Jacob's Creek Bridge (Pennsylvania)
Jacob's Creek Bridge was the first iron-chain suspension bridge built in the United States. Designed by James Finley, a local judge and inventor, it spanned Jacob's Creek, just south of Mount Pleasant, Pennsylvania. Nothing of the bridge is thought to remain, but an area on the north side of Jacob's Creek – where Pennsylvania Route 819 crosses – is still called "Iron Bridge." Iron-chain suspension bridges had been built in China and elsewhere in Europe. During the 1790s Finley served as a state senator in Philadelphia, frequented the American Philosophical Society library. Eda Kranakis, an expert on early American suspension bridges, conjectures that Finley would have had access in Philadelphia to information about European bridges. Fayette County commissioners proposed the bridge in a March 1801 letter to the Westmoreland County board of commissioners; the contract with Finley was signed in April, with each county committing to half of the $600 cost, specifying that the bridge be completed by December 15.
John Fulton and Andrew Oliphant constructed the bridge. Iron was supplied by Isaac Meason, Finley's friend and fellow judge, who owned nearby Union Furnace and Mount Vernon Furnace; the bridge's two chain cables were made of 1-inch iron bar, wrought into links between 5 and 10 feet long, anchored to the ground at each end. These stretched over 14-foot pyramid-shaped stone piers built on either side of the creek. Vertical suspenders dropped from the cables to support the wooden joists beneath the decking; because the iron suspenders were graduated in length, the roadway was flat. Finley guaranteed the bridge to last for fifty years. In a June 1810 article, Finley described the bridge as having a 70-foot span, a width of 12 feet 6 inches, he used a similar design for his Chain Bridge at Falls of Schuylkill in 1808, secured a patent that same year. Jacob's Creek Bridge was rebuilt, it was replaced by a wooden bridge in 1833. 1801 Chain Bridge from Bridgemeister. Finding Finley's Chain Bridge from YouTube.
Finley's Wonder on Jacob's Creek from Pennsylvania State University. James Finley, "Finley's Chain Bridge," The Port Folio, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 441–52. Franklin Ellis, History of Fayette County. Evelyn Abraham, "Isaac Meason, the First Ironmaker West of the Alleghenies," Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine. Eda Kranakis, Constructing a Bridge: An Exploration of Engineering, Culture and Research in Nineteenth Century France and America. Kranakis provides a multi-chapter history, structural analysis, survey of Finley's bridges
Whitewater kayaking is the sport of paddling a kayak on a moving body of water a whitewater river. Whitewater kayaking can range to demanding, extreme whitewater. Paddling on rivers and oceans is as old as the Stone Age; the raft, the catamaran, the canoe and the kayak evolved depending on the needs and environment of the indigenous peoples in different parts of the world. The modern day kayak most originated about 8,000 years ago along the Siberian coast line by the Yupik and transformed from the open canoe, via the Aleut and Inuit, into an enclosed kayak; the first boats made were hard to sink because they contained inflated seal bladders, which made them ideal for navigating whitewater. The Greek, Herodotus, 484-425 BC, wrote in his travel diaries about boats with which merchandise was brought from Armenia to Babylon; the boats were made of a wooden framework, covered with animal skins. Mules hauled the precious skins back to Armenia; the Russian, Grigori Ivanovitch Langsdorff, reported from his trip around the world on the ease and elegance of paddling Eskimo kayaks/canoes.
The Scot, John MacGregor, came back from his North American trip full of excitement about the kayak/canoe and in 1860 started building six boats that resembled Eskimo canoes/kayaks, weighing app. 80 lb. In 1866 he published the book A Thousand Miles in the Rob Roy Canoe; the timing was right and the book became a resounding success. With the Industrial Revolution leading to more leisure time in the middle of the 19th century, people in Europe started to enjoy floating down rivers in all kinds of contraptions taking in nature only available to a selected few. 1905, Alfred Heurich, an architectural student from Leipzig, invented the "Faltboot", a folding kayak called Folboat in the US. Heurich went on to paddle over 100,000 km on lakes. 1907, Alfred Klepper, a master seamster from Rosenheim, bought the patent, improved the rigidity with a lever system and started production. Born was the Western culture's invention of a paddle craft that for the first time in human history that allowed hardy enthusiasts to see wild river sections and canyons never before seen by the human eye.
The design made it not only suitable for whitewater but easy to travel with and affordable. World War I stopped any progress. 1920s, boating on WW with Folboats developed. Boaters flocked to lakes by train or bus. During that time, the Austrian, Edi Hans Pawlata reinvented the Eskimo roll. 1927, Franz von Alber, Klaus and Arndt von Rautenfeld, claimed to have independently developed a roll with their sea kayaks. Early 1930s, Walter Frentz, Herbert Rittlinger and a handful of others became pioneers and advocates of WW kayaking with documentaries and books. 1933, Adolf Hitler started to dissolve kayak clubs. They did not serve his plan and the impact on the sport was devastating. World War II brought the paddle sport to a total halt.1946/48, Depending on the region, the Allies lifted the ban on river travel in Germany. Paddle clubs were again allowed to form. 1952, Walter Frentz, published an inspiring book In den Schluchten Europas. The book was based on his river trips prior to World War II. Publications in those days told great stories with awesome pictures of first descents but with little information regarding river conditions.
The tough times of the post war era had come to an end and people traveled abroad again looking for adventures with Folboats and canoes. 1955, Herbert Baschin in Stuttgart built the first polyester/fiber kayak. Despite the much improved maneuverability and material, Baschin’s hard shell was received with skepticism by paddle sport enthusiasts who were in love with their folboats and depended on public transportation; the ice broke. The hard shell kayak was hauled to rivers and remote put-ins that were not accessible before. In the late 60s the WW sport started from Europe to spread around the world and transformed from adventure trips into a hardcore sport. With it came safety consciousness and protective gear. 1973, Tom Johnson, a racer and trainer from Kernville, California designs and markets the Hollowform: the first roto-molded polyethylene boat. It was mass-produced by a garbage can manufacturing company; these indestructible boats revolutionized the sport, took off in California. Paddlers no longer had to repair their boats during and after trips.
They began to be able to use rocks as part of the strategy of negotiating difficult rapids. Hard runs became more accessible to less-skilled paddlers. In 1978, Bill Masters, a kayaker and inventor in Liberty SC further perfected rotational molding for kayaks with his company Perception Kayaks. Bill advanced the sport of whitewater kayaking beyond any of his predecessors through consistent innovations in manufacturing and design, his patented processes are still used to this day. 1980 the manufacturer Prijon in Rosenheim introduced polyethylene to Europe which made WW boating maintenance and repair free in giant contrast to the Faltboot which had started it all. 1980 Holger Machatschek, together with ESKIMO kayak company in Landsberg, developed the first 2.2 m playboat called Topolino which galvanized kayaking into many new and exciting forms of extreme sports. There are five "sub-categories" in whitewater kayaking: Riverrunning is the essential - and some would say most artful - form of kayaking.
Whereas its derivative forms have evolved in response to the challenges posed by riverrunning, such as pushing the levels of
The Allegheny Mountain Range, informally the Alleghenies and spelled Alleghany and Allegany, is part of the vast Appalachian Mountain Range of the Eastern United States and Canada and posed a significant barrier to land travel in less technologically advanced eras. The barrier range has a northeast–southwest orientation and runs for about 400 miles from north-central Pennsylvania, through western Maryland and eastern West Virginia, to southwestern Virginia; the Alleghenies comprise the rugged western-central portion of the Appalachians. They rise to 4,862 feet in northeastern West Virginia. In the east, they are dominated by a steep escarpment known as the Allegheny Front. In the west, they slope down into the associated Allegheny Plateau, which extends into Ohio and Kentucky; the principal settlements of the Alleghenies are Altoona, State College, Johnstown, Pennsylvania. The name is derived from the Allegheny River, which drains only a small portion of the Alleghenies in west-central Pennsylvania.
The meaning of the word, which comes from the Lenape Indians, is not definitively known but is translated as "fine river". A Lenape legend tells of an ancient tribe called the "Allegewi" who lived on the river and were defeated by the Lenape. Allegheny is the early French spelling, Allegany is closer to the early English spelling; the word "Allegheny" was once used to refer to the whole of what are now called the Appalachian Mountains. John Norton used it around 1810 to refer to the mountains in Georgia. Around the same time, Washington Irving proposed renaming the United States either "Appalachia" or "Alleghania". In 1861, Arnold Henry Guyot published the first systematic geologic study of the whole mountain range, his map labeled the range as the "Alleghanies", but his book was titled On the Appalachian Mountain System. As late as 1867, John Muir—in his book A Thousand Mile Walk to the Gulf—used the word "Alleghanies" in referring to the southern Appalachians. There was no general agreement about the "Appalachians" versus the "Alleghanies" until the late 19th century.
From northeast to southwest, the Allegheny Mountains run about 400 miles. From west to east, at their widest, they are about 100 miles. Although there are no official boundaries to the Allegheny Mountains region, it may be defined to the east by the Allegheny Front. To the west, the Alleghenies grade down into the dissected Allegheny Plateau; the westernmost ridges are considered to be the Laurel Highlands and Chestnut Ridge in Pennsylvania, Laurel Mountain and Rich Mountain in West Virginia. The mountains to the south of the Alleghenies—the Appalachians in westernmost Virginia, eastern Kentucky, eastern Tennessee—are the Cumberlands; the Alleghenies and the Cumberlands both constitute part of the Ridge and Valley Province of the Appalachians. The eastern edge of the Alleghenies is marked by the Allegheny Front, sometimes considered the eastern terminus of the Allegheny Plateau; this great escarpment follows a portion of the Eastern Continental Divide in this area. A number of impressive gorges and valleys drain the Alleghenies: to the east, Smoke Hole Canyon, to the west the New River Gorge and the Blackwater and Cheat Canyons.
Thus, about half the precipitation falling on the Alleghenies makes its way west to the Mississippi and half goes east to Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic seaboard. The highest ridges of the Alleghenies are just west of the Front, which has an east/west elevational change of up to 3,000 feet. Absolute elevations of the Allegheny Highlands reach nearly 5,000 feet, with the highest elevations in the southern part of the range; the highest point in the Allegheny Mountains is Spruce Knob, on Spruce Mountain in West Virginia. Other notable Allegheny highpoints include Thorny Flat on Cheat Mountain, Bald Knob on Back Allegheny Mountain, Mount Porte Crayon, all in West Virginia. There are few sizable cities in the Alleghenies; the four largest are: Altoona, State College and Cumberland. In the 1970s and'80s, the Interstate Highway System was extended into the northern portion of the Alleghenies, the region is now served by a network of federal expressways—Interstates 80, 70/76 and 68. Interstate 64 traverses the southern extremity of the range, but the Central Alleghenies have posed special problems for highway planners owing to the region's rugged terrain and environmental sensitivities This region is still served by a rather sparse secondary highway system and remains lower in population density than surrounding regions.
In the telecommunications field, a unique impediment to development in the central Allegheny region is the United States National Radio Quiet Zone, a large rectangle of land—about 13,000 square miles —that straddles the border area of Virginia and West Virginia. Created in 1958 by the Federal Communications Commission, the NRQZ restricts all omni
The Youghiogheny River, or the Yough for short, is a 134-mile-long tributary of the Monongahela River in the U. S. states of West Virginia and Pennsylvania. It drains an area on the west side of the Allegheny Mountains northward into Pennsylvania, providing a small watershed in extreme western Maryland into the tributaries of the Mississippi River. Youghiogheny is a Lenape word meaning "a stream flowing in a contrary direction"; the Youghiogheny rises in northern West Virginia, in Preston County southeast of the town of Aurora and near Backbone Mountain. The headwaters are 10 miles north of the headwaters of the North Branch of the Potomac River and pass through Silver Lake before flowing north-northeast into Garrett County, Maryland flowing north past Oakland and parallel to the West Virginia border, separated by 3 miles; the river enters southwestern Pennsylvania on the border between Somerset counties. It flows northwest through a gap in Chestnut Ridge and past Connellsville, it joins the Monongahela River from the southeast at southeast of Pittsburgh.
Upstream from Confluence, Pennsylvania 6 miles north of Pennsylvania border, the river is impounded by the 184-foot-high Youghiogheny Dam to form the Youghiogheny River Lake, a reservoir that stretches upstream into northern Maryland. The dam was completed in 1944 for flood control. In the colonial era and in the early United States, the valley of the river provided an important route of access through the mountains for settlers and military forces from Virginia to western Pennsylvania and the Ohio Country. In 1754, as a militia officer of the British Colony of Virginia, George Washington followed the river in an attempt to find a water route to Fort Duquesne held by the French. During the uncommonly severe winter of 1787-88, American pioneers to the Northwest Territory departed New England and cut trails westward through the mountains. At Sumrill’s Ferry, present-day West Newton, Pennsylvania, on the Youghiogheny River, the men built flatboats which carried them down the Youghiogheny River to the Monongahela River, to the Ohio River, onward to the Northwest Territory.
The pioneer town of Somerfield, was inundated by the building of the Youghiogheny Dam. Perryopolis in northern Fayette County, Pennsylvania, is the site of the George Washington Grist Mill; the Youghiogheny River Trail follows the river in southwestern Pennsylvania southeast of Connellsville. Coal mining became an important industry along the lower Youghiogheny River during the 19th century. At the time the name was spelled Yohoghany, during the 1860s and 1870s that spelling was used as the name of a post office near what is now Shaner in Westmoreland County. Fallingwater, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, is located in the river valley southeast of Connellsville. A portion of the river in Maryland has been set aside by the state as the Youghiogheny Scenic and Wild River; the Youghiogheny is popular for whitewater canoeing and rafting. Three sections of the river, varying in difficulty, are available on a predictable basis for whitewater recreation: Top Yough, near Swallow Falls State Park in Maryland Upper Yough, from Sang Run to Friendsville, Maryland Middle Yough, from Confluence, Pennsylvania to Ohiopyle Ohiopyle Falls in Ohiopyle State Park: Previously, this spectacular 18-foot waterfall was legal for kayakers and canoeists to run on only one weekend a year, during a race and festival.
During August 2010, the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources announced a pilot program allowing boaters to run the falls during three weeks from Sunday, August 22, 2010, through Sunday, September 12, 2010. The program was successful, so the falls are accessible to whitewater kayakers and canoeists with the same rules as the test program. Lower Yough, which runs through Ohiopyle State Park from Ohiopyle to Bruner Run This section is the busiest whitewater trip east of the Mississippi River, being completed by over 250,000 people each year. Further downstream, near Connellsville, the river is much slower, without whitewater rapids, is able to be piloted by personal tubes, kayaks or canoes. Although the Youghiogheny is considered to be safe for whitewater recreation, there have been 19 deaths on the Lower Yough. At least five, as many as 14, of the fatalities have occurred at a rapid within the Lower Yough known as Dimple Rock. Dimple refers to both the Class III rapid by that name, as well as an undercut rock in the middle of the rapid by that name.
Some of the deaths were attributed to preexisting health conditions, with 9 of the 14 being caused by the rock itself. The Youghiogheny is known for fishing, having brown and rainbow trout, as well as smallmouth above the power plant discharge. Part of the Great Allegheny Passage, a multi-use trail along the former Western Maryland Railway right-of-way, extends from Pittsburgh to Confluence. From Confluence, it connects to Washington, D. C; the Great Crossings is the place on the river where George Washington and General Braddock forded the river in revolutionary times. The Youghiogheny River was the inspiration for the fictional Yuggogheny River, whose valley was used by Michael Chabon for the setting of his short story "In the Black Mill" from the 2000 collection Werewolves in their Youth, his 2001 story "The God Of Dark Laughter" is set in Yuggogheny County. In Chabon's 2000 Pulitzer Prize-winning novel The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier & Clay, an expert or experts on Yuggogheny cannibal cults are present at the party where Joe Kavalier saves Salvador Dalí from drowning.
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Fayette County, Pennsylvania
Fayette County is a county of the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. Fayette County is located in southwestern Pennsylvania, adjacent to West Virginia; as of the 2010 census, the population was 136,606. Its county seat is Uniontown; the county was created on September 26, 1783, from part of Westmoreland County and named after the Marquis de Lafayette. Fayette County is part of PA Metropolitan Statistical Area; the southern border of Fayette County is the southern border of Pennsylvania at both the Pennsylvania–Maryland state line and the Pennsylvania–West Virginia state line. The first Europeans in Fayette County were explorers, who had used an ancient American Indian trail that bisected the county on their journey across the Appalachian Mountains. In 1754, when control of the area was still in dispute between France and Great Britain, 22-year-old George Washington fought against the French at the Battle of Jumonville Glen and Fort Necessity. British forces under Washington and General Edward Braddock improved roads throughout the region, making the future Fayette County an important supply route.
During the American Revolution, Fayette County was plagued by attacks from British-allied Indians and remained isolated as a frontier region. Retarding settlement was a border dispute with Virginia. In 1780 the dispute was settled by the federal government in favor of Pennsylvania, Fayette County was formed from Westmoreland County in 1783. Fayette County settlers provided the new United States government with an early test of authority in the 1793 Whiskey Rebellion, when farmers rebelled against tax collectors to protest a new liquor tax. President George Washington called out the militias to restore order. However, they were talked out of any violent action by owner of Friendship Hill and future Secretary of the Treasury, Albert Gallatin. Fayette County continued to be important to travelers in the early 1800s; the National Road provided a route through the mountains of the county for settlers heading west. The shipyards in Brownsville on the Monongahela River built ships for both the domestic and international trade.
As Pittsburgh developed its industries in the mid-19th century, Fayette County become a center of coal mining and coke production. From the 1880s to the early 1900s, the area's great expansion in steel production became nationally important, labor unions shaped national policies. Both new European immigrants and African Americans in the Great Migration from the rural South were attracted to the Pittsburgh area for industrial jobs; the historic Scottish and German farming communities established in the earlier 19th century were soon overshadowed by the wave of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe. The region's wealth has been concentrated among the old English and Scottish families who had established businesses and political power in Pittsburgh prior to and in the advent of industrialization building the new manufacturing concerns, as did Andrew Carnegie. By World War II, Fayette County had a new unionized working class. In the 1950s, the coal industry fell into decline. In the 1970s, the restructuring and collapse of American steel resulted in a massive loss of industrial jobs and hard times in the area.
The population has declined since the peak in 1940, as residents have had to move elsewhere for work. The loss of union jobs caused many working families to drop out of the middle class. Only a few mines are being worked in the 21st century, but natural resources remain crucial to the local economy; the region is transitioning toward the service sector, with an increase in jobs in fields such as telemarketing. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 798 square miles, of which 790 square miles is land and 8.0 square miles is water. The western portion of the county contains rolling foothills and two valleys along the Monongahela and Youghiogheny rivers; the eastern portion of the county is mountainous and forested. Many coal mines are located within the area. Westmoreland County Somerset County Garrett County, Maryland Preston County, West Virginia Monongalia County, West Virginia Greene County Washington County Fort Necessity National Battlefield Friendship Hill National Historic Site As of the 2010 census, there were 136,606 people, 59,969 households, 41,198 families residing in the county.
The population density was 188 people per square mile. There were 66,490 housing units at an average density of 84 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 93.30% White, 4.71% Black or African American, 0.11% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.11% from other races, 2.33% from two or more races. 1.38% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 19.8% were of German, 13.2% Italian, 11.4% Irish, 9.2% American, 8.4% Polish, 7.9% English and 6.6% Slovak ancestry. There were 59,969 households out of which 28.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.80% were married couples living together, 12.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.30% were non-families. 28.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.70% under the age of 18, 7.70% from 18 to 24, 27.20% from 25 to 44, 24.20% from 45 to 64, 18.10% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.80 males. For every 100 females
Mount Pleasant, Pennsylvania
There are five Mount Pleasant Townships in Pennsylvania. Mount Pleasant is a borough in Westmoreland County, United States, it stands 45 miles southeast of Pittsburgh. As of the 2010 census, the borough's population was 4,454; the Borough of Mount Pleasant, consisting of the town area, should not be confused with Mount Pleasant Township, an separate municipality. Mount Pleasant Township adjoins the borough to the north. In the past, Mount Pleasant was a center of an extensive coke-making industry. Other products included flour, iron, foundry products, etc; the year of Mount Pleasant's first non-Indian resident is not known, although one source states that at the time of the American Revolutionary War, there was a settlement of "not more than a half dozen houses." Braddock Road passed through the western end of the future town in 1755, opening the area to settlement. In 1793 Michael Smith was licensed to operate an inn, which would have served traffic on Glades Road, now Route 31. In 1797, Nathaniel Marshall sold land to Andrew McCready.
Jacob's Creek Bridge, the first iron-chain suspension bridge built in the United States, was erected south of the town in 1801. It was demolished in 1833. No pre-1800 structures remain within the borough limits; the borough’s three oldest existing buildings all date from 1812: The Shupe House at 201 Main Street, Hitchman House at 355 Main Street, the Rupert Building at 642-644 Main Street. Mount Pleasant became a borough on February 7, 1828. Glass manufacturing was a foundation of the local economy, with Bryce Brothers commencing operations in 1850, L. E. Smith Glass in 1907; the invention of the Bessemer process of steelmaking in 1859, which required coke, had a dramatic impact on the region. The town prospered as coal deposits were developed, from. However, the lives of coal miners in the outlying "patch towns" were arduous, labor-management disputes became frequent; the strike in Morewood, west of Mount Pleasant borough, was the most violent of the area’s strikes, in which nine miners were killed by sheriff’s deputies on April 3, 1891.
Mount Pleasant was disadvantaged when the main lines of the railroads bypassed the community in the 1850s. The community’s isolation lessened in 1871 with the opening of the Mount Pleasant and Broadford Railroad part of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. In addition, a branch line of the Pennsylvania Railroad connected the borough to Scottdale, West Penn Railways served Mount Pleasant from 1906 to 1952; the Borough of Mount Pleasant has three listings on the National Register of Historic Places: the Samuel Warden House at 200 South Church Street, the demolished Mount Pleasant Armory, the Mount Pleasant Historic District, which encompasses the oldest parts of the borough. Mount Pleasant is located at 40°8′59″N 79°32′33″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 1.1 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,728 people, 2,057 households, 1,225 families residing in the borough; the population density was 4,127.5 people per square mile.
There were 2,227 housing units at an average density of 1,944.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 97.10% White, 1.67% African American, 0.15% Native American, 0.23% Asian, 0.15% from other races, 0.70% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.32% of the population. A large proportion of the residents are of Polish descent, as evidenced by the Tadeusz Kościuszko Club. There were 2,057 households out of which 22.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.7% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.4% were non-families. 36.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.20 and the average family size was 2.88. In the borough the population was spread out with 19.1% under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 22.9% from 45 to 64, 25.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years.
For every 100 females, there were 83.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.2 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $30,738, the median income for a family was $41,438. Males had a median income of $30,655 versus $23,333 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $16,517. About 5.1% of families and 11.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.9% of those under age 18 and 9.0% of those age 65 or over. Jack Gantos, author of children's books John W. Geary, U. S. general in the American Civil War Lillian Resler Keister Harford, church organizer and editor Raymond V. Kirk, president of Duquesne University Rich Rollins, Major League Baseball player Jess M. Stairs, Republican Party member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives Steve Swetonic, Major League Baseball pitcher The borough is featured as a location in the PlayStation 3 video game Resistance 3. Borough of Mount Pleasant Mt. Pleasant Glass and Ethnic Festival