Fairfield County, Ohio
Fairfield County is a county located in the U. S. state of Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the population was 146,156, its county seat is Lancaster. Its name is a reference to the Fairfield area of the original Lancaster. Fairfield County is part of OH Metropolitan Statistical Area. Fairfield County encompassed all or parts of present day Knox, Licking and Pickaway counties. Fairfield is a descriptive name referring to the beauty of their fields. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 509 square miles, of which 504 square miles is land and 4.2 square miles is water. Fairfield County sits just on the edge of Ohio's Appalachian region. While the once-glaciated northern portion of the county is flat, as one travels south along U. S. 33 one can recognize the foothills of a mountainous region beginning around the village of Carroll. Although not part of the state or federal definition of Appalachia, certain areas of Fairfield County—particularly south of U. S. 22—bear a distinctly Appalachian feel in both physical geography and demographics.
The scenic Hocking Hills region lies to the south in neighboring Hocking County. A large portion of Buckeye Lake is located in northeastern Fairfield County. Mudhouse Mansion, an alleged haunted house, was located in the county. Licking County Perry County Hocking County Pickaway County Franklin County As of the census of 2010, there were 146,156 people, 54,310 households, 39,846 families residing in the county; the population density was 289 people per square mile. There were 58,678 housing units at an average density of 116 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 90.02% White, 6.00% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 1.10% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 0.23% from other races, 1.90% from two or more races. 1.70% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 54,310 households out of which 34.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.30% were married couples living together, 11.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.60% were non-families.
21.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.07. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.30% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 30.20% from 25 to 44, 23.90% from 45 to 64, 12.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.2 years. For every 100 females there were 99.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $47,962, the median income for a family was $55,539. Males had a median income of $39,566 versus $27,353 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,671. About 4.50% of families and 5.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.40% of those under age 18 and 6.20% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 146,156 people, 54,310 households, 39,846 families residing in the county.
The population density was 289.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 58,687 housing units at an average density of 116.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 90.2% white, 6.0% black or African American, 1.1% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.6% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.7% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 31.2% were German, 16.2% were Irish, 11.7% were English, 8.6% were American, 5.2% were Italian. Of the 54,310 households, 37.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.3% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.6% were non-families, 21.9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.07. The median age was 38.2 years. The median income for a household in the county was $56,796 and the median income for a family was $65,835. Males had a median income of $49,314 versus $37,209 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $26,130. About 7.5% of families and 10.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.7% of those under age 18 and 6.7% of those age 65 or over. Roster of County Officials: Commissioners: David L. Levacy, Steve Davis, Jeffrey Fix Prosecutor: Kyle Witt Sheriff: David Phalen Auditor: Jon A. Slater, Jr. Treasurer: James Bahnsen, CPA Recorder: Gene Wood Clerk of Courts: Branden Meyer Engineer: Jeremiah Upp Coroner: Dr. L. Brian Varney, M. D. Judge, Common Pleas Court: David A. Trimmer Judge, Common Pleas Court: Richard Berens Judge, Common Pleas Court: Laura B. Smith Judge, Common Pleas Court: Terre L. Vandervoort Amanda Clearcreek Local School District Berne Union Local School District Bloom-Carroll Local School District Canal Winchester Local School District Fairfield Union Local School District Lancaster City Schools Liberty Union-Thurston Local School District Pickerington Local School District Teays Valley Local School District Walnut Township Local School District St. Mary's School St. Bernadette School Mount Pleasant Elementary Medill Elementary Sanderson Elementary Tallmadge Elementary Tarhe Trails Elementary Gorsuch West Elementary Pl
United States Department of War
The United States Department of War called the War Department, was the United States Cabinet department responsible for the operation and maintenance of the United States Army bearing responsibility for naval affairs until the establishment of the Navy Department in 1798, for most land-based air forces until the creation of the Department of the Air Force on September 18, 1947. The Secretary of War, a civilian with such responsibilities as finance and purchases and a minor role in directing military affairs, headed the War Department throughout its existence; the War Department existed from August 7, 1789 until September 18, 1947, when it split into Department of the Army and Department of the Air Force and joined the Department of the Navy as part of the new joint National Military Establishment, renamed the United States Department of Defense in 1949. Shortly after the establishment of a strong government under President George Washington in 1789, Congress created the War Department as a civilian agency to administer the field army under the president and the secretary of war.
Retired senior General Henry Knox in civilian life, served as the first United States Secretary of War. Forming and organizing the department and the army fell to Secretary Knox. Direct field command of the small Regular Army by President Washington leading a column of troops west through Pennsylvania to Fort Cumberland in Maryland in 1794 to combat the incipient Whiskey Rebellion on the frontier was an occasion never since used by American Presidents; the Possibility of re-organizing a "New Army" under nominal command of retired President and Major General George Washington and his aide, former Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton to deal with the rising tide of maritime incidents between American commerce ships and the new French Republic was authorized by second President John Adams in 1798 and the remote possibility of land invasion was an interesting adventure. On November 8, 1800 the War Department building with its records and files was consumed by fire. Foundation of the new military academy at West Point along the Hudson River upstream from New York City in 1802 was important to the future growth of the American army.
In August 1814 during the Burning of Washington, the United States Department of War building was burned-however the War and State Department files had been removed-all books and record had been saved. The multiple failures and fiascos of the War of 1812 convinced Washington that thorough reform of the War Department was necessary. Secretary of War, John C. Calhoun reorganized the department into a system of bureaus, whose chiefs held office for life, a commanding general in the field, although the Congress did not authorize this position. Winfield Scott became the senior general until the start of the American Civil War in 1861; the bureau chiefs acted as advisers to the Secretary of War while commanding their own troops and field installations. The bureaus conflicted among themselves, but in disputes with the commanding general, the Secretary of War supported the bureaus. Congress regulated the affairs of the bureaus in detail, their chiefs looked to that body for support. Calhoun set up the Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1824, the main agency within the War Department for dealing with Native Americans until 1849, when the Congress transferred it to the newly founded Department of the Interior.
During the American Civil War, the War Department responsibilities expanded. It handled the recruiting, supply, medical care and pay of two million soldiers, comprising both the regular army and the much larger temporary volunteer army. A separate command structure took charge of military operations. In the late stages of the war, the Department took charge of refugees and freedmen in the American South through the Bureau of Refugees and Abandoned Lands. During Reconstruction, this bureau played a major role in supporting the new Republican governments in the southern states; when military Reconstruction ended in 1877, the U. S. Army removed the last troops from military occupation of the American South, the last Republican state governments in the region ended; the Army comprised hundreds of small detachments in forts around the West, dealing with Indians, in coastal artillery units in port cities, dealing with the threat of a naval attack. The United States Army, with 39,000 men in 1890 was the smallest and least powerful army of any major power in the late 19th century.
By contrast, France had an army of 542,000. Temporary volunteers and state militia units fought the Spanish–American War of 1898; this conflict demonstrated the need for more effective control over its bureaus. Secretary of War Elihu Root sought to appoint a chief of staff as general manager and a European-type general staff for planning, aiming to achieve this goal in a businesslike manner, but General Nelson A. Miles stymied his efforts. Root enlarged the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York and established the United States Army War College and the General Staff, he changed the procedures for promotions and organized schools for the special branches of the service. He devised the principle of rotating officers from staff to line. Concerned about the new territories acquired after the Spanish–American War, Root worked out the procedures for turning Cuba over to the Cubans, wrote the charter of government for the Philippines, eliminated tariffs on goods imported to the United States from Puerto Rico.
Root's successor as Secretary
Great Locomotive Chase
The Great Locomotive Chase or Andrews' Raid was a military raid that occurred April 12, 1862, in northern Georgia during the American Civil War. Volunteers from the Union Army, led by civilian scout James J. Andrews, commandeered a train, The General, took it northward toward Chattanooga, doing as much damage as possible to the vital Western and Atlantic Railroad line from Atlanta to Chattanooga as they went, they were pursued by Confederate forces at first on foot, on a succession of locomotives, including The Texas, for 87 miles. Because the Union men had cut the telegraph wires, the Confederates could not send warnings ahead to forces along the railway. Confederates captured the raiders and executed some as spies, including Andrews; some of the raiders were the first to be awarded the Medal of Honor by the US Congress for their actions. As a civilian, Andrews was not eligible. Major General Ormsby M. Mitchel, commanding Federal troops in middle Tennessee, sought a way to contract or shrink the extent of the northern and western borders of the Confederacy by pushing them permanently away from and out of contact with the Ohio and Mississippi valleys.
This could be done by first a southward and an eastward penetration from the Union base at Nashville, which would seize and sever the Memphis & Charleston Railroad between Memphis and Chattanooga and capture the water and railway junction of Chattanooga, thereby severing the Western Confederacy's contact with both the Ohio and Mississippi river valleys. At the time, the standard means of capturing a city was by encirclement to cut it off from supplies and reinforcements would follow artillery bombardment and direct assault by massed infantry. However, Chattanooga's natural water and mountain barriers to its east and south made this nearly impossible with the forces that Mitchel had available, but if he could somehow block railroad reinforcement of the city from Atlanta to the southeast, he could take Chattanooga. The Union Army would have rail reinforcement and supply lines to its rear, leading west to the Union-held stronghold and supply depot of Nashville, Tennessee. James J. Andrews, a civilian scout and part-time spy, proposed a daring raid to Mitchel that would destroy the Western and Atlantic Railroad as a useful reinforcement and supply link to Chattanooga from Atlanta and the rest of Georgia.
He recruited the men known as "Andrews' Raiders". These were the civilian William Hunter Campbell and 22 volunteer Union soldiers from three Ohio regiments: the 2nd, 21st, 33rd Ohio Infantry. Andrews instructed the men to arrive in Marietta, Georgia, by midnight of April 10, but heavy rain caused a one-day delay, they traveled in small parties in civilian attire to avoid arousing suspicion. All but two reached the designated rendezvous point at the appointed time. Llewellyn and Smith joined a Confederate artillery unit, as they had been instructed to do in such circumstances. Andrews' proposal was a combined operation; these simultaneous actions would bring about the capture of Chattanooga. Andrews' Raid was intended to deprive the Confederates of the integrated use of the railways to respond to a Union advance, using their interior lines of communication; when the Union Army threatened Chattanooga, the Confederate States Army would first reinforce Chattanooga's garrison from Atlanta. When sufficient forces had been deployed to Chattanooga to stabilize the situation and hold the line, the Confederates would launch a counterattack from Chattanooga with the advantage of a local superiority of men and materiel.
It was this process. Their plan was to steal a train on its run north towards Chattanooga, stopping to damage or destroy track, telegraph wires, track switches behind them, so as to prevent the Confederate Army from being able to move troops and supplies from Atlanta to Chattanooga; the raiders planned to cross through the Federal siege lines on the outskirts of Chattanooga and rejoin Mitchel's army. Because railway dining cars were not yet in common use, railroad timetables included water and meal stops, they planned to steal a train just north of Atlanta at Georgia. They chose Big Shanty because it did not have a telegraph office, the stop would be used to refuel and take on water for the steep grade further north; the raid began on April 12, 1862, when the regular morning passenger train from Atlanta, with the locomotive General, stopped for breakfast at the Lacy Hotel. They took the General and the train's three boxcars, which were behind the tender in front of the passenger cars; the passenger cars were left behind.
Andrews had obtained from the work crew a crowbar for tearing up track. The train's conductor, William Allen Fuller, two other men, chased the stolen train, first on foot by a handcar belonging to a work crew shortly north of Big Shanty. Locomotives of the time averaged 15 miles per hour, with short bursts of speed of about 20 miles per hour. In addition, the terrain north of Atlanta is hilly, the ruling grades are steep. Today, average speeds are greater than 40 miles per hour between Chattanooga and Atlanta. Since Andrews intended to stop periodically to perform acts of sabotage, a determined pursuer on foot, could conceivably have caught up with the train before it reached Cha
Edwin McMasters Stanton was an American lawyer and politician who served as Secretary of War under the Lincoln Administration during most of the American Civil War. Stanton's management helped organize the massive military resources of the North and guide the Union to victory. However, he was criticized by many Union generals for perceived over-cautiousness and micromanagement, he organized the manhunt for Lincoln's killer, John Wilkes Booth. After Lincoln's assassination, Stanton remained as the Secretary of War under the new U. S. President Andrew Johnson during the first years of Reconstruction, he opposed the lenient policies of Johnson towards the former Confederate States. Johnson's attempt to dismiss Stanton led to U. S. President Johnson being impeached by the Radical Republicans in the House of Representatives. Stanton returned to law after retiring as Secretary of War, in 1869 was nominated as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court by Johnson's successor, Ulysses S. Grant. Before the American Revolution, Stanton's paternal ancestors, the Stantons and the Macys, both of whom were Quakers, moved from Massachusetts to North Carolina.
In 1774, Stanton's grandfather, Benjamin Stanton, married Abigail Macy. Benjamin died in 1800; that year, Benjamin's widow moved to the Northwest Territory, accompanied by much of her family. Soon, Ohio was admitted to the Union, Macy proved to be one of the early developers of the new state, she settled there. One of her sons, became a physician in Steubenville, married Lucy Norman, the daughter of a Virginia planter, their marriage was met with the ire of Ohio's Quaker community, as Lucy was a Methodist, not a Quaker. This forced David Stanton to abandon the Quaker sect; the first of David and Lucy Stanton's four children, Edwin McMasters, was born to them on December 19, 1814 in Steubenville, Ohio. Edwin's early formal education consisted of a private school and a seminary behind the Stantons' residence, called "Old Academy"; when he was ten, he was transferred to a school taught by a Presbyterian minister. It was at ten that Edwin experienced his first asthma attack, a malady that would haunt him for life, sometimes to the point of convulsion.
His asthma assured him that he would be unable to partake in physical activities, so he found interest in books and poetry. Edwin attended Sunday school regularly. At the age of thirteen, Stanton become a full member of the Methodist church. David Stanton's medical practice afforded his family a decent living; when David Stanton died in December 1827 at his residence and family were left destitute. Edwin's mother opened a store in the front room of their residence, selling the medical supplies her husband left her, along with books and groceries; the youthful Edwin was removed from school, worked at the store of a local bookseller. Stanton began his college studies at the Episcopal Church-affiliated Kenyon College in 1831. At Kenyon, Stanton was involved in the college's Philomathesian Literary Society. Stanton sat on several of the society's committees and partook in its exercises and debates. Stanton was forced to leave Kenyon just at the end of his third semester for lack of finances. At Kenyon, his support of President Andrew Jackson's actions during the 1832 Nullification Crisis, a hotly debated topic among the Philomathesians, led him into the Democratic Party.
Further, Stanton's conversion to Episcopalianism and his revulsion of the practice of slavery were solidified there. After Kenyon, Stanton worked as a bookseller in Columbus. Stanton had hoped to obtain enough money to complete his final year at Kenyon. However, a small salary at the bookstore dashed the notion, he soon returned to Steubenville to pursue studies in law. Stanton studied law under the tutelage of Daniel Collier in preparation for the bar, he was admitted to practice in 1835, began work at a prominent law firm in Cadiz, Ohio under Chauncey Dewey, a well-known attorney. The firm's trial work fell to him. At the age of eighteen, Stanton met Mary Ann Lamson at Trinity Episcopal Church in Columbus, they soon engaged. After buying a home in Cadiz, Stanton went to Columbus. Stanton and Lamson had wished to be married at Trinity Episcopal, but Stanton's illness rendered this idea moot. Instead, the ceremony was performed at the home of Trinity Episcopal's rector on December 31, 1836. Afterwards, Stanton went to Virginia where his mother and sisters were, escorted the women back to Cadiz, where they would live with him and his wife.
After his marriage, Stanton partnered with federal judge Benjamin Tappan. Stanton's sister married Tappan's son. In Cadiz, Stanton was situated prominently in the local community, he worked with the town's anti-slavery society, with a local newspaper, the Sentinel and editing articles there. In 1837, Stanton was elected the prosecutor of Harrison County, on the Democratic ticket. Further, Stanton's increasing wealth allowed him to purchase a large tract of land in Washington County, several tracts in Cadiz. Stanton's relationship with Benjamin Tappan expanded when Tappan was elected the United States Senator from Ohio in 1838. Tappan asked Stanton to oversee his law operations; when his time as county prosecutor was finished, Stanton moved back to the town with his wife. Stanton's work in politics expanded, he served as a delegate at the Democrats' 1840 national convention in Baltimore, was featured prominently in Martin Van Buren's campaign in the 1840 presidential election, which
Kenton is a city in and the county seat of Hardin County, United States, located in the west central part of Ohio 57 mi NW of Columbus and 70 mi south of Toledo. The population was 8,262 at the 2010 census; the city was named for frontiersman Simon Kenton of Ohio. Kenton is located at 40°38′48″N 83°36′31″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.13 square miles, of which, 5.04 square miles is land and 0.09 square miles is water. Kenton was the site of Fort McArthur, erected 1812 by Colonel Duncan McArthur as one of the forts along the line of General William Hull's march against the British headquarters at Fort Detroit during the War of 1812. In 1845, Kenton was incorporated as a village; the city was named after frontiersman Simon Kenton. The city began as a center for agriculture trade in the late nineteenth century developed industry common to America of the time. From 1890 to 1952, Kenton was home to the Kenton Hardware Company, manufacturers of locks, cast-iron toys, the popular Gene Autry toy cap guns.
As of the census of 2010, there were 8,262 people, 3,351 households, 2,092 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,836 persons per square mile. There were 3,773 housing units at an average density of 838.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.2% White, 0.9% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.9% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 0.90% of the population. There were 3,351 households out of which 29.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.1% were married couples living together, 6.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 15.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.6% were non-families. 31.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.4 and the average family size was 2.97. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.1% under the age of 20, 6.5% from 20 to 24, 25.1% from 25 to 44, 24.8% from 45 to 64, 15.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.8 males. As of the census of 2000, there were 8,336 people, 3,495 households, 2,149 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,860.6 people per square mile. There were 3,795 housing units at an average density of 847.0/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 97.11% White, 0.91% African American, 0.28% Native American, 0.37% Asian, 0.32% from other races, 1.01% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 0.90% of the population. There were 3,495 households out of which 29.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.0% were married couples living together, 12.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.5% were non-families. 33.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.95. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.5% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 28.3% from 25 to 44, 21.3% from 45 to 64, 15.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $29,065, the median income for a family was $37,170. Males had a median income of $31,225 versus $19,413 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,324. About 11.6% of families and 16.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.0% of those under age 18 and 17.2% of those age 65 or over. Kenton is home to the Kenton City School district, which includes a new elementary school, Kenton Middle School, Kenton High School. Kenton Elementary School is a new facility opened in 2014 which replaces the three previous elementary and one kindergarten buildings. Simon Kenton, a special education school, is run by a different Board of Education and is associated with the Harco Workshop for Developmental Disabilities; the local high school is Kenton High School, with the nickname the "Wildcats".
The Wildcat football team won consecutive state championships in 2001 and 2002 in division IV, runner-up in 2011 in Division IV, runner-up in 2003 in Division III. The city offers camping and fishing at Salsbury Park located west of Kenton on Ohio State Route 67; this city park and reservoir was named in honor of former Mayor Helen Salsbury. Two media outlets operate in Kenton: WKTN, a radio station, The Kenton Times, a daily newspaper. Kenton has a variety of activities; the Hardin County Courthouse is a historical site in the center of the public square. Kenton has one public library, the Mary Lou Johnson Hardin County District Library, located in a 1905 Carnegie library; the city possesses a museum, the Hardin County Historical Museum, located in a near north side historic district. The city has the Kenton Theater and the Hi-Road Drive-in; the local YMCA offers basketball and swimming. Restaurants include En Lai Chinese restaurant, Salsa's Mexican restaurant, Michael Angelo's Pizza. Kenton's large Amish population sells produce, baked goods, furniture.
The Hardin County Fair is held during the week of Labor Day. The "Crazy Eights" unmanned train incident in 2001, ended in Kenton; the train, led by CSX Transportation engine SD40-2 #8888, left the rail yard in Walbridge and rumbled on a 66-mile journey through
Find a Grave
Find A Grave is a website that allows the public to search and add to an online database of cemetery records. It is owned by Ancestry.com. It receives and uploads digital photographs of headstones from burial sites, taken by unpaid volunteers at cemeteries. Find A Grave posts the photo on its website; the site was created in 1995 by Salt Lake City resident Jim Tipton to support his hobby of visiting the burial sites of famous celebrities. He added an online forum. Find A Grave was launched as a commercial entity in 1998, first as a trade name and incorporated in 2000; the site expanded to include graves of non-celebrities, in order to allow online visitors to pay respect to their deceased relatives or friends. In 2013, Tipton sold Find A Grave to Ancestry.com, saying that the genealogy company had "been linking and driving traffic to the site for several years. Burial information is a wonderful source for people researching their family history." In a September 30, 2013, press release, Ancestry.com officials said they would "launch a new mobile app, improve customer support, introduce an enhanced edit system for submitting updates to memorials, foreign-language support, other site improvements."As of October 2017, Find A Grave contained over 165 million burial records and 75 million photos.
In March 2017, a beta website for a redesigned Find A Grave was launched at gravestage.com. Public feedback was mixed. Sometime between May 29 and July 10 of that year, the beta website was migrated to new.findagrave.com, a new front end for it was deployed at beta.findagrave.com. In November 2017, the new site became the old site was deprecated. On August 20, 2018, the original Find; the website contains listings of graves from around the world. American cemeteries are organized by state and county, many cemetery records contain Google Maps and photographs of the cemeteries and gravesites. Individual grave records may contain dates and places of birth and death, biographical information and plot information and contributor information. Interment listings are added by individuals, genealogical societies, other institutions such as the International Wargraves Photography Project. Contributors must register as members to submit listings, called memorials, on the site; the submitter may transfer management.
Only the current manager of a listing may edit it, although any member may use the site's features to send correction requests to the listing's manager. Managers may add links to other listings of deceased spouses and siblings for genealogical purposes. Any member may add photographs and notations to individual listings. Members may post requests for photos of a specific grave. Although it does not ask permission from immediate family members before uploading the photos, it will remove and take down photos or a URL for a deceased loved one at the request of an immediate family member. Find A Grave maintains lists of memorials of famous persons by their "claim to fame", such as Medal of Honor recipients, religious figures, educators. Find A Grave exercises editorial control over these listings. Canadian Headstones Interment.net United States National Cemetery System's nationwide gravesite locator Random Acts of Genealogical Kindness Tombstone tourist Official website
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal