Javier Sicilia is a Mexican poet, novelist, peace activist and journalist in Mexico. He contributes to various print media such as Proceso magazine, he was founder and director of El Telar, coordinator of several writing workshops, is a film and television writer, editor of Poesía magazine, a member of the editorial board of Los Universitarios y Cartapacios, the National System of Creators of Art since 1995, is a professor of literature and screenwriting at Universidad La Salle at Cuernavaca and was director of the now-defunct magazine Ixtus. Sicilia inherited his love of literature and poetry from his father, a poet. An avid reader of Saints Teresa of Ávila and John of the Cross, Sicilia is a poet whose themes are linked with Catholicism and Christian mysticism, he met the Austrian philosopher Ivan Illich, Sicilia has since become one of the main promoters of Illich's thought among Mexican intellectuals. As a contributor to Proceso and as the editor of the magazine "Conspiratio", Sicilia writes about various current philosophical and literary topics.
In 2009 he was awarded the Aguascalientes National Award in Poetry, one of the most prestigious honors in Mexican literature. In 2011, TIME Magazine named The Protester as its Person of the Year, Sicilia was profiled in the accompanying "Profiles of Protesters" series for his work in organizing the 2011 Mexican protests. In January 2013, he met with Mexican president Enrique Peña Nieto to discuss assistance and memorials for victims of violence in Mexico. On March 28, 2011, Sicilia's son Juan Francisco Sicilia Ortega was murdered along with six other victims in Temixco, Mexico, by drug gang members. In response, the poet led protests in Cuernavaca with satellites of support held in numerous other places throughout Mexico; the protesters have called for an end to the Drug War, the retreat of military forces from the streets, the legalization of drugs, the removal of Mexican President Felipe Calderón. Protests have occurred in over 40 Mexican cities, including an estimated 50,000 in Cuernavaca and 20,000 in Mexico City.
On April 3, 2011, Sicilia announced in an open letter "To Mexico's Politicians and Criminals" a second protest, a "National March for Justice and against Impunity," which started on May 5, 2011, in Cuernavaca and arrived on May 8 at the Zócalo in Mexico City, where over 200,000 people attended. Before the beginning of his speech, Sicilia demanded that the Mexican President retire Genaro García Luna from his post as Secretary of Public Security. A six-point national pact that searches for the social fabric's refounding was read at the same protest. Other related protests occurred the same day in over 17 cities over the globe. Poems Permanencia en los puertos La presencia desierta Oro Trinidad Vigilias Resurrección Pascua Lectio Tríptico del Desierto Vestigios Novels El bautista El reflejo de lo oscuro F. C. E. Viajeros en la noche A través del silencio La confesión El fondo de la noche El deshabitado Essays Cariátide a destiempo y otros escombros Poesía y espíritu Biography Concepción Cabrera de Armida, la amante de Cristo Félix de Jesús Rougier, la seducción de la Virgen Anthology La voz y las sombras Estamos hasta la madre As writer 1990 - Ariel Award to Best Original Story, for the film Goitia, un dios para sí mismo 1993 - José Fuentes Mares National Award in Literature, for the novel El Bautista 2009 - Aguascalientes National Award in Poetry, for the poetry book Tríptico del desiertoAs social activist 2011 - People's Choice Honoree for Global Exchange's Human Rights Award 2011 - Lion's Heart Medal, given by the University Students' Federation from the University of Guadalajara 2011 - Named as a Time Person of the Year, as one of the representatives of "The Protester" figure.
2012 - XX National Human Right's Prize "Don Sergio Méndez Arceo" 2012 - Voice of the Voiceless Award, given by Annunciation House 2012 - "La lucha sigue" Award, given by NACLA 2012 - "Personaje del Año" Award, named by the Bolivian journal El Deber. 2013 - "La palabra que busca la paz" recognition and homage, given at and by the XXIV National Book Fair of Leon Shoichet, Catherine E. "."Mexican poet becomes crusader for peace after son's slaying". CNN. 2011-05-05. Retrieved 2011-05-31. " CNN. May 5, 2011. Http://www.elcautivo.org/041115/V2/Pag_V2.htm http://www.elcautivo.org/041115/V3/Pag_V3.htm http://amediavoz.com/sicilia.htm http://www.periodicodepoesia.unam.mx/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=48&Itemid=77 http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/notas/574474.html Jiménez Serrano, Martín. El lenguaje místico de Permanencia en los puertos de Javier Sicilia. México, 2009 Polsgrove, Carol. "Javier Sicilia: Writing His Way Back to Life". Https://latinamericanwriters.com/2017/10/16/javier-sicilia-writing-his-way-back-to-life/
Bureau de change
A bureau de change or currency exchange is a business where people can exchange one currency for another. Although French, the term “bureau de change” is used throughout Europe and French Speaking Canada, where it is common to find a sign saying "exchange" or "change." Since the adoption of the euro, many exchange offices incorporate its logotype prominently on their signage. In the United States and English-speaking Canada the business is described as “currency exchange” and sometimes “money exchange”, sometimes with various additions such as “foreign”, “desk”, “office”, “counter”, “service”, etc.. A bureau de change is located at a bank, at a travel agent, main railway station or large stores—namely, anywhere there is to be a market for people needing to convert currency, they are prominent at travel hubs, although currency can be exchanged in many other ways both and illegally in other venues. Some of the major players include Travelex, JPMorgan Chase & Co.. Wells Fargo, Bank of America. A bureau de change is a business which, in competition with other similar businesses, makes its profit by selling currency at a higher exchange rate than a rate at which it buys the same currency, as well as any commission or fee it may charge.
In setting its exchange rates, it must keep an eye on the rates quoted by competitors, may be subject to government foreign exchange controls and other regulations. The exchange rates charged at bureaux are related to the spot prices available for large interbank transactions, are adjusted to ensure a profit; the rate at which a bureau will buy currency differs from that. So the bureau sells at a lower rate from that. For example, a UK bureau may sell €1.40 for £1 but buy €1.60 for £1. Quite the terms "buy" and "sell" are used the other way round by a bureau de change, the buy rate may seem higher that the sell rate: in such cases it means "we buy/sell our local currency at the rate showed". So if the spot price on a particular day is €1.50 to £1, in theory £2 will buy €3, but in practice this would be hard if not impossible for average consumers to get. If the bureau de change buys £1 from a consumer for €1.40 and sells £1 for €1.60, the 20 pence difference contributes to expenses and profit.
This business model can be upset by a currency run when there are far more buyers than sellers because they feel a particular currency is overvalued or undervalued. The business may charge a commission on the transaction. Commission is charged as a percentage of the amount to be exchanged, or a fixed fee, or both; some bureaux may adjust their offered exchange rates. Some bureaux offer special deals for customers returning unspent foreign currency after a holiday. Bureaux de change buy or sell coins, but sometimes will at a higher profit margin, justifying this by the higher cost of storage and shipping compared with banknotes. In recent years together with emergence of online banking, currency exchange services have appeared on the Internet; this new model allows more competitive exchange rates and threatens traditional bricks-and-mortar bureaux de change. Online currency exchange has two main models: the more popular model is provided by an established bureau de change, while social currency exchange platforms such as WeSwap allows participants to ask or bid for currency at their own rates.
It is estimated that the total revenue of this industry is 362 billion $ The rise of peer to peer foreign currency exchange platforms and FinTech has led to disruptive p2p forex platforms that undercuts traditional banks and financial institutions. Providers that use the p2p model to satisfy offsetting currency demands without an intermediary has result in significant margin and spread compression in the foreign exchange business model. Changing money at a bureau is more expensive than withdrawing it from an automatic teller machine at one’s destination or paying directly by debit or credit card, but this varies depending on the card issuer and the type of account. Fees from multiple ATM withdrawals should be considered; some people may feel uncomfortable carrying a lot of cash and so prefer to use a card and carry minimal cash for tipping cabs and restaurants. Hotels and rental cars many times need cards for temporary holds; some may prefer to hold foreign currency rather than change it back if they are expecting to return to where it is used.
Companies that send employees abroad may act as their own exchange by reimbursing their employees in the local currency and holding the foreign currency. If exchange rates are stable, the fees charged by a bureau may exceed any fluctuation and it makes the company’s accountancy easier. In the alternate, some prefer to buy their currency before they travel, either just for a sense of security against credit card fraud achieved by tampered card readers or hackers, or because they speculate the exchange rate is better at that time than it will be when they make their trip; as well, some places may only have credit card terminals down. In 2002, many bureaux reported substantial reductions in profit due to the replacement of many European currencies with the euro. Bureaux de change offer an opportunity for money laundering, a number of countries require bureaux de change to register as money service businesses and are subject to thei
Naples is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan. In 2017, around 967,069 people lived within the city's administrative limits while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,115,320 residents, its continuously built-up metropolitan area is the second or third largest metropolitan area in Italy and one of the most densely populated cities in Europe. First settled by Greeks in the second millennium BC, Naples is one of the oldest continuously inhabited urban areas in the world. In the ninth century BC, a colony known as Parthenope or Παρθενόπη was established on the Island of Megaride refounded as Neápolis in the sixth century BC; the city was an important part of Magna Graecia, played a major role in the merging of Greek and Roman society and a significant cultural centre under the Romans. It served as the capital of the Duchy of Naples of the Kingdom of Naples and of the Two Sicilies until the unification of Italy in 1861.
Between 1925 and 1936, Naples was expanded and upgraded by Benito Mussolini's government but subsequently sustained severe damage from Allied bombing during World War II, which led to extensive post-1945 reconstruction work. Naples has experienced significant economic growth in recent decades, helped by the construction of the Centro Direzionale business district and an advanced transportation network, which includes the Alta Velocità high-speed rail link to Rome and Salerno and an expanded subway network. Naples is the third-largest urban economy in Italy, after Rome; the Port of Naples is one of the most important in Europe and home of the Allied Joint Force Command Naples, the NATO body that oversees North Africa, the Sahel and Middle East. Naples' historic city centre is the largest in Europe and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, with a wide range of culturally and significant sites nearby, including the Palace of Caserta and the Roman ruins of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Naples is known for its natural beauties such as Posillipo, Phlegraean Fields and Vesuvius.
Neapolitan cuisine is synonymous with pizza – which originated in the city – but it includes many lesser-known dishes. The best-known sports team in Naples is the Serie A club S. S. C. Napoli, two-time Italian champions who play at the San Paolo Stadium in the southwest of the city, in the Fuorigrotta quarter. Naples has been inhabited since the Neolithic period; the earliest Greek settlements were established in the Naples area in the second millennium BC. Sailors from the Greek island of Rhodes established a small commercial port called Parthenope on the island of Megaride in the ninth century BC. By the eighth century BC, the settlement had expanded to include Monte Echia. In the sixth century BC the new urban zone of Neápolis was founded on the plain becoming one of the foremost cities of Magna Graecia; the city grew due to the influence of the powerful Greek city-state of Syracuse, became an ally of the Roman Republic against Carthage. During the Samnite Wars, the city, now a bustling centre of trade, was captured by the Samnites.
During the Punic Wars, the strong walls surrounding Neápolis repelled the invading forces of the Carthaginian general Hannibal. Naples was respected by the Romans as a paragon of Hellenistic culture. During the Roman era, the people of Naples maintained their Greek language and customs, while the city was expanded with elegant Roman villas and public baths. Landmarks such as the Temple of Dioscures were built, many emperors chose to holiday in the city, including Claudius and Tiberius. Virgil, the author of Rome's national epic, the Aeneid, received part of his education in the city, resided in its environs, it was during this period. Januarius, who would become Naples' patron saint, was martyred there in the fourth century AD; the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, Romulus Augustulus, was exiled to Naples by the Germanic king Odoacer in the fifth century AD. Following the decline of the Western Roman Empire, Naples was captured by the Ostrogoths, a Germanic people, incorporated into the Ostrogothic Kingdom.
However, Belisarius of the Byzantine Empire recaptured Naples in 536, after entering the city via an aqueduct. In 543, during the Gothic Wars, Totila took the city for the Ostrogoths, but the Byzantines seized control of the area following the Battle of Mons Lactarius on the slopes of Vesuvius. Naples was expected to keep in contact with the Exarchate of Ravenna, the centre of Byzantine power on the Italian Peninsula. After the exarchate fell, a Duchy of Naples was created. Although Naples' Greco-Roman culture endured, it switched allegiance from Constantinople to Rome under Duke Stephen II, putting it under papal suzerainty by 763; the years between 818 and 832 were tumultuous in regard to Naples' relations with the Byzantine Emperor, with numerous local pretenders feuding for possession of the ducal throne. Theoctistus was appointed without imperial approval. However, the disgruntled general populace chased him from the city, instead elected Stephen III, a man who minted coins with his own initials, r
Saint-Germain-en-Laye is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France in north-central France. It is located in the western suburbs of 19.1 km from the centre of Paris. Inhabitants are called Saint-Germinois. With its elegant tree-lined streets it is one of the more affluent suburbs of Paris, combining both high-end leisure spots and exclusive residential neighborhoods. Saint-Germain-en-Laye is a sub-prefecture of the department; because it includes the National Forest of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, it covers 48 km2, making it the largest commune in the Yvelines. It occupies a large loop of the Seine. Saint-Germain-en-Laye lies at one of the western termini of Line A of the RER. Saint-Germain-en-Laye was founded in 1020 when King Robert the Pious founded a convent on the site of the present Church of Saint-Germain. In 1688, James II, King of England and VII of Scotland, exiled himself to the city after being deposed from the throne in what has become known as the Glorious Revolution, he spent the remainder of his days there, died on 16 September 1701.
Prior to the French Revolution in 1789, it had been a royal town and the Château de Saint-Germain the residence of numerous French monarchs. The old château was constructed in 1348 by King Charles V on the foundations of an old castle dating from 1238 in the time of Saint Louis. Francis I was responsible for its subsequent restoration. In 1862, Napoleon III set up the Musée des Antiquités Nationales in the erstwhile royal château; this museum has exhibits ranging from Paleolithic to Celtic times. The "Dame de Brassempouy" sculpted on a mammoth's ivory tusk around 23,000 years ago is the most famous exhibit in the museum. Kings Henry IV and Louis XIII left their mark on the town. Louis XIV was born in the château, established Saint-Germain-en-Laye as his principal residence from 1661 to 1681. Louis XIV turned over the château to James VII & II of Scotland and England after his exile from Britain after the Glorious Revolution in 1688. James lived in the Château for 13 years, his daughter Louisa Maria Stuart was born in exile here in 1692.
James II is buried in the Church of Saint-Germain. Saint-Germain-en-Laye is famous for its 2.4-kilometre long stone terrace built by André Le Nôtre from 1669 to 1673. The terrace provides a view over the valley of the Seine and, in the distance, Paris. During the French Revolution, the name was changed along with many other places whose names held connotations of religion or royalty. Temporarily, Saint-Germain-en-Laye became Montagne-du-Bon-Air. During his reign, Napoleon I established his cavalry officers training school in the Château-Vieux; the Treaty of Saint-Germain was signed in 1919 and was applied on 16 July 1920. The treaty registered the breakup of the Habsburg empire, which recognized the independence of Czechoslovakia, Poland and the Kingdom of the Serbs and Slovenes. During the occupation from 1940 to 1944, the town was the headquarters of the German Army. On 1 January 2019, the former commune Fourqueux was merged into Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Saint-Germain-en-Laye is served by Saint-Germain-en-Laye station on Paris RER line A.
It is served by two stations on the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail line: Saint-Germain – Bel-Air – Fourqueux and Saint-Germain – Grande Ceinture. Saint-Germain-en-Laye is served by Achères – Grand Cormier station on Paris RER line A and on the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail line; this station is located in the middle of the Forest of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, far away from the urbanized part of the commune. Saint-Germain-en-Laye has a proud footballing history. From 1904 to 1970 it was represented by Stade Saint-Germain which, following a 1970 merger with Paris FC, became Paris Saint-Germain, or Paris SG, now PSG for short, they are a top-flight football team who have won one C2 cup. PSG are the highest ranking team in France. From 1904 to 1974, "Le Camp des Loges" was the main stadium, they are now, based in Paris – but continue to train in their original stadium. In 2011, Paris Saint-Germain was bought by the Qatar Investment Authority, bringing greater financial means.
There is one main sporting facility in Saint-Germain-en-Laye: the Stade Municipal Georges Lefèvre. It covers over 12 hectares and contains: – 5 football pitches – 3 stands – 1 athletic track – 22 tennis courts – 1 clubhouse – 1 multibeach terrain Capcom Entertainment France, a Capcom subsidiary, has its head office in Saint-Germain-en-Laye; as of 2016 the schools in this commune had 20,581 students, with 7,300 of them living in Saint-Germain-en-Laye. There is a high ratio of overall students to town inhabitants; the municipal nursery and primary schools have 3,549 students. 1,026 students attend private schools in the commune. 522 students attend primary divisions. As of 2016 the municipality operates nine primary schools; the Lycée International de Saint Germain-en-Laye, a public school, is in Saint-Germain-en-Laye. It includes a section for Japanese students, the Japanese Ministry of Education, Sports and Technology lists that program in its group of European hoshuko. Other public high schools: Lycée Jeanne-d'Albret Lycée technologique Léonard-de-Vinci Lycée technologique Jean-Baptiste-Poquelin lycée agricole et horticole de Saint-Germain-ChambourcyPrivate schools include: Collège et Lycée Notre-Dame École Saint-
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
The Order of the Brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel or Carmelites is a Roman Catholic mendicant religious order founded in the 12th century, on Mount Carmel in the Crusader States, hence the name Carmelites. However, historical records about its origin remain uncertain. Berthold of Calabria has traditionally been associated with the founding of the order, but few clear records of early Carmelite history have survived; the charism of the Carmelite Order is contemplation. Carmelites understand contemplation in a broad sense encompassing prayer and service; these three elements are at the heart of the Carmelite charism. The most recent statement about the charism of Carmel was in the 1995 Constitutions of the Order, in which Chapter 2 is devoted to the idea of charism. Carmel understands action to be complementary, not contradictory. What is distinctive of Carmelites is the way that they practice the elements of prayer and service, taking particular inspiration from the prophet Elijah and the Blessed Virgin Mary, patrons of the order.
The order is considered by the Catholic Church to be under the special protection of the Blessed Virgin Mary, thus has a strong Marian devotion to Our Lady of Mount Carmel. As in most of the orders dating to medieval times, the First Order is the friars, the Second Order is the nuns, the Third Order consists of laypeople who continue to live in the world, can be married, but participate in the charism of the order by liturgical prayers and contemplative prayer. There are offshoots such as active Carmelite sisters. Carmelite tradition traces the origin of the order to a community of hermits on Mount Carmel, which succeeded the schools of the prophets in ancient Israel or the Crusader states. There are no certain records of hermits on this mountain before the 1190s. By this date a group of men had gathered at the well of Elijah on Mount Carmel; these men, who had gone to Palestine from Europe either as pilgrims or as crusaders, chose Mount Carmel in part because it was the traditional home of Elijah.
The foundation is believed to have been dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary. Some time between 1206 and 1214 the hermits, about whom little is known, approached Albert of Jerusalem, the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem and papal legate, for a rule. Albert created a document, the Rule of St Albert, both juridically terse and replete with Scriptural allusions, thereby grounding the hermits in the life of the universal Church and their own aspirations; the rule consisted of sixteen articles, which enjoined strict obedience to their prior, residence in individual cells, constancy in prayer, the hearing of Mass every morning in the oratory of the community, vows of poverty and toil, daily silence from vespers until terce the next morning, abstinence from all forms of meat except in cases of severe illness, fasting from Holy Cross Day until the Easter of the following year. The Rule of St. Albert addresses a prior whose name is only listed as "B." When required to name their founders, the Brothers referred to both Elijah and the Blessed Virgin as early models of the community.
Under pressure from other European mendicant orders to be more specific, the name "Saint Berthold" was given drawn from the oral tradition of the order. Nothing is known of the Carmelites from 1214, when Albert died, until 1238; the Rule of St. Albert was approved by Pope Honorius III in 1226, again by Pope Gregory IX in 1229, with a modification regarding ownership of property and permission to celebrate divine services; the Carmelites next appear in the historical record, in 1238, when with the increasing cleavage between the West and the East, the Carmelites found it advisable to leave the Near East. Many moved to Sicily. In 1242, the Carmelites migrated west, establishing a settlement at Aylesford, Kent and Hulne, near Alnwick in Northumberland. Two years they established a chapter in southern France. Settlements were established at Losenham and Bradmer, on the north Norfolk coast, before 1247. By 1245 the Carmelites were so numerous in England that they were able to hold their first general chapter at Aylesford, where Simon Stock eighty years old, was chosen general.
During his rule of twenty years the order prospered: foundations were made at London and Cambridge, Cologne, Monpellier, Norwich and Bristol, elsewhere. By 1274, there were 22 Carmelite houses in England, about the same number in France, eleven in Catalonia, three in Scotland, as well as some in Italy and elsewhere. Acknowledging the changed circumstances of life outside the Holy Land, the Carmelites appealed to the papal curia for a modification of the Rule. Pope Innocent IV entrusted the drafting of a modified Rule to two Dominicans, the new Rule was promulgate
A diary is a record with discrete entries arranged by date reporting on what has happened over the course of a day or other period. A personal diary may include a person's experiences, and/or feelings, excluding comments on current events outside the writer's direct experience. Someone who keeps a diary is known as a diarist. Diaries undertaken for institutional purposes play a role in many aspects of human civilization, including government records, business ledgers, military records. In British English, the word may denote a preprinted journal format. A diary is a collection of notes. Today the term is employed for personal diaries intended to remain private or to have a limited circulation amongst friends or relatives; the word "journal" may be sometimes used for "diary," but a diary has daily entries, whereas journal-writing can be less frequent. Although a diary may provide information for a memoir, autobiography or biography, it is written not with the intention of being published as it stands, but for the author's own use.
In recent years, there is internal evidence in some diaries that they are written with eventual publication in mind, with the intention of self-vindication, or for profit. By extension the term diary is used to mean a printed publication of a written diary; the word diary comes from the Latin diarium. The word journal comes from the same root through Old French jurnal; the earliest use of the word refers to a book in which a daily record was written was in Ben Jonson's comedy Volpone in 1605. The oldest extant diaries come from Middle Eastern and East Asian cultures, although the earlier work To Myself, today known as the Meditations, written in Greek by the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius in the second half of the 2nd century AD displays many characteristics of a diary. Pillowbooks of Japanese court ladies and Asian travel journals offer some aspects of this genre of writing, although they consist of diurnal records; the scholar Li Ao, for example, kept a diary of his journey through southern China.
In the medieval Near East, Arabic diaries were written from before the 10th century. The earliest surviving diary of this era which most resembles the modern diary was that of Ibn Banna' in the 11th century, his diary is the earliest known to be arranged in order of date much like modern diaries. The precursors of the diary in the modern sense include daily notes of medieval mystics, concerned with inward emotions and outward events perceived as spiritually important. From the Renaissance on, some individuals wanted not only to record events, as in medieval chronicles and itineraries, but to put down their own opinions and express their hopes and fears, without any intention to publish these notes. One of the early preserved examples is the anonymous Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris that covers the years 1405–49, giving subjective commentaries on the current events. Famous 14th- to 16th-century Renaissance examples, which appeared much as books, were the diaries by the Florentines Buonaccorso Pitti and Gregorio Dati and the Venetian Marino Sanuto the Younger.
Here we find records of less important everyday occurrences together with much reflection, emotional experience and personal impressions. In 1908 the Smythson company created the first featherweight diary, enabling diaries to be carried about. Many diaries of notable figures have been published and form an important element of autobiographical literature. Samuel Pepys is the earliest diarist, well known today. Pepys was amongst the first who took the diary beyond mere business transaction notation, into the realm of the personal. Pepys' contemporary John Evelyn kept a notable diary, their works are among the most important primary sources for the English Restoration period, consist of eyewitness accounts of many great events, such as the Great Plague of London, the Great Fire of London; the practice of posthumous publication of diaries of literary and other notables began in the 19th century. As examples, the Grasmere Journal of Dorothy Wordsworth was published in 1897. Among important U. S. Civil War diaries are those of George Templeton Strong, a New York City lawyer, Mary Chesnut, the wife of a Confederate officer.
The diary of Jemima Condict, living in the area of what is now West Orange, New Jersey, includes local observations of the American Revolutionary War. Since the 19th century the publication of diaries by their authors has become commonplace – notably amongst politicians seeking justification but amongst artists and litterateurs of all descriptions. Amongst late 20th-century British published political diaries, those of Richard Crossman, Tony Benn and Alan Clark are representative, the latter being more indiscreet in the tradition of the diaries of Chips Channon. In Britain in the field of the arts notable diaries were published by James Lees-Milne, Roy Strong and Peter Hall. Harold Nicolson in the mid-20th century covered the arts. One of the m