Eternity in common parlance is an infinitely long period of time. In classical philosophy, eternity is defined as what exists outside time while sempiternity is the concept that corresponds to the colloquial definition of eternity. Eternity is an important concept in many religions, where the god or gods are said to endure eternally. Some, such as Aristotle, would say the same about the natural cosmos in regard to both past and future eternal duration, like the eternal Platonic forms, immutability was considered essential. Aristotle argued. In Aristotle's Metaphysics, eternity is the unmoved mover, understood as the gradient of total synergy. Boethius defined eternity as "simultaneously full and perfect possession of interminable life". Eternity is symbolized by the image of a snake swallowing its own tail, known as the Ouroboros; the circle is commonly used as a symbol for eternity, as is the mathematical symbol of infinity, ∞. Symbolically, it suggests that Eternity has no end. Aeon Armenian eternity sign Chronology of the universe Eternalism Eternal return God and eternity Philosophical presentism Planck epoch Time perception Temporal finitism http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/eternity/ Entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy on Eternity.
Http://www.iep.utm.edu/g/god-time.htm Entry in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy on the relationship between God and Time
Church of Saint-Sulpice, Paris
Saint-Sulpice is a Roman Catholic church in Paris, France, on the east side of the Place Saint-Sulpice within the rue Bonaparte, in the Odéon Quarter of the 6th arrondissement. At 113 metres long, 58 metres in width and 34 metres tall, it is only smaller than Notre-Dame and thus the second largest church in the city, it is dedicated to Sulpitius the Pious. Construction of the present building, the second church on the site, began in 1646. During the 18th century, an elaborate gnomon, the Gnomon of Saint-Sulpice, was constructed in the church; the present church is the second building on the site, erected over a Romanesque church constructed during the 13th century. Additions were made over the centuries, up to 1631; the new building was founded in 1646 by parish priest Jean-Jacques Olier who had established the Society of Saint-Sulpice, a clerical congregation, a seminary attached to the church. Anne of Austria laid the first stone. Construction began in 1646 to designs, created in 1636 by Christophe Gamard, but the Fronde interfered, only the Lady Chapel had been built by 1660, when Daniel Gittard provided a new general design for most of the church.
Gittard completed the sanctuary, apsidal chapels and north portal, after which construction was halted for lack of funds. Gilles-Marie Oppenord and Giovanni Servandoni, adhering to Gittard's designs, supervised further construction; the decoration was executed by the brothers Sébastien-Antoine Paul-Ambroise Slodtz. In 1723–1724 Oppenord created the north and south portals of the transept with an unusual interior design for the ends: concave walls with nearly engaged Corinthian columns instead of the pilasters found in other parts of the church, he built a bell-tower on top of the transept crossing, which threatened to collapse the structure because of its weight and had to be removed. This miscalculation may account for the fact that Oppenord was relieved of his duties as an architect and restricted to designing decoration. In 1732 a competition was held for the design of the west facade, won by Servandoni, inspired by the entrance elevation of Christopher Wren's Saint Paul's Cathedral in London.
The 1739 Turgot map of Paris shows the church without Oppenord's crossing bell-tower, but with Servandoni's pedimented facade complete, still lacking however its two towers. Unfinished at the time of his death in 1766, the work was continued by others the obscure Oudot de Maclaurin, who erected twin towers to Servandoni's design. Servandoni's pupil Jean Chalgrin rebuilt the north tower, making it taller and modifying Servandoni's baroque design to one, more neoclassical, but the French Revolution intervened, the south tower was never replaced. Chalgrin designed the decoration of the chapels under the towers; the principal facade now exists in somewhat altered form. Servandoni's pediment, criticized as classically incorrect because its width was based on the entire front rather than the size of the order on which it rested, was removed after it was struck by lightning in 1770 and replaced with a balustrade; this change and the absence of the belvederes on the towers bring the design closer in spirit to that of the classical east front of the Louvre.
The facade is an unorthodox essay in which a double colonnade, Ionic order over Roman Doric with loggias behind them, unifies the bases of the corner towers with the façade. Its revolutionary character was recognised by the architect and teacher Jacques-François Blondel, who illustrated the elevation of the façade in his Architecture françoise of 1752, remarking: "The entire merit of this building lies in the architecture itself... and its greatness of scale, which opens a new road for our French architects." Large arched windows fill the vast interior with natural light. The result is a simple two-storey west front with three tiers of elegant columns; the overall harmony of the building is. Another point of interest dating from the time of the Revolution, when Christianity was suppressed and Saint-Sulpice became a place for worship of the "Supreme Being", is a printed sign over the center door of the main entrance. One can still make out the printed words ‘’Le Peuple Francais Reconnoit L’Etre Suprême Et L’Immortalité de L’Âme’’.
Further questions of interest are the fate of the frieze that this must have replaced, the persons responsible for placing this manifesto and the reasons that it has been left in place. Inside the church to either side of the entrance are the two halves of an enormous shell given to King Francis I by the Venetian Republic, they function as rest on rock-like bases sculpted by Jean-Baptiste Pigalle. Pigalle designed the large white marble statue of Mary in the Lady Chapel at the far end of the church; the stucco decoration surrounding it is by Louis-Philippe Mouchy. Pigalle's work replaced a solid-silver statue by Edmé Bouchardon, which vanished at the time of the Revolution, it was cast from silverware donated by parishioners and was known as "Our Lady of the Old Tableware". The baroque interior of the Lady Chapel was designed by Charles de Wailly in 1774, after the chapel was badly damaged by a fire which destroyed the nearby Foire Saint-Germain in 1762; the dome, lit by natural light from hidden windows devised by de Wailly, contains a fresco by François Lemoyne depicting the Assumption of Mary
Suzanne Curchod was a French-Swiss salonist and writer. She hosted one of the most celebrated salons of the Ancien Régime, she led the development of the Hospice de Charité, a model small hospital in Paris that still exists today as the Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital. She was the wife of French finance minister Jacques Necker, is referenced in historical documents as Madame Necker. Born in May 1737, Curchod was the daughter of Louis Antoine Curchod, Protestant pastor of the Swiss village of Crassier near Lausanne, Magdelaine d'Albert de Nasse; the family was of modest means, but Suzanne was well educated, becoming fluent in Latin and showing aptitude for mathematics and science. Her first salon was a literary group called the Académie des Eaux comprising a circle of Lausanne-based students with Curchod as president. In 1757 Curchod met the historian Edward Gibbon, who fell in love with her, writing in a recollection of their courtship that he "found her learned without pedantry, lively in conversation, pure in sentiment, elegant in manners."
He wished to marry her, but paternal disapproval on both sides, Gibbon's own wavering, Suzanne's refusal to leave Switzerland for England thwarted their plans. Gibbon broke off the engagement in 1762, an event that fell in between the deaths of Curchod's parents in 1760 and 1763. With the loss of income resulting from the death of her father and her mother were left poor, a situation she coped with by giving lessons. After her mother died, she became a companion to a young French widow, Madame de Vermenoux, who took her to Paris around 1763 or 1764. At the time, Madame de Vermenoux was being courted by the ambitious Swiss financier Jacques Necker but was uncertain whether she wanted to remarry at all. Within a few months, Necker turned his attention to Curchod, in 1764 the two were married, they had one child, a daughter named Anne Louise Germaine, the future writer and philosopher now better known as Madame de Staël. In 1776, Madame Necker's husband became Director-General of Finances, head of the French finance ministry under King Louis XVI, a position he gained in spite of the double disadvantage of his Protestant religion and Swiss origins.
He owed much of his success to his wife's salon, where the luminaries of Parisian society gathered to discuss art and politics. Among the regular visitors were Jean-François Marmontel, Jean-François de La Harpe, the Comte de Buffon, the Baron von Grimm, Gabriel Bonnot de Mably, Jacques-Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, Antoine Léonard Thomas, the compilers of the Encyclopédie including Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert. Madame Necker's salons were a meeting place for Swiss expatriates such as Marie Thérèse Rodet Geoffrin and Marie Anne de Vichy-Chamrond, marquise du Deffand, it was at one of Madame Necker's dinners that a group of men of letters first proposed starting a subscription to pay for a statue of Voltaire by the sculptor Jean-Baptiste Pigalle. His statue of a nude Voltaire is now in the Louvre. Madame Necker carried on an extensive correspondence with Grimm, Thomas and others of these men of letters when they were away from Paris; the time commitment involved in running a salon, combined with her husband's dislike of bluestocking authors, prevented Madame Necker from pursuing her interest in writing to the extent she desired.
Her surviving writings are few: a memoir about the establishment of hospitals and some reflections on divorce. She devoted considerable time to ensuring that their daughter Germaine received the best education possible; the French hospital system during the 18th century was not well standardized and overall lacked good patient care. Hospital conditions were unsatisfactory due to overcrowding, as exemplified by the Hôtel-Dieu de Paris. After visiting this hospital, French Encyclopedist Denis Diderot described it this way: The biggest, roomiest and most terrifying of all hospitals... Imagine every kind of patient, sometimes packed three, five, or six into a bed, the living alongside the dead and dying, the air polluted by this mass of sick bodies, passing the pestilential germs of their affections from one to the other, the spectacle of suffering and agony on every hand; these kinds of harsh conditions prompted discussion of hospital reform among government officials. They called for improvements to the hospital environment and for strategic siting of hospitals to make it easier for families to visit hospital-bound relatives.
As finance minister, Jacques Necker was influential in steering the agreed reforms. One of the first of the proposed “neighborhood hospitals” was the Hospice de Charité, a small-scale hospital located in a vacated monastery. Responsibility for its development was placed on Madame Necker, she turned it into a facility with a 120-patient capacity, she enlisted the services of around a dozen Sisters of Charity, the women who traditionally managed the day-to-day tasks and tended to patients in French hospitals. The new hospital began accepting patients in 1778, serving the areas of St. Sulpice and du Gros Caillou in Paris and welcoming the poor. Patients had to be residents of the area, they had to show proof that they were Catholic by presenting a certificate of baptism and a confession. Madame Necker aimed to improve patient care while maintaining the institution’s financial efficiency, as detailed in the preface of the hospital’s first annual report from 1780, she summarized her goals for the Hospice de Charité project thus: To show the possibility of nursing sick people, each one in a bed to himself, with all the ca
Abbé Guy-Toussaint-Julien Carron was a French Roman Catholic priest who founded a number of social and educational institutions while in exile in England, was a prolific author of pious tracts. Born in Rennes, he soon employed himself in founding a variety of social institutions including a textile factory to employ the deprived inhabitants of his native town in 1789 and an institution for young women trying to escape a life of prostitution. However, in 1790, following the French Revolution, he became a non-juror, refusing to swear to the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, was imprisoned. In 1792, he was deported to Jersey where he founded schools and pharmacies for fellow French Catholics who had fled the Revolution, he resettled in Somers Town and established many educational and social institutions to support his community, winning the personal thanks of Louis XVIII. On the Bourbon Restoration in 1814, Carron returned to France and became head of the Institut de Marie-Thérèse, a charity founded for children whose families had lost their fortunes during the Revolution.
He published many pious and religious works which were popular in their time. Carron, G.-T.-J. Les Écoliers vertueux, ou Vies édifiantes de plusieurs jeunes gens proposés pour modèles, Lille Vanackere — Les Confesseurs de la foi dans l'Église gallicane à la fin du XVIIIe siècle, ouvrage rédigé sur des mémoires authentiques — Le modèle des prêtres, ou vie de J. Brydayne, Rusand — Nouveaux Justes dans les conditions ordinaires de la Société, ou vies de Mlle Victoire Conen de Saint-Luc, décapitée en 1794. Dictionnaire universel d'histoire et de géographie contenant l'histoire proprement dite, la biographie universelle, la mythologie, la géographie ancienne et moderne. Paris: Hachette. Walford, E. Old and New London: Volume 5. Pp. 340–55. "Somers Town and Euston Square", date accessed: 29 Jul 2007
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively between 800 million and more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians. It originated with the 16th century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, they emphasize the priesthood of all believers, justification by faith alone rather than by good works, the highest authority of the Bible alone in faith and morals. The "five solae" summarise basic theological differences in opposition to the Roman Catholic Church. Protestantism is popularly considered to have begun in Germany in 1517 when Martin Luther published his Ninety-five Theses as a reaction against abuses in the sale of indulgences by the Roman Catholic Church, which purported to offer remission of sin to their purchasers.
However, the term derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical. Although there were earlier breaks and attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, Jan Hus—only Luther succeeded in sparking a wider and modern movement. In the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Sweden, Latvia and Iceland. Reformed denominations spread in Germany, the Netherlands, Scotland and France by reformers such as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, John Knox; the political separation of the Church of England from the pope under King Henry VIII began Anglicanism, bringing England and Wales into this broad Reformation movement. Protestants have developed their own culture, with major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts, many other fields. Protestantism is diverse, being more divided theologically and ecclesiastically than either the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, or Oriental Orthodoxy.
Without structural unity or central human authority, Protestants developed the concept of an invisible church, in contrast to the Roman Catholic view of the Catholic Church as the visible one true Church founded by Jesus Christ. Some denominations do have a worldwide scope and distribution of membership, while others are confined to a single country. A majority of Protestants are members of a handful of Protestant denominational families: Adventists, Anglicans, Reformed, Lutherans and Pentecostals. Nondenominational, charismatic and other churches are on the rise, constitute a significant part of Protestant Christianity. Proponents of the branch theory consider Protestantism one of the three major divisions of Christendom, together with the Roman Catholic Church and Orthodoxy. Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities, who issued a protest against the edict of the Diet of Speyer, were the first individuals to be called Protestants; the edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V three years earlier.
The term protestant, though purely political in nature acquired a broader sense, referring to a member of any Western church which subscribed to the main Protestant principles. However, it is misused to mean any church outside the Roman and Eastern Orthodox communions. Protestantism as a general term is now used in contradistinction to the other major Christian traditions, i.e. Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy. During the Reformation, the term protestant was hardly used outside of German politics. People who were involved in the religious movement used the word evangelical. For further details, see the section below. Protestant became a general term, meaning any adherent of the Reformation in the German-speaking area, it was somewhat taken up by Lutherans though Martin Luther himself insisted on Christian or evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ. French and Swiss Protestants instead preferred the word reformed, which became a popular and alternative name for Calvinists.
The word evangelical, which refers to the gospel, was used for those involved in the religious movement in the German-speaking area beginning in 1517. Nowadays, evangelical is still preferred among some of the historical Protestant denominations in the Lutheran and United Protestant traditions in Europe, those with strong ties to them. Above all the term is used by Protestant bodies in the German-speaking area, such as the Evangelical Church in Germany. In continental Europe, an Evangelical is either a Calvinist, or a United Protestant; the German word evangelisch means Protestant, is different from the German evangelikal, which refers to churches shaped by Evangelicalism. The English word evangelical refers to evangelical Protestant churches, therefore to a certain part of Protestantism rather than to Protestantism as a whole; the English word traces its roots back to the Puritans in England, where Evangelicalism originated, was brought to the United States. Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term evangelical, derived from euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.e. "gospel".
The followers of
Christendom has several meanings. In one contemporary sense, as used in a secular or Protestant context, it may refer to the "Christian world": Christian-majority countries and the countries in which Christianity dominates or prevails, or, in the historic, Catholic sense of the word, the nations in which Catholic Christianity is the established religion, having a Catholic Christian polity. Since the spread of Christianity from the Levant to Europe and North Africa during the early Roman Empire, Christendom has been divided in the pre-existing Greek East and Latin West. Different versions of the Christian religion arose with their own beliefs and practices, centred around the cities of Rome and Constantinople. From the 11th to 13th centuries, Latin Christendom rose to the central role of the Western world. In its historical sense, the term refers to the Middle Ages and to the Early Modern period during which the Christian world represented a geopolitical power, juxtaposed with both the pagan and the Muslim world.
In the traditional Roman Catholic sense of the word, it refers to the sum total of nations in which the Catholic Church is the established religion of the state or to those with ecclesiastical concordats with the Holy See. The Anglo-Saxon term cristendom appears to have been invented in the 9th century by a scribe somewhere in southern England at the court of king Alfred the Great of Wessex; the scribe was translating Paulus Orosius' book History Against the Pagans and in need for a term to express the concept of the universal culture focused on Jesus Christ. It had the sense now taken by Christianity; the current sense of the word of "lands where Christianity is the dominant religion" emerged in Late Middle English. This semantic development happened independently in the languages of late medieval Europe, which leads to the confusing semantics of English Christendom equalling German Christenheit, Dutch christenheid, French chrétienté vs. English Christianity equalling German Christentum, Dutch christendom, French christianisme.
The reason is the increasing fragmentation of Western Christianity at that time both theologically and politically. "Christendom" as a geopolitical term is thus meaningful in the context of the Middle Ages, arguably during the European wars of religion and the Ottoman wars in Europe. Canadian theology professor Douglas John Hall stated that "Christendom" means the dominion or sovereignty of the Christian religion." Thomas John Curry, Roman Catholic auxiliary bishop of Los Angeles, defined Christendom as "the system dating from the fourth century by which governments upheld and promoted Christianity." Curry states that the end of Christendom came about because modern governments refused to "uphold the teachings, customs and practice of Christianity." British church historian Diarmaid MacCulloch described Christendom as "the union between Christianity and secular power." The Christian world is collectively known as the Corpus Christianum, translated as the Christian body, meaning the community of all Christians.
The Christian polity, embodying a less secular meaning, can be compatible with the idea of both a religious and a temporal body: Corpus Christianum. The Corpus Christianum can be seen as a Christian equivalent of the Muslim Ummah; the word "Christendom" is used with its other meaning to frame-true Christianity. A more secular meaning can denote the fact that the term Christendom refers to Christians as a group, the "political Christian world", as an informal cultural hegemony that Christianity has traditionally enjoyed in the West. In its most broad term, it refers to the world's Christian-majority countries, share little in common aside from the predominance of the faith. Unlike the Muslim world, which has a geo-political and cultural definition that provides a primary identifier for a large swath of the world, Christendom is more complex. There is a common and nonliteral sense of the word, much like the terms Western world, known world or Free World; when Thomas F. Connolly said, "There isn't enough power in all Christendom to make that airplane what we want!", he was using a figure of speech, although it is true that during the Cold War, just as the totalitarianism of the Communist Bloc presented a contrast to the liberty of the Free World, the state atheism of the Communist Bloc contrasted with the religious freedom and the powerful religious institutions in North America and Western Europe.
The notion of "Europe" and the "Western World" has been intimately connected with the concept of "Christianity and Christendom". In the beginning of Christendom, early Christianity was a religion spread in the Greek/Roman world and beyond as a 1st-century Jewish sect, which historians refer to as Jewish Christianity, it may be divided into two distinct phases: the apostolic period, when the first apostles were alive and organizing the Church, the post-apostolic period, when an early episcopal structure developed, whereby bishoprics were governed by bishops. The post-apostolic period concerns the time after the death of the apostles when bishops emerged as overseers of urban Christian populations; the earliest recorded use of the terms Christianity and catholic, dates to this period, the 2nd century, attributed to Ignatius of Antioch c. 107. Early Christendom would close at t
Demosthenes was a Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. His orations constitute a significant expression of contemporary Athenian intellectual prowess and provide an insight into the politics and culture of ancient Greece during the 4th century BC. Demosthenes learned rhetoric by studying the speeches of previous great orators, he delivered his first judicial speeches at the age of 20, in which he argued to gain from his guardians what was left of his inheritance. For a time, Demosthenes made his living as a professional speech-writer and a lawyer, writing speeches for use in private legal suits. Demosthenes grew interested in politics during his time as a logographer, in 354 BC he gave his first public political speeches, he went on to devote his most productive years to opposing Macedon's expansion. He idealized his city and strove throughout his life to restore Athens' supremacy and motivate his compatriots against Philip II of Macedon, he sought to preserve his city's freedom and to establish an alliance against Macedon, in an unsuccessful attempt to impede Philip's plans to expand his influence southward by conquering all the other Greek states.
After Philip's death, Demosthenes played a leading part in his city's uprising against the new king of Macedonia, Alexander the Great. However, his efforts failed and the revolt was met with a harsh Macedonian reaction. To prevent a similar revolt against his own rule, Alexander's successor in this region, sent his men to track Demosthenes down. Demosthenes took his own life, in order to avoid being arrested by Archias of Thurii, Antipater's confidant; the Alexandrian Canon compiled by Aristophanes of Byzantium and Aristarchus of Samothrace recognised Demosthenes as one of the ten greatest Attic orators and logographers. Longinus likened Demosthenes to a blazing thunderbolt, argued that he "perfected to the utmost the tone of lofty speech, living passions, readiness, speed". Quintilian extolled him as lex orandi, Cicero said about him that inter omnis unus excellat, he acclaimed him as "the perfect orator" who lacked nothing. Demosthenes was born in 384 BC, during the last year of the 98th Olympiad or the first year of the 99th Olympiad.
His father—also named Demosthenes—who belonged to the local tribe and lived in the deme of Paeania in the Athenian countryside, was a wealthy sword-maker. Aeschines, Demosthenes' greatest political rival, maintained that his mother Kleoboule was a Scythian by blood—an allegation disputed by some modern scholars. Demosthenes was orphaned at the age of seven. Although his father provided well for him, his legal guardians, Aphobus and Therippides, mishandled his inheritance. Demosthenes started to learn rhetoric because he wished to take his guardians to court and because he was of "delicate physique" and couldn't receive gymnastic education, customary. In Parallel Lives Plutarch states that Demosthenes built an underground study where he practiced speaking and shaving one half of his head so that he could not go out in public. Plutarch states that he had “an inarticulate and stammering pronunciation” that he got rid of by speaking with pebbles in his mouth and by repeating verses when running or out of breath.
He practiced speaking in front of a large mirror. As soon as Demosthenes came of age in 366 BC, he demanded they render an account of their management. According to Demosthenes, the account revealed the misappropriation of his property. Although his father left an estate of nearly fourteen talents, Demosthenes asserted his guardians had left nothing "except the house, fourteen slaves and thirty silver minae". At the age of 20 Demosthenes sued his trustees in order to recover his patrimony and delivered five orations: three Against Aphobus during 363 and 362 BC and two Against Onetor during 362 and 361 BC; the courts fixed Demosthenes' damages at ten talents. When all the trials came to an end, he only succeeded in retrieving a portion of his inheritance. According to Pseudo-Plutarch, Demosthenes was married once; the only information about his wife, whose name is unknown, is that she was the daughter of Heliodorus, a prominent citizen. Demosthenes had a daughter, "the only one who called him father", according to Aeschines in a trenchant remark.
His daughter died unmarried a few days before Philip II's death. In his speeches, Aeschines uses pederastic relations of Demosthenes as a means to attack him. In the case of Aristion, a youth from Plataea who lived for a long time in Demosthenes' house, Aeschines mocks the "scandalous" and "improper" relation. In another speech, Aeschines brings up the pederastic relation of his opponent with a boy called Cnosion; the slander that Demosthenes' wife slept with the boy suggests that the relationship was contemporary with his marriage. Aeschines claims that Demosthenes made money out of young rich men, such as Aristarchus, the son of Moschus, whom he deceived with the pretence that he could make him a great orator. While still under Demosthenes' tutelage, Aristarchus killed and mutilated a certain Nicodemus of Aphidna. Aeschines accused Demosthenes of complicity in the murder, pointing out that Nicodemus had once pressed a lawsuit accusing Demosthenes of desertion, he accused Demosthenes of having been such a bad erastes to Aristarchus so as not to deserve the name.
His crime, according to Aeschines, was to have betrayed his eromenos by pillaging his estate pretending to b