Victor Alexandre Frederic Laloux was a French Beaux-Arts architect and teacher. Born in Tours, Laloux studied at the Paris École des Beaux-Arts atelier of Louis-Jules André, with his studies interrupted by the Franco-Prussian War, was awarded the annual Prix de Rome in 1878, he spent 1879 through 1882 at the Villa Medici in Rome. On his return to France Laloux rose through the academic system, serving on many juries and foundations; as practitioner, he produced major commissions in a ornamented neo-classical surface style, collaborating with sculptors and muralists squarely in the Beaux-Arts tradition, but doing so on innovative cast-iron frames. Metal framing allowed higher interior spaces, more generous fenestration, glass roofs, notably in the sunlit barrel-vault of the Gare d'Orsay. Laloux was awarded the American AIA Gold Medal in 1922, the RIBA Royal Gold Medal in 1929. In 1932 he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Honorary Corresponding Academician. In 1936, the year before his death, his successor as head of the atelier was Charles Lemaresquier.
He died in Paris, aged 86. Laloux's work includes: the neo-Byzantine Basilica of St. Martin, Tours, in Tours, 1886–1924 – a project with some political connotations as it was built to replace an earlier Basilica destroyed during the French Revolution. Gare de Tours, in Tours, 1896–1898, with four allegorical limestone statues of cities by Jean Antoine Injalbert and Jean-Baptiste Hugues the Paris Gare d'Orsay, now the Musée d'Orsay, 1900 Hotel de Ville, Roubaix, 1903, with architectural sculpture by Alphonse-Amédée Cordonnier Hotel de Ville, Tours, 1904 with sculpture by Cordonnier completion of the Crédit Lyonnais headquarters, Paris, 1913 the U. S. Embassy, with his student, American architect William Delano, 1931 Palais du Hanovre, with his student Charles Lemaresquier, 1932 As professor, Laloux assumed the direction of Louis-Jules André's atelier when André died in 1890. Laloux would train about 600 students through the years, including 132 Americans. Laloux's influence is visible in the U.
S. in buildings like the 1921 San Francisco City Hall. Atelier training in the context of the École focused on the annual Prix de Rome competition, by this measure Laloux was the school's most successful teacher, training 16 winners; the students educated in Laloux's atelier include: William Lawrence Bottomley, American Arthur Brown, Jr. American Jacques Carlu, French George Shepard Chappell, American François-Benjamin Chaussemiche, French John Walter Cross of Cross and Cross, American Jacques Debat-Ponsan, French William Delano, American Georges Gromort, French Henry Gutton, French George Howe, American Gustave Louis Jaulmes, French Charles Lemaresquier, French José Marques da Silva, Portuguese Miguel Ventura Terra, Portuguese Robert Touzin, French Guillaume Tronchet, French William Van Alen, designer of the Chrysler Building Charles Weeks of Weeks and Day, American Lucien Weissenburger, French Duiliu Marcu, Romanian Works by or about Victor Laloux in libraries online biography
Raymond Delamarre was a French sculptor and medalist. His output in both spheres was huge, this article seeks to identify his main works and in many cases describe them, it will be seen. His ecclesiastical work showed him to be inspired by the catholic religion but he was agnostic, his war memorials are expressive, no doubt influenced by his own firsthand experiences of the horrors of the 1914–18 war; when aged sixteen years, Delamarre joined the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris and was attached to the studio of Jules-Félix Coutan. His studies were interrupted, firstly by his conscription into the army from 1911 to 1913 and service from 1914 to 1918 after the French mobilization, although between the two he managed some further time back in Coutan's studio. Soon after mobilization Delamarre was sent to the front and was immediately taken prisoner, he was released in the course of an exchange of prisoners carried out in 1916 and returned to active service. On leaving the army at the end of the war, Delamarre now tried to secure the "Prix de Rome" and with the bas-relief "Le retour du guerrier au foyer familial" he shared the prize with Alfred Janniot which meant he was able to spend four years in Rome at the Villa Médicis.
He was to stay in Rome studied the sculpture of Greece. The composition "Suzanne au bain" exhibited in 1922 at the Salon des Artistes Français is a good illustration of Delamarre's work at this time. In 1925 and in collaboration with the architect Michel Roux Spitz, he took part in the competition to secure the work on the proposed "Monument à la Défense du canal de Suez" to be erected in Ismaîlia, a work of huge proportions and a most prestigious project. Working with Roux-Spitz, he exhibited a sculptural composition for a water fountain at the Exposition des Arts Décoratifs in Paris, the bas-reliefs "Nessus et Dejanire" and "Persée et Andromède" cast in bronze in 1935, two tympani for the decorator Paul Follot, a bronze entitled "David" and a work in plaster entitled "Femme au bélier". Between 1926 and 1927, Delamarre worked on the "Mowgli" ronde-bosse, he executed a bas-relief of Mowgli in plaster measuring 2 metres by 2 metres. In 1927, Delamarre married Mariel Jean-Brunhes, the daughter of the geographer Jean Brunhes and they made visits to Spain and the Ballearics.
In 1928, he produced the group "Adam et Eve" or "La tentation" in bronze, which composition was to appear subsequently in various limited editions, in both bronze and plaster. In 1931, he participated in the Exposition Coloniale de Paris, creating the figure of Christ carved from acajou wood from Cuba and eight Beatitudes. 1935 saw completion of his work for the ocean liner "Normandie" and 1937 he completed his great work in bronze for the Palais de Chaillot with three 4-metre-high figures being created symbolizing Philosophy, the Visual Arts and the Arts. These figures were erected after the 1939–40 war; these three figures were to reappear in a number of limited editions in both plaster and bronze and in a variety of sizes. From 1961 to 1973, he managed the business of the "Art Sacré" studios in Paris' place de Furstenberg, working with Maurice Denis and Georges Desvallières. In 1963 Delamarre created the last of his great "monumental" works, executing 12 reliefs in stone for the entrance of the chapel of Nantes's new hospital, a building designed by Michel Roux Spitz, after which he worked on a number of busts, statues and plaque until his death on 28 February 1986.
His output both in medals and sculptures was huge. This article will concentrate on sculpture although a second article, just on Delamarre’s medals would be both justified and welcome. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour This bas-relief in plaster was the work which won Delamarre the Prix de Rome in 1919, it is held by the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris amongst their collection of former pupils work. Because of the 1914–18 war, the Prix de Rome prizes awarded in 1919 were shared, Delamarre sharing his prize with Alfred Janniot Whilst in Rome Delamarre executed several works including those listed below; this was the first work sent to Paris by Delamarre from Rome. When the Villa Médicis reopened after the war their finances were in a poor state and in 1920 they were not able to organize the traditional exhibition, which showed works completed by students and deemed suitable to be sent to Paris; that academic year, Delamarre had prepared a female nude study in plaster but this was not shown until an exhibition was organized in Rome for the year 1921, by which time the Villa had started to get back to normal.
It was shown in Paris in the September of that year. In 1926 a Carrara marble version was accepted by the Petit Palais des Champs-Elysées. In 1960 it was moved to the Musée d’art moderne in Paris. A work with Roux-Spitz carried out of huge proportions being 30 metres high, its size in fact presented problems to the administrators of Villa Médicis and there were logistical problems in carrying it by train to Paris. The whereabouts of the work is not known but there is at least a photograph in circulation of Delamarre's maquette; the work won Michel Roux-Spitz the 1920 Prix de Rome for architecture. This was Delamarre's third despatch of a work from Rome to Paris and involved a composition for the 4th station of the Stations of the Cross that showing Jesus meeting His Mother; the composition was shown in Rome on 22 June 1923 and sent to Paris on 21 August 1923 and shown at that autumn's Paris Salon exhibition in the section dedicated to "Art religieux". A copy of this Delamarre work stands in Charleville-Mézières's Stade du "Petit Bois".
This final Rome linked composition is dated to 1923/1924 when Delam
An architect is a person who plans and reviews the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that have human occupancy or use as their principal purpose. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek, i.e. chief builder. Professionally, an architect's decisions affect public safety, thus an architect must undergo specialized training consisting of advanced education and a practicum for practical experience to earn a license to practice architecture. Practical and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction. Throughout ancient and medieval history, most of the architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans—such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder; until modern times, there was no clear distinction between engineer. In Europe, the titles architect and engineer were geographical variations that referred to the same person used interchangeably.
It is suggested that various developments in technology and mathematics allowed the development of the professional'gentleman' architect, separate from the hands-on craftsman. Paper was not used in Europe for drawing until the 15th century but became available after 1500. Pencils were used more for drawing by 1600; the availability of both allowed pre-construction drawings to be made by professionals. Concurrently, the introduction of linear perspective and innovations such as the use of different projections to describe a three-dimensional building in two dimensions, together with an increased understanding of dimensional accuracy, helped building designers communicate their ideas. However, the development was gradual; until the 18th-century, buildings continued to be designed and set out by craftsmen with the exception of high-status projects. In most developed countries, only those qualified with an appropriate license, certification or registration with a relevant body may practice architecture.
Such licensure requires a university degree, successful completion of exams, as well as a training period. Representation of oneself as an architect through the use of terms and titles is restricted to licensed individuals by law, although in general, derivatives such as architectural designer are not protected. To practice architecture implies the ability to practice independently of supervision; the term building design professional, by contrast, is a much broader term that includes professionals who practice independently under an alternate profession, such as engineering professionals, or those who assist in the practice architecture under the supervision of a licensed architect such as intern architects. In many places, non-licensed individuals may perform design services outside the professional restrictions, such design houses and other smaller structures. In the architectural profession and environmental knowledge and construction management, an understanding of business are as important as design.
However, the design is the driving force throughout the project and beyond. An architect accepts a commission from a client; the commission might involve preparing feasibility reports, building audits, the design of a building or of several buildings and the spaces among them. The architect participates in developing the requirements. Throughout the project, the architect co-ordinates a design team. Structural and electrical engineers and other specialists, are hired by the client or the architect, who must ensure that the work is co-ordinated to construct the design; the architect, once hired by a client, is responsible for creating a design concept that both meets the requirements of that client and provides a facility suitable to the required use. The architect must meet with, question, the client in order to ascertain all the requirements of the planned project; the full brief is not clear at the beginning: entailing a degree of risk in the design undertaking. The architect may make early proposals to the client, which may rework the terms of the brief.
The "program" is essential to producing a project. This is a guide for the architect in creating the design concept. Design proposal are expected to be both imaginative and pragmatic. Depending on the place, finance and available crafts and technology in which the design takes place, the precise extent and nature of these expectations will vary. F oresight is a prerequisite as designing buildings is a complex and demanding undertaking. Any design concept must at a early stage in its generation take into account a great number of issues and variables which include qualities of space, the end-use and life-cycle of these proposed spaces, connections and aspects between spaces including how they are put together as well as the impact of proposals on the immediate and wider locality. Selection of appropriate materials and technology must be considered and reviewed at an early stage in the design to ensure there are no setbacks which may occur later; the site and its environs, as well as the culture and history of the place, will influence the design.
The design must countenance increasing concerns with environmental sustainability. The architect may introduce, to greater or lesser degrees, aspects of mathematics and a
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering; the Institute is a land-grant, sea-grant, space-grant university, with a campus that extends more than a mile alongside the Charles River. Its influence in the physical sciences and architecture, more in biology, linguistics and social science and art, has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. MIT is ranked among the world's top universities; as of March 2019, 93 Nobel laureates, 26 Turing Award winners, 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT as alumni, faculty members, or researchers. In addition, 58 National Medal of Science recipients, 29 National Medals of Technology and Innovation recipients, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 73 Marshall Scholars, 45 Rhodes Scholars, 41 astronauts, 16 Chief Scientists of the US Air Force have been affiliated with MIT.
The school has a strong entrepreneurial culture, the aggregated annual revenues of companies founded by MIT alumni would rank as the tenth-largest economy in the world. MIT is a member of the Association of American Universities. In 1859, a proposal was submitted to the Massachusetts General Court to use newly filled lands in Back Bay, Boston for a "Conservatory of Art and Science", but the proposal failed. A charter for the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, proposed by William Barton Rogers, was signed by the governor of Massachusetts on April 10, 1861. Rogers, a professor from the University of Virginia, wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances, he did not wish to found a professional school, but a combination with elements of both professional and liberal education, proposing that: The true and only practicable object of a polytechnic school is, as I conceive, the teaching, not of the minute details and manipulations of the arts, which can be done only in the workshop, but the inculcation of those scientific principles which form the basis and explanation of them, along with this, a full and methodical review of all their leading processes and operations in connection with physical laws.
The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars and laboratories. Two days after MIT was chartered, the first battle of the Civil War broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MIT's first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865; the new institute was founded as part of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to fund institutions "to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes" and was a land-grant school. In 1863 under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the Massachusetts Agricultural College, which developed as the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In 1866, the proceeds from land sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay. MIT was informally called "Boston Tech"; the institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date. Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker.
Programs in electrical, chemical and sanitary engineering were introduced, new buildings were built, the size of the student body increased to more than one thousand. The curriculum drifted with less focus on theoretical science; the fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership. During these "Boston Tech" years, MIT faculty and alumni rebuffed Harvard University president Charles W. Eliot's repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard College's Lawrence Scientific School. There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard. In its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding; the MIT Corporation approved a formal agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty and alumni. However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court put an end to the merger scheme. In 1916, the MIT administration and the MIT charter crossed the Charles River on the ceremonial barge Bucentaur built for the occasion, to signify MIT's move to a spacious new campus consisting of filled land on a mile-long tract along the Cambridge side of the Charles River.
The neoclassical "New Technology" campus was designed by William W. Bosworth and had been funded by anonymous donations from a mysterious "Mr. Smith", starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist George Eastman of Rochester, New York, who had invented methods of film production and processing, founded Eastman Kodak. Between 1912 and 1920, Eastman donated $20 million in cash and Kodak stock to MIT. In the 1930s, President Karl Taylor Compton and Vice-President Vannevar Bush emphasized the importance of pure sciences like physics and chemistry and reduced the vocational practice required in shops and drafting studios; the Compton reforms "renewed confidence in the ability of the Institute to develop leadership in science as well as in engineering". Unlike Ivy League schools, MIT catered more to middle-class families, depended more on tuition than on endow
Passy Cemetery is a cemetery in Passy, in the 16th arrondissement of Paris, France. The current cemetery replaced the old cemetery, closed in 1802. In the early 19th century, on the orders of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French, all the cemeteries in Paris were replaced by several large new ones outside the precincts of the capital. Montmartre Cemetery was built in the north, Père Lachaise Cemetery in the east, Montparnasse Cemetery in the south. Passy Cemetery was a addition, but has its origins in the same edict; the current entrance was built in 1934. The retaining wall of the cemetery is adorned with a bas relief commemorating the soldiers who fell in World War I. Opened in 1820 in the expensive residential and commercial districts of the Right Bank near the Champs-Élysées, by 1874 the small Passy Cemetery had become the aristocratic necropolis of Paris, it is the only cemetery in Paris to have a heated waiting-room. Sheltered by a bower of chestnut trees, the cemetery is in the shadow of the Eiffel Tower.
The cemetery was once the home of a statue by Dunikowski titled The Soul Escaping the Body. It was on top of the ceremonial grave of Antoni Cierplikowski; the statue was known by many but was removed when the grave was cleared in 2004. It is known as a small but well visited cemetery. Among its more famous residents are: Bảo Đại, the last Emperor of Vietnam Jean-Louis Barrault and director. American newspaper publisher, sportsman Tristan Bernard and novelist Henri Bernstein, actor Princess Brasova, wife of Grand Duke Mikhail Romanov George, Count Brasov, son of Grand Duke Mikhail Romanov and Princess Brasova Emmanuel de Las Cases, historian Dieudonné Costes, pioneering aviator, as is his flight companion Maurice Bellonte Emmanuelle de Dampierre, first wife of Infante Jaime, Duke of Segovia Marcel Dassault, founder of Dassault Aviation Claude Debussy, composer Maxime Dethomas, artist Farideh Diba, mother of the former queen of Iran, Farah Diba Ghislaine Dommanget, Princess of Monaco Michel Droit, member of the Académie française Henry Farman, champion cyclist and aviator Edgar Faure and World War II resistance fighter Gabriel Fauré, composer Fernandel, comedy actor Maurice Gamelin, supreme commander of French armed forces 1939–1940 Maurice Genevoix, novelist Rosemonde Gérard and playwright Virgil Gheorghiu, novelist Jean Giraudoux, playwright and statesman Hubert de Givenchy, fashion designer Anna Gould, daughter of financier Jay Gould Arlette Gueudet, widow of industrialist Robert Gueudet Antonio Guzmán Blanco, Venezuelan politician and president Gabriel Hanotaux and historian Paul Hervieu and novelist Gholam Hossein Jahanshahi, Iranian statesman Jacques Ibert, composer Paul Landowski and sculptor Hector Lefuel, architect of significant portions of the Louvre Joseph Florimond Loubat, antiquarian and philanthropist Georges Mandel, French Resistance during World War II Édouard Manet and impressionist painter André Messager and conductor Alexandre Millerand, President of France Octave Mirbeau, art critic, novelist Berthe Morisot, impressionist painter Togrul Narimanbekov, Azerbaijani painter Joseph O'Kelly, Henri O'Kelly sr. and Henri O'Kelly jr.
Franco-Irish composers and musicians Leila Pahlavi, Princess Leila of Iran, daughter of the last Shah of Iran and Farah Diba Gabrielle Réjane, actress Madeleine Renaud, actress. The street in which it is situated is named for a Free French pilot, Squadron Leader Jacques-Henri Schlœsing, who flew with the wartime RAF until killed in action, the day that Paris was liberated; the cemetery is behind the Trocadéro. Passy Cemetery on the
Henry Hornbostel was an American architect and educator. Hornbostel designed more than 225 buildings and monuments in the United States. Twenty-two of his designs are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, including the Oakland City Hall in Oakland and the Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Hall and Museum and University Club in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Born in Brooklyn, New York, he graduated in 1891 from Columbia University and studied at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris, France. He was a partner, over his career, in the New York firms of Stokes & Hornbostel, he practiced independently from a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania office. He began working in 1904 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania after he won a contest to design a campus building for what is now called Carnegie Mellon University, he was active in the Pittsburgh area, influenced many buildings there in the early 20th century. Kidney, Walter C.. Henry Hornbostel: An Architect's Master Touch. Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation & Roberts Rinehart Publishers.
ISBN 1-57098-398-4. Henry Hornbostel Collection, Carnegie Mellon University Architecture Archives Henry Hornbostel archival card catalog. Held by the Department of Drawings & Archives, Avery Architectural & Fine Arts Library, Columbia University
Jean Carlu was a French graphic designer, specialised in posters. He was member of a family of architects, he made posters during World War II to promote an increase in American production. Jean Carlu started his career as a professional poster-designer in 1919, after a competition by a producer of dental aids in 1918. From 1919 until 1921 he served as an illustrator, after which he worked at an agency that designed advertisements. In that period he designed his first poster in art deco style, he was attracted by the works of Juan Gris and Albert Gleizes. He was one of the first who realised that to fix a trademark in the minds of consumers a process needs to be gone through in which schematic forms and expressive colours are applied; these are the characteristics that give other works their distinguishable quality. The fame of Carlu rests on two posters: for Monsavon and for the Théâtre Pigalle, he designed a pioneering label for the 1924 vintage of Château Mouton-Rothschild