Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Gonaïves is a commune in northern Haiti, the capital of the Artibonite department of Haiti. It has a population of about 300,000 people; the city of Gonaïves was founded in 1422 by Indians. It is known as Haiti's "independence city"; the Bay of Gonaïves is named after the town. In 1802 an important battle of the Haitian Revolution, the Battle of Ravine-à-Couleuvres was fought near Gonaïves. Gonaïves is known as Haiti's City of Independence because it was there that Jean-Jacques Dessalines declared Haiti, the former Saint-Domingue, independent from France on January 1, 1804, by reading the Act of Independence, drafted by Boisrond Tonnerre, on the Place d'Armes of the town. Marie-Claire Heureuse Félicité, the wife of Jean-Jacques Dessalines, died here in August 1858. In the early 2000s, Gonaïves was the scene of substantial rioting and violence motivated by opposition to President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, on February 5, 2004, a group calling itself the Revolutionary Artibonite Resistance Front seized control of the city, starting the 2004 Haïtian rebellion.
But in recent years the city has seen a complete return to calmness. In September 2004, Hurricane Jeanne caused major flooding and mudslides in the city. Four years the city was again devastated by another storm, Hurricane Hanna, which killed 529 people in flooded sections of Gonaïves, where the destruction was described as "catastrophic" and 495 bodies were discovered as late as September 5. Haitian authorities said the tally would grow once officials were able to make their way through the city. "The assessment was only partial, because it was impossible to enter the city at that moment". Gonaïves Mayor Stephen Moise said at least 48,000 people from the Gonaïves area were forced into shelters. Gonaives has some training centers. Gonaives is home to the renovated La Providence Hospital. Gonaives has some major league teams of which Eclair AC and Racing FC. Radio Redemption 100.9 FM Radio Xplosion 96.5 FM Tele Radio new star fm 99.9 Chaine 13 Radio Continentale 99.5 FM Radio Sun 91.3 FM Radio Independence 101.5 FM stations affiliées: radio Metropole 100.1, Lavwadlamerik Radio Mega Max 95.9 FM Radio Kiss FM 96.9 Radio Provinciale 95.3 FM Radio Pyramide FM Radio Trans-Artibonite Radio Gonaïves 97.7 FM Radio Trans Atlantique 102.5 FM Radio Etincelle Radio Nouvelle Vision Chrétienne Radio Intrepide 97.3 FM Radio Tambou FM Radio Express FM Radio Classic Inter FM Radio 4VEG FM Radio Espace FM Radio KL 2000 FM Radio Super Vision FM Radio Megamax FM Radio Main Dans La Main FM Radio Clarté 103.9 FM Radio Vision 2000 98.1 FM Radio Télé 2004 Maurice Sixto Ralph Chapoteau Ti Manno Latortue, Paul R. "Gonaives: the last 50 years" Caribbean Studies, Vol. 34, Núm.
1, enero-junio, 2006, pp. 263–274 University of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs. The department is the world's largest broadcast news organisation and generates about 120 hours of radio and television output each day, as well as online news coverage; the service maintains 50 foreign news bureaus with more than 250 correspondents around the world. Fran Unsworth has been Director of News and Current Affairs since January 2018; the department's annual budget is in excess of £350 million. BBC News' domestic and online news divisions are housed within the largest live newsroom in Europe, in Broadcasting House in central London. Parliamentary coverage is broadcast from studios in Millbank in London. Through the BBC English Regions, the BBC has regional centres across England, as well as national news centres in Northern Ireland and Wales. All nations and English regions produce their own local news programmes and other current affairs and sport programmes.
The BBC is a quasi-autonomous corporation authorised by Royal Charter, making it operationally independent of the government, who have no power to appoint or dismiss its director-general, required to report impartially. As with all major media outlets it has been accused of political bias from across the political spectrum, both within the UK and abroad; the British Broadcasting Company broadcast its first radio bulletin from radio station.2LO In 14 November 1922. Wishing to avoid competition, newspaper publishers persuaded the government to ban the BBC from broadcasting news before 7:00 pm, to force it to use wire service copy instead of reporting on its own. On Easter weekend in 1930, this reliance on newspaper wire services left the radio news service with no information to report after saying There is no news today. Piano music was played instead; the BBC gained the right to edit the copy and, in 1934, created its own news operation. However, it could not broadcast news before 6 PM until World War II.
Gaumont British and Movietone cinema newsreels had been broadcast on the TV service since 1936, with the BBC producing its own equivalent Television Newsreel programme from January 1948. A weekly Children's Newsreel was inaugurated on 23 April 1950, to around 350,000 receivers; the network began simulcasting its radio news on television in 1946, with a still picture of Big Ben. Televised bulletins began on 5 July 1954, broadcast from leased studios within Alexandra Palace in London; the public's interest in television and live events was stimulated by Elizabeth II's coronation in 1953. It is estimated that up to 27 million people viewed the programme in the UK, overtaking radio's audience of 12 million for the first time; those live pictures were fed from 21 cameras in central London to Alexandra Palace for transmission, on to other UK transmitters opened in time for the event. That year, there were around two million TV Licences held in the UK, rising to over three million the following year, four and a half million by 1955.
Television news, although physically separate from its radio counterpart, was still under radio news' control – correspondents provided reports for both outlets–and that first bulletin, shown on 5 July 1954 on the BBC television service and presented by Richard Baker, involved his providing narration off-screen while stills were shown. This was followed by the customary Television Newsreel with a recorded commentary by John Snagge, it was revealed that this had been due to producers fearing a newsreader with visible facial movements would distract the viewer from the story. On-screen newsreaders were introduced a year in 1955 – Kenneth Kendall, Robert Dougall, Richard Baker–three weeks before ITN's launch on 21 September 1955. Mainstream television production had started to move out of Alexandra Palace in 1950 to larger premises – at Lime Grove Studios in Shepherd's Bush, west London – taking Current Affairs with it, it was from here that the first Panorama, a new documentary programme, was transmitted on 11 November 1953, with Richard Dimbleby becoming anchor in 1955.
On 18 February 1957, the topical early-evening programme Tonight, hosted by Cliff Michelmore and designed to fill the airtime provided by the abolition of the Toddlers' Truce, was broadcast from Marconi's Viking Studio in St Mary Abbott's Place, Kensington – with the programme moving into a Lime Grove studio in 1960, where it maintained its production office. On 28 October 1957, the Today programme, a morning radio programme, was launched in central London on the Home Service. In 1958, Hugh Carleton Greene became head of Current Affairs, he set up a BBC study group whose findings, published in 1959, were critical of what the television news operation had become under his predecessor, Tahu Hole. The report proposed that the head of television news should take control, that the television service should have a proper newsroom of its own, with an editor-of-the-day. On 1 January 1960, Greene became Director-General and brought about big changes at BBC Television and BBC Television News. BBC Television News had been created in 1955, in response to the founding of ITN.
The changes made by Greene were aimed at making BBC reporting more similar to ITN, rated by study groups held by Greene. A newsroom was created at Alexandra Palace, television reporters were recruited and given the opportunity to write and voice their own scripts–without the "impossible burden" of having to cover stories for radio too. In 1987 thirty years John B
Jacques Stephen Alexis
Jacques Stephen Alexis was a Haitian communist novelist and activist. He is best known for his novels Compère Général Soleil, Les Arbres Musiciens, L'Espace d'un Cillement, for his collection of short stories, Romancero aux Etoiles. Alexis was born in Gonaïves, the son of journalist and diplomat Stephen Alexis and descendant of one of Haiti's founding fathers, Jean-Jacques Dessalines. Alexis grew up in a family in which political discussions were the norm. At the age of 18, he made what was regarded as remarkable literary debut with an essay about the Haitian poet, Hamilton Garoute, he collaborated on a number of literary reviews, before founding La Ruche, a group dedicated to creating a literary and social spring in Haiti in the early 1940s. After completing medical school in Paris, he traveled throughout Europe and lived for a few years in Cuba. In 1955, his novel Compère Général Soleil, was published by Gallimard in Paris; the novel has been translated into English as General Sun, My Brother, is a must-read for all those with an interest in understanding Haiti.
He followed up with "Les Arbres Musiciens", L'Espace d'un Cillement, "Romanceros aux Etoiles". More than just an intellectual, Jacques Stephen Alexis was an active participant in the social and political debates of his time. In 1959, he formed the People's Consensus Party, a left-wing political party, but he was forced into exile by the Duvalier dictatorship. In August 1960, he attended a Moscow meeting of representatives of 81 communist parties from all over the world, signed a common accord document called "The Declaration of the 81" in the name of Haitian communists. In April 1961, he returned to Haiti, but soon after landing at Môle-Saint-Nicolas he was captured by a Tonton Macoute paramilitary force, he was taken to the town's main square where he was tortured and put on a boat to Port-au-Prince. His death in confinement was confirmed by an obscure notice in the government newspaper buried on page 14, he is survived by his wife Andree Roumer, niece of eminent Haitian poet Émile Roumer, his daughter Florence and his son, modern Afro-Caribbean artist Jean-Jacques Stephen Alexis.
Maximilien Laroche, Le Romancero aux étoiles et l'œuvre romanesque de Jacques-Stephen Alexis, 1978 Maximilien Laroche, Le réalisme merveilleux dans Les arbres musiciens de Jacques-Stéphen Alexis, GRELCA, 1987 Maximilien Laroche, Contribution à l'étude du réalisme merveilleux, Collection Essais, Québec, GRELCA. 1987 N. B. Many other books and articles of Maximilien Laroche analyse the Works of Jacques Stephen Alexis. Professor Laroche having contributed to the making better known the importance of Jacques Stephen Alexis, his students at Laval University and around the world have published many books and articles -some of which can be found at the Library of Lava lUniversity l. Schutt-Ainé, Patricia. Haiti: A Basic Reference Book. Miami, Florida: Librairie Au Service de la Culture. P. 100. ISBN 0-9638599-0-0
Al Jazeera known as JSC, is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network. Launched as an Arabic news and current-affairs satellite TV channel, Al Jazeera has since expanded into a network with several outlets, including the Internet and specialty television channels in multiple languages. Al Jazeera Media Network is a major global news organization, with 80 bureaux around the world; the original Al Jazeera Arabic channel's willingness to broadcast dissenting views, for example on call-in shows, created controversies in the Arab States of the Persian Gulf. The station gained worldwide attention following the outbreak of the war in Afghanistan, when its office there was the only channel to cover the war live. Al Jazeera Media Network is owned by the government of Qatar. Al Jazeera Media Network has stated that they are editorially independent from the government of Qatar as the network is funded through loans and grants rather than government subsidies. Critics have accused Al Jazeera of being a propaganda outlet for the Qatari government.
The network is sometimes perceived to have Islamist perspectives, promoting the Muslim Brotherhood, having a pro-Sunni and an anti-Shia bias in its reporting of regional issues. However, Al Jazeera insists. In June 2017, the Saudi, Emirati and Egyptian governments demanded the closure of the news station as one of thirteen demands made to Qatar during the 2017 Qatar Crisis. Other media networks have spoken out in support of the network. According to The Atlantic magazine, Al Jazeera presents a far more moderate, Westernized face than Islamic jihadism or rigid Sunni orthodoxy, though the network has been criticized as "an'Islamist' stalking horse" it features "very little religious content in its broadcasts". In Arabic, al-ǧazīrah means "the island". However, it refers here to the Arabian Peninsula, شبه الجزيرة العربية šibh al-ğazīrah al-ʿarabiyyah, abbreviated to الجزيرة العربية al-ğazīrah al-ʿarabiyyah. Al Jazeera Satellite Channel, now known as AJA, was launched on 1 November 1996 following the closure of the BBC's Arabic language television station, a joint venture with Orbit Communications Company.
The BBC channel had closed after a year and a half when the Iranian government attempted to suppress information, including a graphic report on executions and prominent dissident views. The Emir of Qatar, Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa, provided a loan of QAR 500 million to sustain Al Jazeera through its first five years, as Hugh Miles detailed in his book Al Jazeera: The Inside Story of the Arab News Channel That Is Challenging the West. Shares were held by private investors as well as the Qatar government. Al Jazeera's first day on the air was 1 November 1996, it offered 6 hours of programming per day. It was broadcast to the immediate neighborhood as a terrestrial signal, on cable, as well as through satellites, although Qatar, many other Arab countries, barred private individuals from having satellite dishes until 2001. At the time of the Al Jazeera Media Network launch Arabsat was the only satellite broadcasting to the Middle East, for the first year could only offer Al Jazeera a weak C-band transponder that needed a large satellite dish for reception.
A more powerful Ku-band transponder became available as a peace-offering after its user, Canal France International, accidentally beamed 30 minutes of pornography into ultraconservative Saudi Arabia. Al Jazeera was not the first such broadcaster in the Middle East; the unfolding of Operation Desert Storm on CNN International underscored the power of live television in current events. While other local broadcasters in the region would assiduously avoid material embarrassing to their home governments, Al Jazeera was pitched as an impartial news source and platform for discussing issues relating to the Arab world. In presenting "The opinion and the other opinion", it did not take long for Al Jazeera to shock local viewers by presenting Israelis speaking Hebrew on Arab television for the first time. Lively and far-ranging talk shows a popular, confrontational one called The Opposite Direction, were a constant source of controversy regarding issues of morality and religion; this prompted a torrent of criticism from the conservative voices among the region's press.
It led to official complaints and censures from neighboring governments. Some expelled its correspondents. In 1999, the Algerian government cut power to several major cities in order to censor one broadcast. There were commercial repercussions: Saudi Arabia pressured advertisers to avoid the channel, to great effect. Al Jazeera was the only international news network to have correspondents in Iraq during the Operation Desert Fox bombing campaign in 1998. In a precursor of a pattern to follow, its exclusive video clips were prized by Western media. 1 January 1999 was Al Jazeera's first day of 24-hour broadcasting. Employment had more than tripled in one year to 500 employees, the agenc
Université d'État d'Haïti
The Université d'État d'Haïti is one of Haiti's most prestigious institutions of higher education. It is located in Port-au-Prince, its origins date to the 1820s, when colleges of law were established. In 1942, the various faculties merged into the University of Haiti. After a student strike in 1960, François Duvalier's government brought the university under firm government control and renamed it the State University of Haiti. In 1983, the University became an independent institution according to the Haitian constitution; the University's independent status was confirmed in the Haitian constitution of 1987. In 1981, there were 4,099 students at the University of Haiti, of whom 26% were enrolled in the School of Law and Economics, 25% in the School of Medicine and Pharmacy, 17% in the School of Administration and Management, 11% in the School of Science and Topography. Despite the important role played by agriculture in the Haitian economy, only 5% of the university's students were enrolled in the School of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine.
In 1981, the University of Haiti had 559 professors, compared to 207 in 1967. Most professors worked part-time, were paid on an hourly basis, had little time for contact with students. UEH suffered severe shortages of books and other materials; as of 2010, tuition was US$15 a year. However, while this made it more affordable for many Haitians than other forms of tertiary education in the country, competition for places was fierce; the university accepted only 15% of applicants for undergraduate places, while its dentistry school had just 20 places for about 800 applicants yearly. Among its past rectors, the University includes Jean Price Mars; the university's buildings were destroyed during the earthquake of January 12, 2010. A consortium of black colleges in the United States was formed to help rebuild part of the campus. After the earthquake, the government of the Dominican Republic paid for the construction of a new university campus near the town of Limonade in northern Haiti, called the Université d'État d'Haïti, Campus Henri Christophe de Limonade.
The Éditions de l'Université d'État d'Haïti was launched in 2006 with Professor Hérard Jadotte at its helm as Director. Its mission is to promote research through the publication and dissemination of scientific texts, to diversify the documentary resources for the academic community and the general public and to improve university education; the Éditions de l'Université d'État d'Haïti publishes scientific and didactic works for teachers and researchers, the best end-of-studies dissertations supported at UEH, classics belonging to the Haitian intellectual heritage, research published abroad of interest to the academic community, scientific journals, symposium proceedings. By June 2014 it had a catalogue of 70 academic and research publications, with another 20 titles slated to launch in the fall. École Normale Supérieure Faculté d'Agronomie et de Médecine Vétérinaire Faculté des Sciences Humaines Faculté des Sciences Faculté de Droit et des Sciences Economique Faculté d'Ethnologie Faculté de Linguistique Appliquée Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie Faculté d'Odontologie Institut d'Études et de Recherches Africaines Institut National d'Administration, de Gestion et de Hautes Etudes Internationales Centre de Techniques de Planification et d'Économie Appliquée École de Droit et des Sciences Économiques des Gonaïves École de Droit de Hinche Campus Henri Christophe de Limonade Faculté de Droit, des Sciences Économiques et de Gestion du Cap-Haïtien École de Droit et d'Économie de Port-de-Paix École de Droit et des Sciences Économiques de Fort-Liberté École de Droit et des Sciences Économiques des Cayes École de Droit de Jacmel Université d'Etat d'Haïti Université d'Etat d'Haiti at Haiti-Reference.com
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr