Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, paper money and related objects. While numismatists are characterised as students or collectors of coins, the discipline includes the broader study of money and other payment media used to resolve debts and the exchange of goods. Early money used by people is referred to as "Odd and Curious", but the use of other goods in barter exchange is excluded where used as a circulating currency; the Kyrgyz people gave small change in lambskins. Many objects have been used for centuries, such as cowry shells, precious metals, cocoa beans, large stones and gems. Today, most transactions take place by a form of payment with either inherent, standardized, or credit value. Numismatic value is the value in excess of the monetary value conferred by law, known as the collector value. Economic and historical studies of money's use and development are an integral part of the numismatists' study of money's physical embodiment. First attested in English 1829, the word numismatics comes from the adjective numismatic, meaning "of coins".
It was borrowed in 1792 from French numismatiques, itself a derivation from Late Latin numismatis, genitive of numisma, a variant of nomisma meaning "coin". Nomisma is a latinisation of the Greek νόμισμα which means "current coin/custom", which derives from νομίζω, "to hold or own as a custom or usage, to use customarily", in turn from νόμος, "usage, custom" from νέμω, "I dispense, assign, hold". Throughout its history, money itself has been made to be a scarce good, although it does not have to be. Many materials have been used to form money, from scarce precious metals and cowry shells through cigarettes to artificial money, called fiat money, such as banknotes. Many complementary currencies use time as a unit of measure, using mutual credit accounting that keeps the balance of money intact. Modern money is a token – an abstraction. Paper currency is the most common type of physical money today. However, goods such as gold or silver retain many of the essential properties of money, such as volatility and limited supply.
However, these goods are not controlled by one single authority. Coin collecting may have existed in ancient times. Caesar Augustus gave "coins of every device, including old pieces of the kings and foreign money" as Saturnalia gifts. Petrarch, who wrote in a letter that he was approached by vinediggers with old coins asking him to buy or to identify the ruler, is credited as the first Renaissance collector. Petrarch presented a collection of Roman coins to Emperor Charles IV in 1355; the first book on coins was De Asse et Partibus by Guillaume Budé. During the early Renaissance ancient coins were collected by European nobility. Collectors of coins were Pope Boniface VIII, Emperor Maximilian of the Holy Roman Empire, Louis XIV of France, Ferdinand I, Elector Joachim II of Brandenburg who started the Berlin coin cabinet and Henry IV of France to name a few. Numismatics is called the "Hobby of Kings", due to its most esteemed founders. Professional societies organised in the 19th century; the Royal Numismatic Society was founded in 1836 and began publishing the journal that became the Numismatic Chronicle.
The American Numismatic Society was founded in 1858 and began publishing the American Journal of Numismatics in 1866. In 1931 the British Academy launched the Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum publishing collections of Ancient Greek coinage; the first volume of Sylloge of Coins of the British Isles was published in 1958. In the 20th century coins gained recognition as archaeological objects, scholars such as Guido Bruck of the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna realised their value in providing a temporal context and the difficulty that curators faced when identifying worn coins using classical literature. After World War II in Germany a project, Fundmünzen der Antike was launched, to register every coin found within Germany; this idea found successors in many countries. In the United States, the US mint established a coin Cabinet in 1838 when chief coiner Adam Eckfeldt donated his personal collection. William E. Du Bois’ Pledges of History... describes the cabinet. C. Wyllys Betts' American colonial history illustrated by contemporary medals set the groundwork for the study of American historical medals.
Helen Wang's "A short history of Chinese numismatics in European languages" gives an outline history of Western countries' understanding of Chinese numismatics. Lyce Jankowski's Les amis des monnaies is an in-depth study of Chinese numismatics in China in the 19th century. Modern numismatics is the study of the coins of the mid-17th century onward, the period of machine-struck coins, their study serves more the need of collectors than historians and it is more successfully pursued by amateur aficionados than by professional scholars. The focus of modern numismatics lies in the research of production and use of money in historical contexts using mint or other records in order to determine the relative rarity of the coins they study. Varieties, mint-made errors, the results of progressive die wear, mintage figures and the sociopolitical context of coin mintings are matters of interest. Exonumia is the study of coin-like objects such as token coins and medals, other items used in place of legal currency or for commemoration.
This includes elongated coins, encased coins, souvenir medallions, badges, counterstamped coins
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Philately is the study of stamps and postal history and other related items. It refers to the collection and research activities on stamps and other philatelic products. Philately involves more than just stamp collecting, which does not involve the study of stamps, it is possible to be a philatelist without owning any stamps. For instance, the stamps being studied may be rare, or reside only in museums; the word "philately" is the English translation of the French "philatélie", coined by Georges Herpin in 1864. Herpin stated that stamps had been collected and studied for the previous six or seven years and a better name was required for the new hobby than timbromanie, disliked, he took the Greek root word φιλ- phil-, meaning "an attraction or affinity for something", ἀτέλεια ateleia, meaning "exempt from duties and taxes" to form "philatelie". The introduction of postage stamps meant that the receipt of letters was now free of charge, whereas before stamps it was normal for postal charges to be paid by the recipient of a letter.
The alternative terms "timbromania", "timbrophily" and "timbrology" fell out of use as philately gained acceptance during the 1860s. Traditional philately is the study of the technical aspects of stamp production and stamp identification, including: The stamp design process The paper used The method of printing The gum The method of separation Any overprints on the stamp Any security markings, underprints or perforated initials The study of philatelic fakes and forgeries Thematic philately known as topical philately, is the study of what is depicted on individual stamps. There are hundreds of popular subjects, such as birds, ships, presidents, maps, space craft and insects on stamps. Stamps depicted on stamps constitute a topical area of collecting. Interesting aspects of topical philately include design alterations. Postal history studies the postal systems and how they operate and, or, the study of postage stamps and covers and associated material illustrating historical episodes of postal systems both before and after the introduction of the adhesive stamps.
It includes the study of postmarks, post offices, postal authorities, postal rates and regulations and the process by which letters are moved from sender to recipient, including routes and choice of conveyance. A classic example is the Pony Express, the fastest way to send letters across the United States during the few months that it operated. Covers that can be proven to have been sent by the Pony Express are prized by collectors. Aerophilately is the branch of postal history. Philatelists have observed the development of mail transport by air from its beginning, all aspects of airmail services have been extensively studied and documented by specialists. Astrophilately is the branch of postal history that specializes in the study of stamps and postmarked envelopes that are connected to the outer space. Postal stationery includes stamped envelopes, postal cards, letter sheets, aérogrammes and wrappers, most of which have an embossed or imprinted stamp or indicia indicating the prepayment of postage.
Erinnophilia is the study of objects that are not postal stamps. Examples include Easter Seals, Christmas Seals, propaganda labels, so forth. Philatelic literature documents the results of philatelic study and includes thousands of books and periodicals. Revenue philately is the study of stamps used to collect taxes or fees on such things as, legal documents, court fees, tobacco, alcoholic drinks and medicines, playing cards, hunting licenses and newspapers. Maximaphily is the study of Maximum Cards. Maximum Cards can be defined as a picture post card with postage stamp on the same theme and a cancellation, with a maximum concordance between all three. Youth philately is the study of stamps with colorful characters, it is aimed at getting kids to be interested in stamp collecting. Philately uses a number of tools, including stamp tongs to safely handle the stamps, a strong magnifying glass and a perforation gauge to measure the perforation gauge of the stamp; the identification of watermarks is important and may be done with the naked eye by turning the stamp over or holding it up to the light.
If this fails watermark fluid may be used, which "wets" the stamp to reveal the mark. Some tools are available online; these are collector clubs, enthusiast forums and trading platforms. Other common tools include stamp stock books and stamp hinges. Philatelic organisations sprang up soon after people started studying stamps, they include local and international clubs and societies where collectors come together to share the various aspects of their hobby. One of the most known organizations is the American Philatelic Society. List of notable postage stamps List of philatelic topics List of philatelists Postal history Stamp collecting Sefi, A. J. An Introduction to Advanced Philately, with special reference to typical methods of stamp production. London: Rowley & Rowley, 1926. Sutton, R. J. & K. W. Anthony; the Stamp Collector's Encyclopaedia. 6th edition. London: Stanley Paul, 1966. Williams, L. N. & M. Fundamentals of Philately. State College: The American Philatelic Society, 1971. Can Plastic Films
Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard flat surface by cutting grooves into it with a burin. The result may be a decorated object in itself, as when silver, steel, or glass are engraved, or may provide an intaglio printing plate, of copper or another metal, for printing images on paper as prints or illustrations. Engraving is one of the oldest and most important techniques in printmaking. Wood engraving is not covered in this article. Engraving was a important method of producing images on paper in artistic printmaking, in mapmaking, for commercial reproductions and illustrations for books and magazines, it has long been replaced by various photographic processes in its commercial applications and because of the difficulty of learning the technique, is much less common in printmaking, where it has been replaced by etching and other techniques. "Engraving" is loosely but incorrectly used for any old black and white print. Many old master prints combine techniques on the same plate, further confusing matters.
Line engraving and steel engraving cover use for reproductive prints, illustrations in books and magazines, similar uses in the 19th century, not using engraving. Traditional engraving, by burin or with the use of machines, continues to be practised by goldsmiths, glass engravers and others, while modern industrial techniques such as photoengraving and laser engraving have many important applications. Engraved gems were an important art in the ancient world, revived at the Renaissance, although the term traditionally covers relief as well as intaglio carvings, is a branch of sculpture rather than engraving, as drills were the usual tools. Other terms used for printed engravings are copper engraving, copper-plate engraving or line engraving. Steel engraving is the same technique, on steel or steel-faced plates, was used for banknotes, illustrations for books and reproductive prints and similar uses from about 1790 to the early 20th century, when the technique became less popular, except for banknotes and other forms of security printing.
In the past, "engraving" was used loosely to cover several printmaking techniques, so that many so-called engravings were in fact produced by different techniques, such as etching or mezzotint. "Hand engraving" is a term sometimes used for engraving objects other than printing plates, to inscribe or decorate jewellery, trophies and other fine metal goods. Traditional engravings in printmaking are "hand engraved", using just the same techniques to make the lines in the plate; each graver has its own use. Engravers use a hardened steel tool called a burin, or graver, to cut the design into the surface, most traditionally a copper plate. However, modern hand engraving artists use burins or gravers to cut a variety of metals such as silver, steel, gold and more, in applications from weaponry to jewellery to motorcycles to found objects. Modern professional engravers can engrave with a resolution of up to 40 lines per mm in high grade work creating game scenes and scrollwork. Dies used in mass production of molded parts are sometimes hand engraved to add special touches or certain information such as part numbers.
In addition to hand engraving, there are engraving machines that require less human finesse and are not directly controlled by hand. They are used for lettering, using a pantographic system. There are versions for the insides of rings and the outsides of larger pieces; such machines are used for inscriptions on rings and presentation pieces. Gravers come in a variety of sizes that yield different line types; the burin produces a unique and recognizable quality of line, characterized by its steady, deliberate appearance and clean edges. The angle tint tool has a curved tip, used in printmaking. Florentine liners are flat-bottomed tools with multiple lines incised into them, used to do fill work on larger areas or to create uniform shade lines that are fast to execute. Ring gravers are made with particular shapes that are used by jewelry engravers in order to cut inscriptions inside rings. Flat gravers are used for fill work on letters, as well as "wriggle" cuts on most musical instrument engraving work, remove background, or create bright cuts.
Knife gravers are for line engraving and deep cuts. Round gravers, flat gravers with a radius, are used on silver to create bright cuts, as well as other hard-to-cut metals such as nickel and steel. Square or V-point gravers are square or elongated diamond-shaped and used for cutting straight lines. V-point can be anywhere depending on purpose and effect; these gravers have small cutting points. Other tools such as mezzotint rockers and burnishers are used for texturing effects. Burnishing tools can be used for certain stone setting techniques. Musical instrument engraving on American-made brass instruments flourished in the 1920s and utilizes a specialized engraving technique where a flat graver is "walked" across the surface of the instrument to make zig-zag lines and patterns; the method for "walking" the graver may be referred to as "wriggle" or "wiggle" cuts. This technique is necessary due to the thinness of metal used to make musical instruments versus firearms or jewelry. Wriggle cuts are found on
A postage stamp is a small piece of paper issued by a post office, postal administration, or other authorized vendors to customers who pay postage, who affix the stamp to the face or address-side of any item of mail—an envelope or other postal cover —that they wish to send. The item is processed by the postal system, where a postmark or cancellation mark—in modern usage indicating date and point of origin of mailing—is applied to the stamp and its left and right sides to prevent its reuse; the item is delivered to its addressee. Always featuring the name of the issuing nation, a denomination of its value, an illustration of persons, institutions, or natural realities that symbolize the nation's traditions and values, every stamp is printed on a piece of rectangular, but sometimes triangular or otherwise shaped special custom-made paper whose back is either glazed with an adhesive gum or self-adhesive; because governments issue stamps of different denominations in unequal numbers and discontinue some lines and introduce others, because of their illustrations and association with the social and political realities of the time of their issue, they are prized for their beauty and historical significance by stamp collectors whose study of their history and of mailing systems is called philately.
Because collectors buy stamps from an issuing agency with no intention to use them for postage, the revenues from such purchases and payments of postage can make them a source of net profit to that agency. Throughout modern history, numerous methods were used to indicate that postage had been paid on a mailed item, so several different men have received credit for inventing the postage stamp. William DockwraIn 1680, William Dockwra, an English merchant in London, his partner Robert Murray established the London Penny Post, a mail system that delivered letters and small parcels inside the city of London for the sum of one penny. Confirmation of paid postage was indicated by the use of a hand stamp to frank the mailed item. Though this'stamp' was applied to the letter or parcel itself, rather than to a separate piece of paper, it is considered by many historians to be the world's first postage stamp. Lovrenc KoširIn 1835, the Slovene civil servant Lovrenc Košir from Ljubljana in Austria-Hungary, suggested the use of "artificially affixed postal tax stamps" using "gepresste papieroblate", but although civil bureaucrats considered the suggestion in detail, it was not adopted.
Rowland HillIn 1836, a Member of Parliament, Robert Wallace, gave Sir Rowland Hill numerous books and documents about the postal service, which Hill described as a "half hundred weight of material". After a detailed study, on 4 January 1837 Hill submitted a pamphlet entitled Post Office Reform: Its Importance and Practicability, marked "private and confidential," and not released to the general public, to the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Thomas Spring Rice; the Chancellor summoned Hill to a meeting at which he suggested improvements and changes to be presented in a supplement, which Hill duly produced and submitted on 28 January 1837. Summoned to give evidence before the Commission for Post Office Enquiry on 13 February 1837, Hill read from the letter he wrote to the Chancellor that included a statement saying that the notation of paid postage could be created "...by using a bit of paper just large enough to bear the stamp, covered at the back with a glutinous wash...". This would become the first unambiguous description of a modern adhesive postage stamp.
Shortly afterward, Hill's revision of the booklet, dated 22 February 1837, containing some 28,000 words, incorporating the supplement given to the Chancellor and statements he made to the Commission, was published and made available to the general public. Hansard records that on 15 December 1837, Benjamin Hawes asked the Chancellor of the Exchequer "whether it was the intention of the Government to give effect to the recommendation of the Commissioners of the Post-office, contained in their ninth report relating to the reduction of the rates of postage, the issuing of penny stamps?"Hill’s ideas for postage stamps and charging paid-postage based on weight soon took hold, were adopted in many countries throughout the world. With the new policy of charging by weight, using envelopes for mailing documents became the norm. Hill’s brother Edwin invented a prototype envelope-making machine that folded paper into envelopes enough to match the pace of the growing demand for postage stamps. Rowland Hill and the reforms he introduced to the United Kingdom postal system appear on several of its commemorative stamps.
James ChalmersIn the 1881 book The Penny Postage Scheme of 1837, Scotsman Patrick Chalmers claimed that his father, James Chalmers, published an essay in August 1834 describing and advocating a postage stamp, but submitted no evidence of the essay's existence. Until he died in 1891, Patrick Chalmers campaigned to have his father recognized as the inventor of the postage stamp; the first independent evidence for Chalmers' claim is an essay, dated 8 February 1838 and received by the Post Office on 17 February 1838, in which he proposed adhesive postage stamps to the General Post Office. In this 800-word document concerning methods of indicating that postage had been paid on mail he states: "Therefore, of Mr Hill’s plan of a uniform rate of postage... I conceive that the most simple and economical mode... would be by Slips... in the hope that Mr Hill’s plan may soon be carried into operation I would sugg
Monnaie de Paris
The Monnaie de Paris is a government-owned institution responsible for producing France's euro coins. Founded in 864 AD, it is the world's oldest continuously-running minting institution operating from two sites, one in Paris and one in Pessac. Administratively speaking, the "Direction of Coins and Medals", the national mint is an administration of the French government charged with issuing coins as well as producing medals and other similar items. Many ancient coins are housed in the collections maintained there. Though in the Middle Ages there were numerous other mints in provincial cities issuing legitimate French coinage struck in the name of the ruler, the Monnaie de Paris has always been the prime issuer. A Neoclassical edifice, the Hôtel de la Monnaie was designed by Jacques-Denis Antoine and built from 1767–1775 on the Left Bank of the Seine; the Monnaie was the first major civic monument undertaken by Antoine, yet shows a high level of ingenuity on the part of the architect. Today it is considered a key example of French Neoclassicism in pre-Revolutionary Paris.
The building is typified by severe decorative treatment. It boasts one of the longest façades on the Seine; the building, which housed mint workshops, administrative rooms, residential quarters, wraps around a large interior courtyard. It remains open to the public and includes a numismatics museum, located within what was once the main foundry. Following a 5-year renovation project known as Metalmetamorphose, the museum at the Monnaie de Paris - known as the Musée du Conti - was reopened on 30 September 2017. List of museums in Paris Napoleonic medal Philippe Danfrie – Superintendent of the Mint in the late 16th century. Pierre Marie François Ogé Bust of Jacques Denis Antoine List of oldest companies Building the financial façade: Jacques-Denis Antoine's Hôtel de la Monnaie, the Parisian mint, 1765–1775 Monnaie de Paris
Jean Auguste Barre was a French sculptor and medalist. Born in Paris, he was trained by a medalist. Barre studied at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris under Jean-Pierre Cortot, he is known as a portrait sculptor. Exhibiting at the French Salon from 1831 to 1886, his first showings were of medals. Barre is known to be one of the first sculptors to make miniatures of famous contemporaries, such as Napoleon III, Queen Victoria, dancers Marie Taglioni and Emma Livry, Susan B. Anthony, his bronze works are on display in such places as the Cleveland Art Museum. One of his stone works is found in the cemetery of Père Lachaise Cemetery, where he did a bust for the tomb of his friend Alfred de Musset, he died in Paris in 1896. Davenport's 2001-02 Art Reference & Price Guide 1999 Benezit, Vol. 1 Berman's Bronzes, Vol. 2 Web site of the Louvre www.insecula.com Jean-Auguste Barre in American public collections, on the French Sculpture Census website