Abraham Bloemaert was a Dutch painter and printmaker in etching and engraving. He was one of the "Haarlem Mannerists" from about 1585, but in the new century altered his style to fit new Baroque trends, he painted history subjects and some landscapes. He was an important teacher. Bloemaert was born in Gorinchem, Habsburg Netherlands, the son of the architect Cornelis Bloemaert I, who moved his family to Utrecht in 1575, where Abraham was first a pupil of Gerrit Splinter and of Joos de Beer. From the age of 15 or 16, he spent three years in Paris from 1581–1583, studying six weeks under a Jehan Bassot and under a Maistre Herry. While in the School of Fontainebleau he received further training from his fellow countryman Hieronymus Francken, he returned to Utrecht in 1583, just before the French Wars of Religion began, which destroyed much of the work at the Chateau of Fontainebleau. When his father was appointed city architect in Amsterdam 1591 he accompanied him there, on his father's death in 1593 returned to Utrecht, where he set up a workshop and in 1594 became dean of the "zadelaarsgilde", as from 1367 the painters were included in the saddlemaker's guild, with no Guild of St. Luke of their own.
In 1611, along with the two other leading Utrecht painters, Joachim Wtewael and Paulus Moreelse, he was one of the founders of the Utrecht Guild of Saint Luke a new Utrecht painters' guild, became its deken in 1618. Many of Bloemaert's paintings were commissioned by Utrecht's clandestine Catholic churches, he died in Utrecht. Accorgint to the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, "e excelled more as a colourist than as a draughtsman, was productive, painted and etched historical and allegorical pictures, still-life, animal pictures and flower pieces." In the first decade of the seventeenth-century, Bloemaert began formulating his landscape paintings to include picturesque ruined cottages and other pastoral elements. In these works, the religious or mythological figures play a subordinate role. Country life was to remain Bloemaert's favourite subject, which he depicted with increasing naturalism, he drew motifs such as peasant cottages and trees from life and on his return to the studio worked them up into complex imaginary scenes.
Among his many pupils were his four sons, Frederick and Adriaan. The RKD lists Jan Aerntsz de Hel, Abraham Jacobsz van Almeloveen, Cornelius de Beer, Nicolaes van Bercheyck, Jan van Bijlert, the two Boths, the two Honthorsts, Leonaert Bramer, Bartholomeus Breenbergh, Hendrick ter Brugghen, Jacob Gerritsz Cuyp, Willem van Drielenburg, Wybrand de Geest, Nicolaus Knüpfer, Hendrik Munnicks, Frederick Pithan, Cornelis van Poelenburch, Henrik Schook, Anthoni Ambrosius Schouten, Robert Jansz Splinter, Matthias Stom, Herman van Swanevelt, Dirck Voorst, Quintijnus de Waerdt, Jan Baptist Weenix, Peter Petersz van Zanen. Bloemaert is represented in the following collections: Detroit Institute of Michigan. Abraham Bloemaert Lot and his daughters, oil on canvas Exhibition The Bloemaert Effect in Utrecht, Centraal Museum, 2011-12 Works and literature on Abraham Bloemaert Not two, but three scenes from the Historiae Aethiopicae by Abraham Bloemaert Abraham Bloemaert on Artcyclopedia Vermeer and The Delft School, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which includes material on Abraham Bloemaert Dutch and Flemish paintings from the Hermitage, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Bloemaert
Utrecht is the fourth-largest city and a municipality of the Netherlands and most populous city of the province of Utrecht. It is located in the eastern corner of the Randstad conurbation, in the centre of mainland Netherlands, had a population of 345,080 in 2017. Utrecht's ancient city centre features many buildings and structures several dating as far back as the High Middle Ages, it has been the religious centre of the Netherlands since the 8th century. It remains the main religious centre in the country. Utrecht was the most important city in the Netherlands until the Dutch Golden Age, when it was surpassed by Amsterdam as the country's cultural centre and most populous city. Utrecht is host to Utrecht University, the largest university in the Netherlands, as well as several other institutions of higher education. Due to its central position within the country, it is an important transport hub for both rail and road transport, it has the second highest number of cultural events after Amsterdam.
In 2012, Lonely Planet included Utrecht in the top 10 of the world's unsung places. Although there is some evidence of earlier inhabitation in the region of Utrecht, dating back to the Stone Age and settling in the Bronze Age, the founding date of the city is related to the construction of a Roman fortification built in around 50 CE. A series of such fortresses was built after the Roman emperor Claudius decided the empire should not expand north. To consolidate the border, the Limes Germanicus defense line was constructed along the main branch of the river Rhine, which at that time flowed through a more northern bed compared to today; these fortresses were designed to house a cohort of about 500 Roman soldiers. Near the fort, settlements would grow housing artisans and soldiers' wives and children. In Roman times, the name of the Utrecht fortress was Traiectum, denoting its location at a possible Rhine crossing. Traiectum became Dutch Trecht. In 11th-century official documents, it was Latinized as Ultra Traiectum.
Around the year 200, the wooden walls of the fortification were replaced by sturdier tuff stone walls, remnants of which are still to be found below the buildings around Dom Square. From the middle of the 3rd century, Germanic tribes invaded the Roman territories. Around 275 the Romans could no longer maintain the northern border and Utrecht was abandoned. Little is known about the next period 270–650. Utrecht is first spoken of again several centuries. Under the influence of the growing realms of the Franks, during Dagobert I's reign in the 7th century, a church was built within the walls of the Roman fortress. In ongoing border conflicts with the Frisians, this first church was destroyed. By the mid-7th century and Irish missionaries set out to convert the Frisians. Pope Sergius I appointed Saint Willibrordus, as bishop of the Frisians; the tenure of Willibrordus is considered to be the beginning of the Bishopric of Utrecht. In 723, the Frankish leader Charles Martel bestowed the fortress in Utrecht and the surrounding lands as the base of the bishops.
From on Utrecht became one of the most influential seats of power for the Roman Catholic Church in the Netherlands. The archbishops of Utrecht were based at the uneasy northern border of the Carolingian Empire. In addition, the city of Utrecht had competition from the nearby trading centre Dorestad. After the fall of Dorestad around 850, Utrecht became one of the most important cities in the Netherlands; the importance of Utrecht as a centre of Christianity is illustrated by the election of the Utrecht-born Adriaan Florenszoon Boeyens as pope in 1522. When the Frankish rulers established the system of feudalism, the Bishops of Utrecht came to exercise worldly power as prince-bishops; the territory of the bishopric not only included the modern province of Utrecht, but extended to the northeast. The feudal conflict of the Middle Ages affected Utrecht; the prince-bishopric was involved in continuous conflicts with the Counts of Holland and the Dukes of Guelders. The Veluwe region was seized by Guelders, but large areas in the modern province of Overijssel remained as the Oversticht.
Several churches and monasteries were built inside, or close to, the city of Utrecht. The most dominant of these was the Cathedral of Saint Martin, inside the old Roman fortress; the construction of the present Gothic building was begun in 1254 after an earlier romanesque construction had been badly damaged by fire. The choir and transept were finished from 1320 and were followed by the ambitious Dom tower; the last part to be constructed was the central nave, from 1420. By that time, the age of the great cathedrals had come to an end and declining finances prevented the ambitious project from being finished, the construction of the central nave being suspended before the planned flying buttresses could be finished. Besides the cathedral there were four collegiate churches in Utrecht: St. Salvator's Church, on the Dom square, dating back to the early 8th century. Saint John, originating in 1040. Besides these churches, the city housed St. Paul's Abbey, the 15th-century beguinage of St. Nicholas, a 14th-century chapter house of the Teutonic Knights.
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Gerrit Gerritsz Cuyp
Gerrit Gerritsz. Cuyp was a Dutch Golden Age stained glass cartoon draughtsman. According to the RKD he was born in Venlo and moved to Dordrecht before 19 January 1585, when he married and became master glazier in the Dordrecht Guild of St. Luke. Judging by the ages of contemporary master glaziers, he has been estimated to have been born around 1565, he was the father of the painters Jacob Gerritsz. Cuyp and Benjamin Gerritsz Cuyp, the grandfather of Aelbert Cuyp, he had 11 children in Dordrecht. He became official glass painter for the city of Dordrecht and obtained various commissions recorded in the city archives, though none survive today, his glass design for window nr. 3, a commission from the Dordrecht council for their gift to the city of Gouda in the St. Janskerk in Gouda, has been preserved and according to their archives he was paid 36 guilders for this window, 6 guilders more than the average rate. According to their archives, Dordrecht gave a similar stained glass window for which this same cartoon design was lent out for the church in Edam in 1606, which Cuyp did not execute himself.
That window survives today. In addition to these windows, he received payments in 1605 for the church in Woudrichem and in 1618 for the "new church of Niervaart" in Klundert, his design for Woudrichem has not survived, since the St. Martinus kerk there lost part of its tower in 1717 and the same storm would have taken out the windows, his design for Klundert has not survived, since after the previous church had been dismantled in 1616, the next church that Klundert saw built, burned down in 1737. Besides window designs, he was an oil painter, as evidenced by payments to him totalling ƒ 824 for various painting commissions. Cuyp died at Dordrecht; the choice of subject for Cuyp's window in Gouda, the Dordrecht Maiden, was a typical theme for a Dutch city council. From the renaissance period onwards, Dutch cities symbolised themselves with effigies of a stedenmaagd, or town maiden; the Dordrecht council must have been satisfied with Cuyp's design, because on a relief on the Groothoofdspoort in Dordrecht, the same theme was used by the sculptor Gillis Huppe.
Dordrecht had been the scene of the first independent meeting of the rebelling States of the Netherlands against Spanish rule during 19–23 July 1572. In the stained glass window, the city names are placed under their shields; these names are: Geertruidenberg, followed by Schoonhoven, Weesp, Naarden, Medemblik, Monnickendam, Asperen, Heusden and Vlaardingen. The choice of placing Geertruidenberg on the gate of the garden differs from the Groothoofdspoort, where the shield is placed under the garden opposite the shield of Vlaardingen. Geertruidenberg had joined the union three years before the glass was ordered in 1593 when the town was liberated from Spanish rule by Prince Maurits
Venlo is a city and municipality in the southeastern Netherlands, near the German border. It is situated in the province of Limburg; the municipality of Venlo counted 101 578 inhabitants as of January 2019. Roman and Celtic coins have been found in Venlo. Blerick, on the west bank, was known as Blariacum. Documents from the 9th century mention Venlo as a trade post; because of its strategic importance, the city of Venlo was besieged several times. The most significant siege was that of 1702, carried on by Menno van Coehoorn. Venlo was incorporated into the Generaliteitslanden of the United Provinces at the Treaty of 1713. After the Napoleonic Wars it became part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. On 9 November 1939, two British Intelligence Service agents were kidnapped by the Sicherheitsdienst in what became known as the Venlo Incident; the incident was used by the Nazis to link Great Britain to Georg Elser's failed assassination of Hitler at the Bürgerbräukeller the day before and to justify their invasion of the Netherlands, a neutral country, on 10 May 1940.
Venlo had both a railway bridge over the Maas. The city was damaged by bombing raids on the bridges at the end of the war. Allied forces made 13 attempts to destroy the bridges to cut the German supply lines and block a retreat of the German army across the river; these failed, it was the retreating German troops who in the end blew up the bridges in an attempt to stop the allied advance. Allied forces liberated Venlo from inside Germany itself. About 300 people were killed due to those raids; the raids cost Venlo a major part of its historical buildings. However, some old buildings, such as the city hall and the'Römer' house, survived the war unscathed. Before the war, Venlo had an active Jewish community. Most of the Jews were murdered in The Holocaust. By the late 1990s, drug-related nuisance had become a problem in the centre of Venlo. National and municipal officials launched the Q-4 Project and Tango initiatives that, amongst other measures, included moving the town's largest coffeeshops to the outskirts, where they continue to do business, while the city centre was freed from disturbances.
In 2001, the municipalities of Belfeld and Tegelen were merged into the municipality of Venlo. Tegelen was part of the Duchy of Jülich centuries ago, whereas Venlo has a past in the Duchy of Guelders. On 1 January 2010, the municipality of Arcen en Velden, was merged into the municipality of Venlo. In 2003 Venlo was awarded the title "Greenest city of Europe". Venlo was the host of the world's largest horticultural exhibition. In 2013, Venlo won the prestigious'Best City Centre of the Netherlands' award, it amazed the jury by all the investments which have been made in the last couple of years in the Maas Boulevard, the railway station, the tunnel in the centre and the Maas bridge. Theatre "De Maaspoort" Historical and cultural Museum "Limburgs Museum" and art Museum "Museum van Bommel van Dam" Pop venue Grenswerk Major annual cultural events Carnival called "Vastelaovend" in February/March. Summer park festivities called "Zomerparkfeest" in August held in and around the main park of Venlo, a 4 days podium for a broad audience, including live music, dance, art etc.
Venlo, being a city with a 100,000+ population, is served by a large number of schools both at primary and secondary education levels. In addition, Venlo is a higher-education hub within the southern Netherlands, with several institutes of higher education. Venlo hosts three different institutions for higher education: Fontys University of Applied Sciences HAS University of Applied Sciences Maastricht University Venlo is connected to Germany by two motorways, which connect to Düsseldorf and the Ruhr area within one hour. Venlo railway station is a junction station, it provides regular connections to the Dutch cities of Eindhoven and Nijmegen. Furthermore, it provides regular international connections to Germany, via Kaldenkirchen, Viersen and Mönchengladbach to Düsseldorf and Hamm. VVV-Venlo is a century-old football club. Founded on 7 February 1903, it is one of the first professional football clubs in the Netherlands. In the seasons 2008–2009 and 2016-2017, VVV-Venlo won the Eerste Divisie and was promoted to the highest Dutch professional football league: the Eredivisie.
The headquarters of multinational Océ is located in Venlo. The European headquarters of one the world's largest direct selling companies Amway and the American office supply retailing company Office Depot are located in the city of Venlo. Greenport Venlo is one of designated five Greenports in the Netherlands, it is the second largest concentration of horticulture in the Netherlands. Seen in conjunction with the neighbouring German region of Niederrhein, Greenport Venlo is the largest in Europe. Together, the Greenport area Venlo and the agro business area "Lower Rhine" in Germany form a region where more than 30 million of people live; this region is a unique and vital international network of bus
Aert van der Neer
Aert van der Neer, or Aernout or Artus, was a landscape painter of the Dutch Golden Age, specializing in small night scenes lit only by moonlight and fires, snowy winter landscapes, both looking down a canal or river. He was a contemporary of Albert Cuyp and Meindert Hobbema, like the latter he lived and died in comparative obscurity. Recent research by René van Dijk of the Gorinchem Regional Archive has established that Van Der Neer was born in Gorinchem. According to Arnold Houbraken, Van Der Neer lived in Gorinchem as a steward to the lords of Arkel, which would account for the absence of any pictures dating from his early years, he became an amateur painter upon contact with the Amsterdam painters Rafael and Jochem Govertsz Camphuysen, whose sister Lysbeth he married in 1629. They had six children: Grietje, Cornelia, Elisabeth and Alida. Five of the children were baptized in the Nieuwe Kerk in Amsterdam, not far from, his son Eglon became a portrait painter himself. Van Der Neer was able to support his family by selling his landscapes, which were not valued.
In 1659 it seemed necessary to supplement his income by keeping a wine tavern in the Kalverstraat, but two years he went broke. He died in Amsterdam in abject poverty, his art was so little esteemed that the pictures left by him were valued at about five shillings apiece; the earliest pictures in which Van Der Neer coupled his monogram of A. V. and D. N. interlaced with a date are a winter landscape in the Rijksmuseum at Amsterdam, another in the Martins collection at Kiel immature works both, of poor quality. Far better is the Winter Landscape, the Moonlight Scene once in the d'Arenberg collection in Brussels. In 1652 Van Der Neer witnessed the fire, he made this accident the subject for two or three pictures, now in the galleries of Berlin and Copenhagen. Though Amsterdam appears to have been Van Der Neer's domicile, his pictures tell that he was well acquainted with the canals and woods about Haarlem and Leiden, with the reaches of the Meuse and Rhine. Dordrecht, the home of Albert Cuyp, is sometimes found in his pictures, substantial evidence exists that there was friendship between the two men.
At some period of their lives they laid their hands to the same canvases, on each of which they left their joint mark. On some it was the signature of the name, on others the more convincing signature of style. There are landscapes in the collections of the dukes of Bedford and Westminster, in which Cuyp has represented either the frozen Maes with fishermen packing herrings, or the moon reflecting its light on the river's placid waters; these are models. The same feeling and similar subjects are found in Cuyp and Van Der Neer and after their partnership, but Cuyp was the leading genius. Van Der Neer got assistance from him, he enlivened his friend's pictures, when asked to do so, with figures and cattle. It is in pictures jointly produced by them. We are near Dordrecht in the landscape sunset of the Louvre, in which Cuyp evidently painted the foreground and cows. In the National Gallery, London picture Cuyp signs his name on the pail of a milkmaid, whose figure and red skirt he has painted with light effectiveness near the edge of Van Der Neer's landscape.
Again, a couple of fishermen with a dog, a sportsman creeping up to surprise some ducks, are Cuyp's in a capital Van Der Neer at the Staedel Institute in Frankfurt. Van Der Neer's favourite subjects were the rivers and watercourses of his native country either at sunset or after dark, his peculiar skill is shown in realizing translucence which allows objects distant to appear in the darkness with varieties of warm brown and steel greys. Another of his fancies is to paint frozen water, his daylight icescapes with golfers and fishermen are as numerous as his moonlights, but he always avoids the impression of frostiness, one of his great gifts. His pictures are not scarce, they are less valuable in the market than those of Hobbema. Out of about one hundred and fifty pictures accessible to the public, the choicest selection is in the Hermitage at Saint Petersburg. In England paintings from his brush are to be found at the National Wallace Collection. Media related to Aert van der Neer at Wikimedia Commons Works and literature on Aert van der Neer at PubHist