Jan van de Velde
Jan van de Velde the younger was a Dutch Golden Age painter and engraver of animal and still-life subjects. He was the son of Jan van de Velde the Elder, van de Velde was born in either Delft or Rotterdam. He was apprenticed to engraver Jacob Matham in 1613, entered the Haarlem guild in 1614 and he is better known for his etching and engraving than for his painting. In 1616, he drew scenes of Haarlem as a series of 26 landscape prints. The success of this led him to expand it thirty years to 60 prints. In the archives are a few prints from a series of 12 local landscapes by Esaias, which indicates that they may have collaborated on this project
The Alteratie is the name given to the change of power in Amsterdam on May 26,1578, when the Catholic city government was deposed in favor of a Protestant one. The coup should be seen in the context of the greater Dutch Revolt that was breaking out in this time. Trade interests played an important role, because Amsterdam was becoming isolated as surrounding cities and towns joined the revolt, no one was injured or killed during the coup. On May 29, a new city council was formed, consisting of 30 Calvinists and 10 Catholics, already after a few months, plans were presented to expand the city and the harbor on the eastern side, and to construct new defensive fortifications. Only when the new Regent, John of Austria, recognised the Pacification, lengthy negotiations followed about the Satisfactie, a treaty that would put the city under the authority of the Prince of Orange and the States of Holland. After an incursion into the city by the Geuzen on November 23,1577, in 1578, Amsterdam was one of the most important cities that had not yet joined the Prince of Orange in his rebellion against King Philip II.
The war was costly, and a number of cities threatened to defect to the side of the King, with the Satisfactie, Amsterdam joined the rest of the cities of Holland in joining the rebellion. Nonetheless, tensions increased when a conflict arose with the burgomasters of Amsterdam about the control over the schutterij. An important issue with all cities was the question of freedom, if at least one hundred Protestant families resided in a city. After a Hedge Preaching, the issue rapidly escalated, a commission of old Geuzen and a large group of former exiled residents, many of whom owned land and warehouses on the Lastage, organised a gathering to plan their next move. The next day the Dam Square was closed off from the public, the catholic vroedschap was escorted to the Damrak, where barges had been prepared to take them out of Amsterdam. On May 26,1578,24 city-council members were forced to leave Amsterdam and they settled in Haarlem or Leiden or quietly returned on. The Franciscans, who were hated by the population, were forced to leave.
The remaining monks were allowed to remain in the city, the monks were rich and possessed much land, in some monasteries there were hardly any monks present. As a result of the Alteratie, the parish-churches and chapels came into the hands of the Protestants, the oldest parish church of the city, the St. Nicolaschurch, was rechristened as the Oude Kerk, and the Heilige Stede became the Nieuwe Zijds Kapel. The New Church was taken over by the Calvinists after a minor iconoclastic movement in September, the large number of monasteries of the city came under the control of the new city-government, and were given new, non-religious purposes, such as orphanages or prisons. Valuable books were collected in the New Church, another consequence of the Alteratie was the reinforcement of the city walls. The Alteratie is window nummer 8 in the Canon of Amsterdam, De Nederlandse Historiën in het kort
The Netherlands, informally known as Holland is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country.
Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life.
The Netherlands ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, changed over time tremendously
Grote Kerk, Haarlem
The Grote Kerk or St. -Bavokerk is a Protestant church and former Catholic cathedral located on the central market square in the Dutch city of Haarlem. Another Haarlem church called the Cathedral of Saint Bavo now serves as the cathedral for the Roman Catholic Diocese of Haarlem-Amsterdam. This church is an important landmark for the city of Haarlem and has dominated the city skyline for centuries and it is built in the Gothic style of architecture, and it became the main church of Haarlem after renovations in the 15th century made it significantly larger than the Janskerk. First mention of a church on this spot was made in 1307, the church was rebuilt and promoted to chapter church in 1479 and only became a cathedral in 1559. The main architects were Godevaert de Bosscher and Steven van Afflighem, the church was confiscated only 19 years during the Haarlemse noon in 1578, when it was converted to Protestantism. Haarlem has had a Christian parish church since the 9th century and this first church was a daughter church of Velsen, which itself was founded in 695 by St.
Willibrord. This early first church was a church on the same site of the current Sint-Bavokerk. Extensions and expansions over the centuries led to its consecration in 1559 when the first bishop Nicolaas van Nieuwland was appointed. Since the building of this new Cathedral of St. Bavo, there has been lots of confusion about the name of the Bavochurch, for this reason it is officially called Grote Kerk, which just means High Church. On May 22,1801 there was a fire caused by lightning which struck the tower, another disaster was prevented in 1839 by Martijn Hendrik Kretschman, the guard of the tower. He stopped Jan Drost who worked for the church, Drost had tried to set fire to the pipe organ and piano by throwing hot coals on top of it. Drost committed suicide and he was buried in the tower, in the church was a high sentry bos reserved for fire-watchers. If they saw a fire in the city they would signal using red flags so that the guards in the guard house opposite could react. This sentry position was still in use in 1919, in the renovation of the 1930s an automatic sprinkler system was installed in the tower, that could extinguish a fire 70m high in the tower.
This can be seen easily when comparing pictures made before and afterwards, around the church various low buildings have been built up against it, most notably the former fish market called De Vishal, which today is used for exhibiting modern art. On the south side a series of low buildings used as shops are built up against various church buildings such as the former librye or library, in 1630 the architect Salomon de Bray designed and built the consistory which still exists today. The interior of the church has changed little over the years, though the inner chapels suffered greatly during the Beeldenstorm. Fortunately, the interior has been painted many times by painters, most notably by Pieter Jansz Saenredam
The Frans Loenenhofje is a hofje in Haarlem, Netherlands, on the Witte Heren straat. It was named the Five room or Vijfkamer hofje in 1607 after the five new rooms that were built from the proceeds of the will, Frans Loenen was a Catholic who fled to Haarlem from Amsterdam in 1578 for their milder disposition toward people of the Old Catholic faith. He left all of his goods to the poor in an extraordinary will drawn up 3 days before he died, for example, he had bet a small fortune of 16,000 guilders that the siege of Sluis would not last two years. It was decided that a hofje would be the best option, in any of the bets paid out. The garden of this used to be part of a famed garden from the St Anthonys monastery. The St. Anthony order was associated with the Vrouwe- en Antonie Gasthuys. The Norbertines who tended the garden wore white scapulars, thus the name of the street, White gentlemen street. They remained there until 1543, when the lands came under the control of the St. Elisabeth Gasthuis.
Their lands were confiscated and secularized in 1581 by the city council after the Protestant Reformation, just as all other Catholic buildings. Two years later, in 1607, the provost Jacobus Zaffius sponsored an additional 5 rooms, Jacobus Zaffius had been abbot in the St. Anthonys monastery in Heiloo from 1578 to 1571, when he became provost of the Sint-Bavokerk. He witnessed the iconoclasm and 3 years went to jail for refusal to turn over Catholic property to the city council. William of Orange granted him amnesty, and it was on occasion that he made his donation to the hofje. The hofje currently has 10 rooms for women, who must have an age of 60 years
Frans Hals the Elder was a Dutch Golden Age portrait painter who lived and worked in Haarlem. He is notable for his loose painterly brushwork, and he helped introduce this style of painting into Dutch art. Hals played an important role in the evolution of 17th-century group portraiture, Hals was born in 1582 or 1583 in Antwerp as the son of cloth merchant Franchois Fransz Hals van Mechelen and his second wife Adriaentje van Geertenryck. Like many, Hals parents fled during the Fall of Antwerp from the Spanish Netherlands to Haarlem, Hals studied under Flemish émigré Karel van Mander, whose Mannerist influence, however, is barely noticeable in Hals work. In 1610, Hals became a member of the Haarlem Guild of Saint Luke and he worked on their large art collection that Karel van Mander had described in his Schilderboeck published in Haarlem in 1604. The most notable of these were the works of Geertgen tot Sint Jans, Jan van Scorel, the entire collection of paintings was not formally possessed by the city council until 1625, after the city fathers had decided which paintings were suitable for the city hall.
The remaining art that was considered too Roman Catholic was sold to Cornelis Claesz van Wieringen and it was in this cultural context that Hals began his career in portraiture, since the market had disappeared for religious themes. The earliest known example of Hals art is the portrait of Jacobus Zaffius and his breakthrough came with the life-sized group portrait The Banquet of the Officers of the St George Militia Company in 1616. His most noted portrait today is the one of René Descartes which he made in 1649, Frans Hals married his first wife Anneke Harmensdochter around 1610. Frans was of Catholic birth, however, so their marriage was recorded in the city hall, the exact date is unknown because the older marriage records of the Haarlem city hall before 1688 have not been preserved. Bavochurch where both are buried, though Frans took over 40 years to join his first wife there, Anneke died in 1615, shortly after the birth of their third child and, of the three, Harmen survived infancy and one had died before Hals second marriage.
As biographer Seymour Slive has pointed out, older stories of Frans Hals abusing his first wife were confused with another Haarlem resident of the same name. Indeed, at the time of charges, the artist had no wife to mistreat. After his first wife died, Hals took on the daughter of a fishmonger to look after his children and, in 1617. They married in Spaarndam, a village outside the banns of Haarlem. Frans Hals was a father, and they went on to have eight children. Contemporaries such as Rembrandt moved their households according to the caprices of their patrons, for this reason, we can be sure that all sitters were either from Haarlem or were visiting Haarlem when they had their portraits made. Hals work was in throughout his life, but he lived so long that he eventually went out of style as a painter
Frans Hals Museum
The Frans Hals Museum is a hofje that is home to the municipal museum in Haarlem, that was established in 1862. In 1950, the museum was split in two locations when the collection of art was moved to the Museum De Hallen. The main collection, including its famous 17th-century Frans Hals paintings, the Haarlem Oude Mannenhuis was a hofje founded in 1609. The residential rooms were situated around a courtyard in the style of contemporary Haarlem Hofjes, each of the thirty little houses was inhabited by two men, to be eligible to living there they had to be at least 60 years old, honest Haarlem residents, and single. They were required to bring their own household goods listed as a bed, a chair with a cushion and they were locked in each night at eight oclock in the summer and at seven in the winter. The residents had to make a collection with a poor-box. The old mens home was governed by five regents, whose portraits, though the mens home dates from 1609, only the main hall is still mostly intact.
During the French occupation, the old men living in the hofje were moved a block away to the present-day Proveniershuis. The art of both locations, as well as the art of other former Haarlem institutions, is now in the Frans Hals museum collection. The most notable artworks from the Oude Mannenhuis are the two portraits of regents and regentesses by Frans Hals. The inventory of the Proveniershuis was drawn up by Pieter Langendijk and though some of the paintings have since been reattributed, the impressive regents rooms have been rebuilt from other Haarlem locations. A room on the side has a curious keystone above the door with masonic symbols denoting a masons society. Frans Hals himself worked as the first official city-paid restorer for some of these pieces, during this time the city hall functioned as a semi-public museum, though the term didnt even exist yet. From an inventory list in the city archives it can be seen that they used as a model for their system of naming and presentation and they shared the room with the Synod of the Dutch Reformed Church, that used it once every six years for its meetings.
They hired a woman for the dusting and serving tea, and in 1768 they hired a man as curator, who was responsible for the entire collection and the medical Hortus garden in the yard. The spacious room soon proved too small for the number of donated artifacts it received from its members, thanks to the increase in shipping and associated travel. In the late 18th century and early 19th century, Haarlem became a community of Amsterdam. The old paintings became just a backdrop for chests filled with stuffed animals
Seymour Slive was an American art historian, who served as director of the Harvard Art Museums from 1975 to 1991. He is considered an eminent scholar of Dutch art and more specifically of Rembrandt, Frans Hals, a Chicago native and the son of Russian-Jewish immigrants Daniel Slive and Sonia Rapoport, Slive received his BA in 1943 and PhD in 1952, both from the University of Chicago. He served in the Naval Reserve during World War II, starting in his Junior year of college, while there, he published his first book and His Critics, 1630–1730. In 1954, he joined Harvard University, where he became a full seven years in 1961. He was appointed chair of the Department of Fine Arts in 1968 until 1971 and he lectured as Slade Professor at Oxford University during the 1972/1973 academic year. In 1973, Slive was appointed Gleason Professor of Fine Arts and he was the founded director under the museums creation and expansion of the Arthur M. Sackler Museum. He retired emeritus from Harvard in 1991 as the Elizabeth and John Moore Cabot Founding Director of the Harvard University Art Museums, in 2014, Slive was bestowed the honorary degree of Doctor of Arts from Harvard University for his contributions to the world of fine art.
Jowell, Koos Levy-van Halm and Liesbeth Abraham, Bianca M. 320–21, Profile at Dictionary of Art Historians Profile at International Dictionary of Art Historians
The Biografisch Portaal is an initiative based at the Huygens Institute for Dutch History in The Hague, with the aim of making biographical texts of the Netherlands more accessible. As of 2011, only information about deceased people is included. The system used is based on the standards of the Text Encoding Initiative, access to the Biografisch Portaal is available free through a web-based interface. The project is an undertaking by ten scientific and cultural bodies in the Netherlands with the Huygens Institute as main contact. In February 2012, a new project was started called BiographyNed to build a tool for use with the Biografisch Portaal that will link biographies to events in time. The main goal of the project is to formulate ‘the boundaries of the Netherlands’. List of Dutch people Official website
Heiloo is a municipality and town in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. The community is part of the cooperation region Kennemerland and is located in the region of West Friesland. Heiloo had a population of 22,620 in 2014, Heiloo was given its name because Saint Willibrord was said to have performed a miracle there around 690 and created a church on a small hill. It has a town dating from 1926 and a church from the 12th century known as the Witte Kerk. In the late Middle Ages, after a miracle, a Marian shrine came into being for Our Lady to Need, the chapel was destroyed during the Reformation, however the pilgrimage started to flourish again when in the seventeenth century a source with miraculous water started to sprout. In the 1950s and 1960s the population grew quickly as many residents of Amsterdam moved to the area, many residents work and attend school in the neighbouring city of Alkmaar. J. Romeyn Heiloo is connected to the Dutch railway network by Heiloo railway station, from this station there are many destinations available such as, Hoorn, Zaandam, Utrecht, s-Hertogenbosch, The Hague, Roermond and Heerlen.
For the Zaanse Schans, you should travel to Uitgeest and change onto a train to Koog-Zaandijk There used to be a stop on the railway line between Heiloo and Limmen. Until October 2013 it was used once a month to bring pilgrims to the nearby chapel, the name of both station and chapel is Onze lieve vrouwe ter nood or Our Lady to Need, the station was known as Runxputte until 1914. One of the platforms was demolished in 1997 for safety reasons, adriaan Venema, journalist Jos Brink and theater personality Guus Janssen and pianist Jacques Zoon, flautist Maarten van Roozendaal, singer
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records