Jacopo de' Barbari

Jacopo de' Barbari, sometimes known or referred to as de'Barbari, de Barberi, de Barbari, Barberino, Barbarigo or Barberigo, was an Italian painter and printmaker with a individual style. He moved from Venice to Germany in 1500, thus becoming the first Italian Renaissance artist of stature to work in Northern Europe, his few surviving paintings include the first known example of trompe l'oeil since antiquity. His twenty-nine engravings and three large woodcuts were highly influential, his place and date of birth are unknown, but he was described as a Venetian by contemporaries, including Albrecht Dürer, as'old and weak' in 1511, so dates of between 1450 and 1470 have been proposed. Since the earlier part of the range would have him achieve sudden prominence at the age of nearly fifty, the part would seem more likely. There have been suggestions he was of German extraction, he signed most of his engravings with a caduceus, the sign of Mercury, the Munich Still-Life with Partridge and Gauntlets with this below his name: "Jac.o de barbarj p 1504" on the painted piece of paper.

He was not of the important Venetian Barbaro family as he was never listed in that family's genealogy. Nothing is known about his first decades, he left Venice for Germany in 1500, thereafter is better documented. There he worked for the Emperor Maximilian I in Nuremberg for a year in various places for Frederick the Wise of Saxony in 1503–5, before moving to the court of the Elector Joachim I of Brandenburg for about the years 1506–8. In Germany he was known as "Jacop Walch" from "Wälsch" meaning foreigner, a term used for Italians, he may have returned to Venice with Philip the Handsome of Burgundy, for whom he worked in the Netherlands. By March 1510 he was working for Philip's successor Archduchess Margaret in Mechelen. In January 1511 he fell ill and made a will, in March the Archduchess gave him a pension for life, on account of his age and weakness. By 1516 he had died, leaving the Archduchess in possession of twenty-three engraving plates, which since many of his plates were engraved on both sides, means some engravings may not have survived.

His earliest documented work is his huge and impressive woodcut aerial view Map of Venice, for which a privilege was granted to its publisher in 1500, recording that the work had taken three years. This drew on the work of many surveyors, but was a spectacular feat nonetheless, caused a considerable stir from the first, it was updated by others to reflect major new building projects in a second state of the print. Apart from the Map of Venice, he produced two other woodcuts, both of men and satyrs, which were the largest and most impressive figurative woodcuts yet produced, which established the Italian tradition of fine, woodcuts for the following decades; these may have been produced before 1500. By the time the Map of Venice was published de' Barbari had left for Germany, where he met Dürer, who he may have known from Dürer's first Italian trip, they discussed human proportion, not one of de' Barbari's strengths, but Dürer was evidently fascinated by what he had to say, though he recorded that de' Barberi had not told him everything he knew:...

I find no one who has written anything about how to make canon of human proportions except for a man named Jacob, born in Venice and a charming painter. He showed me a man and a woman which he had made according to measure, so that I would now rather see what he meant than behold a new kingdom... Jacobus did not want to show his principles to me that I saw well. Twenty years Dürer tried unsuccessfully to get the Archduchess Margaret, Habsburg Regent of the Netherlands, to give him a manuscript book she had on the subject by de' Barbari, by dead. De' Barberi spent a year in Nuremberg, where Dürer lived, in 1500–1, influences flowed in both directions between him and Dürer for a number of years. None of his engravings are dated, so much of the dating of them depends on resemblances to dated prints by Dürer. Five of his engravings were in an album of Hartmann Schedel's, bound up in December 1504, which gives further evidence as to dating. De' Barberi had made some engravings before leaving Italy, but his best engravings were done after his move to Germany in 1500.

Some of his paintings are dated as: 1500, 1503, 1504, 1508. Documents relating to his employment by Maximilian suggest his work was to include illuminating manuscripts, but no work in this medium has been attributed to him, his only accepted drawing is a Cleopatra in the British Museum done as a study for an engraving which has not survived. His style is related to his possible master, Alvise Vivarini and to Giovanni Bellini, but has a languorous quality all its own. Apart from Dürer, the influence of Mantegna's technique appears in what are the earlier engravings, done around the turn of the century, with parallel hatching, his engravings are small, showing just a few figures. Truculent satyrs feature in several prints.

List of artificial objects in heliocentric orbit

Below is a list of artificial objects in heliocentric orbit. This list does not include objects that are escaping from the Solar System, upper stages from robotic missions, or objects in the Sun–Earth Lagrange points; the United States has placed in heliocentric orbit: Pioneer 4Moon Ranger 3 – Moon Ranger 5 – Moon Mariner 2Venus Mariner 3 – Intended for Mars, communication lost when launch shroud failed to separate Mariner 4 – Mars Mariner 5 – Venus Pioneer 5, Pioneer 6, Pioneer 7, Pioneer 8, Pioneer 9 – Sun S-IVB for Apollo 8 S-IVB for Apollo 9 S-IVB and LM Snoopy for Apollo 10 S-IVB for Apollo 11 Mariner 6 and Mariner 7 – Mars S-IVB for Apollo 12 – temporarily recaptured in Earth orbit 2002, escaped again 2003 ICE – Comets Giocabinni-Zinner and Halley Mariner 10 – Venus and Mercury Mars Observer – Intended for Mars, failed prior to orbital insertion Protective cover of Cassini CDA instrument StardustComet Wild 2 Genesis – Solar wind sample mission CONTOUR – Intended to flyby several comets, failed after launch, seen as three separate fragments Spitzer Space Telescope Deep ImpactComet Tempel 1 STEREO-A and STEREO-B Kepler Mission TAGSAM head cover – jettisoned from OSIRIS-REx MarCO-A and MarCO-B – CubeSat relays for InSight Parker Solar Probe On Apollos 8 and 10–17, each S-IVB upper stage jettisoned four sections of a truncated conical adapter that supported the Apollo service module and enclosed the Apollo Lunar Module.

These panels are in heliocentric orbit, including those from Apollos 13–17 whose S-IVBs impacted the Moon, as the S-IVBs jettisoned them before maneuvering themselves into lunar impact trajectories. The panels continued on lunar flyby trajectories into heliocentric orbit. U. S.-based commercial spaceflight companies have placed in heliocentric orbit: Elon Musk's Tesla Roadster with Falcon Heavy second stage The Soviet Union or the Russian Federation has placed in heliocentric orbit: Luna 1 – Intended to crash on Moon Venera 1 – Intended for Venus, communication lost en route Mars 1 – Intended for Mars, communication lost en route Zond 2 – Intended for Mars, communication lost en route Zond 3 – Moon and interplanetary space Venera 2 – Venus Mars 4 – Intended to orbit Mars, but retrorocket failed, mission partial success Mars 6 coast stage – Mars Mars 7 coast stage – Mars Mars 7 lander – Intended to land on Mars, but missed planet Venera 11 cruise stage – Venus Venera 12 cruise stage – Venus Venera 13 cruise stage – Venus Venera 14 cruise stage – Venus Vega 1 – Venus and Halley's Comet Vega 2 – Venus and Halley's Comet Phobos 1 – Intended for Mars and moon Phobos, communication lost en route The European Space Agency has placed in heliocentric orbit: Helios 1 – Sun Helios 2 – Sun Giotto mission – Halley's Comet UlyssesJupiter and Sun's north and south poles Japan has placed in heliocentric orbit: Sakigake – Halley's Comet Suisei – Halley's Comet Nozomi – Intended for Mars, but retrorocket failed MINERVA mini-lander – Intended for asteroid Itokawa but missed IKAROS – Venus flyby DCAM1 & DCAM2 – Ejected from IKAROS SHIN-EN – failed mission to Venus SHIN-EN 2 – amateur radio satellite, material demonstration ARTSAT2:DESPATCH – Deep space artwork China has placed in heliocentric orbit: Chang'e 2 – asteroid 4179 Toutatis flyby


Venafro is a comune in the province of Isernia, region of Molise, Italy. It has a population of around 11,000, having expanded in the post-war period. Situated at the foot of Mount Santa Croce, elevation 1,026 metres above sea level, at a height of 222 metres above sea level, the elevation of the municipal territory varies from 158 to 1,205 metres above sea level; the municipality stretches along the homonymous plain crossed by the Volturno and San Bartolomeo rivers whose sources are located in the center of the Venafro plain. Other notable mountains are: Monte Sambucaro at 1,205 metres, Monte Cesima at 1,180 metres, Monte Corno at 1,054 metres, Monte Santa Croce or Cerino, at 1,026 metres, Colle San Domenico at 921 metres. Once a part of the province of Terra di Lavoro in Campania, the city is now known as the door of Molise and is of major importance to the socio-economic dynamics of the province due to its developed economy, is considered one of the four central industrial cores in the region.

Venafro since ancient times is known for its mild climate. Winter is quite cold with rain. Frosts are common; the intermediate seasons are milder but with frequent precipitation. Summer is hot with temperatures reaching 30 °C; this mild climate derives from being in an exposed southern plain closed from the mountains. Although its founding is attributed to Diomedes, child of Tydeus and Deipyle, characters in Greek mythology, the ancient name of Venafrum derives from Samnite sources. On the plain, there have been found numerous findings that suggest the existence of human settlements in prehistoric times; the only occasion on which Venafrum figures prominently in history is during the Social War, 88 BCE, when it was betrayed into the hands of the Samnite leader Marius Egnatius, two Roman cohorts that formed the garrison were put to the sword. Lucius Cornelius Sulla razed settlements around present day Venafro. In January 49 BCE, coming from Theano, camped nearby. Cicero more than once alludes to the great fertile ground of the territory, that the tribune Rullus proposed by his agrarian law to divide among the Roman citizens.

This project proved abortive, but a colony was founded at Venafrum under Augustus, the city continued henceforth to bear the title of Colonia, found both in Point's works and in inscriptions. In the Augustan era, much attention was given to the aqueduct that carried water of the Volturno river from Rocchetta a Volturno. Tye town is mentioned by Horace as a resort, renowned for its amenities, while Pliny the Elder speaks of the waters located there. In Roman times the economy developed a renowned olive oil industry which according to legend was brought by Licinius; when the Romans brought Christianity to the Apennine Plains, a bishopric for the Roman Catholic church was established in the 5th century. Between 774 and 787 the Venafro plain was crossed by the troops of Charlemagne, which clashed with the Lombards of the Principality of Benevento. According to Monte Cassino chronicler Erchempertus, in 861, Venafro was occupied by Emir Sawdan of the Emirate of Bari. After the dark period of the Middle Ages, which saw Venafro sinking into poverty and disease in centuries the city enjoyed an era of expansion and prosperity, with numerous churches and palaces dating from that era that changed the face of the city.

Feudal families that reigned over Venafro were the Savelli, Spinelli and the Caracciolo of Miranda, Italy. From autumn 1943 to spring of 1944 Venafro was the scene of bitter fighting between the Germans, entrenched in the mountains to the north and the British – French – U. S. along the Gustav Line, during the Battle of Monte Cassino. Mistaken for Monte Cassino, Venafro was hit hard by aerial bombing on March 15, 1944. Venafro until 1863 was included in the territory of the Terra di Lavoro, until the establishment of the province of Campobasso was annexed to that territory, got incorporated into the Molise region. In 1970, it was incorporated into the newly formed province of Isernia, despite controversy and violent protests that favored to remain part of the province of Caserta. In the spring of 1984, the city was damaged by the earthquake originating in the nearby Valle di Comino, in the province of Frosinone. In 1987, the city was named by Censis, one of the 100 municipalities of the "Great Little Italy."

Since 1994, it has been a member of the ANCO. On April 25, 2005 Venafro was awarded the Gold Medal for Civil Valor from the President of the Republic, Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, for its valor during the air bombardment it suffered during World War II. Venafro can be divided into two distinct areas: the old town, of Roman origin, enclosed by walls and dominated by Castle Pandone, new town that has several newly developed neighborhoods; the old town was built on the existing Roman urban structure and many of the buildings still have Roman foundations. It was depopulated from the 1960s and many buildings were damaged by successive earthquakes. Government fundin