
In human anatomy, the omental foramen, is the passage of communication, or foramen, between the greater sac, the lesser sac. It has the following borders: anterior: the free border of the lesser omentum, known as the hepatoduodenal ligament; this has two layers and within these layers are the common bile duct, hepatic artery, hepatic portal vein. A useful mnemonic to remember these is DAVE: Duct, Vein, Epiploic foramen. Posterior: the peritoneum covering the inferior vena cava superior: the peritoneum covering the caudate lobe of the liver inferior: the peritoneum covering the commencement of the duodenum and the hepatic artery, the latter passing forward below the foramen before ascending between the two layers of the lesser omentum. Left lateral: gastrosplenic ligament and splenorenal ligamentAs the portal vein is the most posterior structure in the hepatoduodenal ligament, the inferior vena cava lies under the posterior wall, the epiploic foramen can be remembered as lying between the two great veins of the abdomen.
Terms for anatomical location This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 1156 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy "Omental foramen". Medcyclopaedia. GE. Anatomy photo:37:08-0100 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center – "Abdominal Cavity: The Omental Foramen" Anatomy image:7826 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Anatomy image:7831 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Anatomy image:7875 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center peritoneum at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman abdominalcavity at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman
Anatomy is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. Anatomy is a branch of natural science which deals with the structural organization of living things, it is an old science. Anatomy is inherently tied to developmental biology, comparative anatomy, evolutionary biology, phylogeny, as these are the processes by which anatomy is generated over immediate and long timescales. Anatomy and physiology, which study the structure and function of organisms and their parts, make a natural pair of related disciplines, they are studied together. Human anatomy is one of the essential basic sciences; the discipline of anatomy is divided into microscopic anatomy. Macroscopic anatomy, or gross anatomy, is the examination of an animal's body parts using unaided eyesight. Gross anatomy includes the branch of superficial anatomy. Microscopic anatomy involves the use of optical instruments in the study of the tissues of various structures, known as histology, in the study of cells.
The history of anatomy is characterized by a progressive understanding of the functions of the organs and structures of the human body. Methods have improved advancing from the examination of animals by dissection of carcasses and cadavers to 20th century medical imaging techniques including X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging. Derived from the Greek ἀνατομή anatomē "dissection", anatomy is the scientific study of the structure of organisms including their systems and tissues, it includes the appearance and position of the various parts, the materials from which they are composed, their locations and their relationships with other parts. Anatomy is quite distinct from physiology and biochemistry, which deal with the functions of those parts and the chemical processes involved. For example, an anatomist is concerned with the shape, position, blood supply and innervation of an organ such as the liver; the discipline of anatomy can be subdivided into a number of branches including gross or macroscopic anatomy and microscopic anatomy.
Gross anatomy is the study of structures large enough to be seen with the naked eye, includes superficial anatomy or surface anatomy, the study by sight of the external body features. Microscopic anatomy is the study of structures on a microscopic scale, along with histology, embryology. Anatomy can be studied using both invasive and non-invasive methods with the goal of obtaining information about the structure and organization of organs and systems. Methods used include dissection, in which a body is opened and its organs studied, endoscopy, in which a video camera-equipped instrument is inserted through a small incision in the body wall and used to explore the internal organs and other structures. Angiography using X-rays or magnetic resonance angiography are methods to visualize blood vessels; the term "anatomy" is taken to refer to human anatomy. However the same structures and tissues are found throughout the rest of the animal kingdom and the term includes the anatomy of other animals.
The term zootomy is sometimes used to refer to non-human animals. The structure and tissues of plants are of a dissimilar nature and they are studied in plant anatomy; the kingdom Animalia contains multicellular organisms that are motile. Most animals have bodies differentiated into separate tissues and these animals are known as eumetazoans, they have an internal digestive chamber, with two openings. Metazoans do not include the sponges. Unlike plant cells, animal cells have neither chloroplasts. Vacuoles, when present, are much smaller than those in the plant cell; the body tissues are composed of numerous types of cell, including those found in muscles and skin. Each has a cell membrane formed of phospholipids, cytoplasm and a nucleus. All of the different cells of an animal are derived from the embryonic germ layers; those simpler invertebrates which are formed from two germ layers of ectoderm and endoderm are called diploblastic and the more developed animals whose structures and organs are formed from three germ layers are called triploblastic.
All of a triploblastic animal's tissues and organs are derived from the three germ layers of the embryo, the ectoderm and endoderm. Animal tissues can be grouped into four basic types: connective, epithelial and nervous tissue. Connective tissues are fibrous and made up of cells scattered among inorganic material called the extracellular matrix. Connective tissue holds them in place; the main types are loose connective tissue, adipose tissue, fibrous connective tissue and bone. The extracellular matrix contains proteins, the chief and most abundant of, collagen. Collagen plays a major part in maintaining tissues; the matrix can be modified to form a skeleton to protect the body. An exoskeleton is a thickened, rigid cuticle, stiffened by mineralization, as in crustaceans or by the cross-linkin
Alexander Monro (primus)
Alexander Monro primus was a Scottish surgeon and anatomist. His father, the surgeon John Monro, had been a prime mover in the foundation of the Edinburgh Medical School and had arranged Alexander's education in the hope that his son might become the first Professor of Anatomy in the new university medical school. After medical studies in Edinburgh, London and Leiden, Alexander Monro returned to Edinburgh, pursued a career as a surgeon and anatomy teacher. With the support of his father and the patronage of the Edinburgh Lord Provost George Drummond, Alexander Monro was appointed foundation Professor of Anatomy at the University of Edinburgh, his lectures, delivered in English, rather than the conventional Latin, proved popular with students and his qualities as a teacher contributed to the success and reputation of the Edinburgh medical school. He is known as Alexander Monro primus to distinguish him from his son Alexander Monro secundus and his grandson Alexander Monro tertius, who both followed him in the chair of anatomy.
These three Monros between them held the Edinburgh University Chair of Anatomy for 126 years. Alexander Monro was the son of John Monro and his wife Jean Forbes, his first cousin. John Monro was a Monro of Auchenbowie, a cadet branch of Clan Munro, descended from the Monros of Foulis. John Monro was a military surgeon and his son Alexander was born in London while he was on military duty there; when Alexander was three the family returned to Edinburgh, where John Monro took great care with his son's education. He had him instructed in Latin and French, in philosophy and book-keeping. Alexander attended classes at the University of Edinburgh between 1710 and 1713 but did not graduate, he was bound apprentice to his father, by now in practice as a surgeon in Edinburgh. During this apprenticeship he attended courses in botany delivered by George Preston, courses in chemistry by Dr James Crawford and anatomy dissections at Surgeons Hall by Messers Robert Eliot, Adam Drummond and John McGill. In 1717 on completion of his apprenticeship, Alexander Munro was sent to London to study anatomy under William Cheselden, the famous surgeon, a renowned teacher and a skilful demonstrator.
A lasting friendship was formed between the two men. To gain as much experience as possible Monro lodged in the house of an apothecary and visited patients with him, he attended lectures by the theologian and mathematician William Whiston and the physicist Francis Hauksbee on experimental philosophy. He made dissections of the human body and of various animals and demonstrated a natural aptitude for this work, his career was nearly cut short as a result of a scratch on the hand inflicted while he was dissecting the suppurated lung of a subject, known to have phthisis. His mentor and friend, the Scots born accoucheur and anatomist James Douglas was concerned that he would lose the arm as a result of the soft tissue infection which developed. Monro took an active part in discussions, in one of his papers first sketched his "Account of the Bones in General"; this would form the basis of his textbook on osteology. Before he left London he sent home to his father some of his anatomical specimens, his father showed these to members of the Royal College of Physicians and the Incorporation of Surgeons.
They were so impressed with the quality of these dissections that Adam Drummond, on seeing them, indicated that would resign his share of the professorship of anatomy in favour of Monro. In the spring of 1718, Alexander Monro primus went to Paris where attended lectures on botany in the Jardin du Roy, he walked the wards of the hospitals including Hotel Dieu where he attended a course of anatomy given by Bourquet. He performed operations under the direction of Thibaut and had instruction in midwifery from Gregoire, in bandaging from Cesau, in botany from Pierre-Jean-Baptiste Chomel. On 16 November 1718, Monro entered as a student of Leiden University to study under Herman Boerhaave, the great physician and teacher, who lectured on the theory and practice of physic. On Boerhaave's recommendation he visited Frederik Ruysch, professor of Anatomy at Amsterdam, where he saw Ruysch's large collection of anatomical dissections and learned from him techniques of preservation of anatomical specimens.
Patients from Scotland who came to consult Boerhaave in Letden were put under Monro's care. Like many Scottish students at Leiden he did not sit the examinations for the degree of MD. On his return to Edinburgh in the autumn of 1719, Monro sat the four part examination to become a Freeman of the Incorporation of Surgeons and was admitted as a Fellow on 19 November. Adam Drummond fulfilled his promise of resigning his professorship, John M'Gill did likewise, they gave a recommendation in favour of Monro to the Town Council, the patrons of the University. This was backed by the Incorporation of Surgeons, on 22 January 1720 the Council appointed Monro Professor of Anatomy with a salary of £15 sterling, this modest sum being supplemented by the students' fees of three guineas a head. Monro's original appointment as professor was only at the pleasure of the Town Council, who at that time administered the University or Town's College. In 1722, encouraged by his success, Monro applied to the Council for permanent status, although the Council had as as August 1719 reaffirmed the principle that regentships and professorships were to be held at their pleasure, they now departed from this and on 14 March 1722, nominated Alexander Monro sole Professor of Anatomy in the City and College.
Until 1725, Monro continued to lecture in the old Surgeons' Hall on the south side of Surgeons' Square. The popularity of his teaching had led to an i