Identity document forgery
Identity document forgery is the process by which identity documents issued by governing bodies are copied and/or modified by persons not authorized to create such documents or engage in such modifications, for the purpose of deceiving those who would view the documents about the identity or status of the bearer. The term encompasses the activity of acquiring identity documents from governing bodies by falsifying the required supporting documentation in order to create the desired identity. Identity documents differ from other credentials in that they are intended to be usable by only the person holding the card. Unlike other credentials, they may be used to restrict the activities of the holder as well as to expand them. Documents that have been forged in this way include driver's licenses. At the beginning of 2010, there were 11 million stolen or lost passports listed in the global database of Interpol; such falsified documents can be used for identity theft, age deception, illegal immigration, organized crime.
A distinction needs to be made between the different uses of an identity document. In one cases, the fake ID may only have to pass a cursory inspection, such as flashing a plastic ID card for a security guard. At the other extreme, a document may have to resist scrutiny by a trained document examiner, who may be equipped with technical tools for verifying biometrics and reading hidden security features within the card. To make forgery more difficult, most modern IDs contain numerous security features that require specialised and expensive equipment to duplicate. School IDs are easier to fake, as they do not have the same level of security measures as government-issued IDs. Modern fake ID cards invariably carry a picture of the authorized user, a simple and effective form of biometric identification. However, forgery of simple photographic ID cards has become simple in recent years with the availability of low-cost high-resolution printers and scanners and photo-editing software. Simple fake ID cards are made using an inkjet or laser printer to print a replica document, laminated to resemble a real ID card.
Most designs are made re-creating scanned copies of a license. More complex ID cards are now being created by printing on a material called Teslin or Artisyn, which are paper-like materials that are micro-porous plastic sheets; when butterfly pouches and holograms are applied, the card is run through a heat laminator which creates a professional-looking ID card. Numerous security printing techniques have been used to attempt to enhance the security of ID cards. For example, many modern documents include holograms, which are difficult to replicate without expensive equipment, not available. Though accurate recreation of these holograms is difficult, using a mixture of pigments and base can create a similar shiny multi-coloured look which may pass cursory inspection. In addition, some documents include a magnetic strip, which will contain the same information, may thus be checked against the machine-readable information on the barcode. Magnetic strips may contain other secret identifying information.
Although magnetic strips can be faked, they provide another barrier to entry for the amateur forger. Other hidden security devices can be added, including embedded secure cryptoprocessor chips which are designed to be difficult to forge, RFID tags: the two technologies may be combined, in the case of contactless smart cards. Another effective technique is the use of online verification of security information against a central database. In many cases, online verification can detect simple copying of a document by detecting attempted use in multiple places at the same time, or false IDs, as the information on the ID will be found to be invalid. A simple method of confirming that an ID is genuine is to print a serial number on it unique to the card and stored on a centralized database. If checked, it will become clear that the ID is false. Online verification has the advantage that it allows easy revocation of lost or stolen documents. Many modern credentials now contain some kind of barcode. For example, many U.
S. driving licences include a 2-dimensional code in PDF417 format, which contains the same information as on the front of the license. Barcodes allow rapid checking of credentials for low-security applications, may contain extra information which can be used to verify other information on the card; the combination of multiple high-security features and well-trained document inspectors with technical assistance can be effective at preventing forged documents from being produced. Instead of acquiring the expensive specialized equipment needed to make fake documents, it may be more economical to produce a "genuine fake". One way of doing this is to present the document issuing authority with false credentials, which they will endorse by issuing a new document. In this way, false identities and credentials can be "bootstrapped" over a period of time. Another simpler way of generating false credentials is to suborn one of the officials involved in the document-issuing process through bribery or intimidation.
This may be combined with the bootstrapping p
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Gelu Naum was a prominent Romanian poet, novelist, children's writer, translator. He is remembered as the founder of the Romanian Surrealist group; the artist Lygia Naum, his wife, was the inspiration and main character in his 1985 novel Zenobia. Born in Bucharest, he was the son of his wife Maria Naum née Rosa Gluck. In 1933, he began studying philosophy at the University of Bucharest. In 1938, he left for France, he took his PhD diploma with a thesis on the scholastic philosopher Pierre Abelard. In 1936, Naum met Victor Brauner, who became his close friend and who introduced him to André Breton and his Surrealist circle in Paris. In 1941, he helped create the Bucharest group of Surrealists. Naum was drafted into Romanian Army during World War II and served on the Eastern Front after the invasion of the Soviet Union. Marked by his wartime experience, he was discharged in 1944. In December 1947, the Surrealist group succumbed to the vicissitudes of postwar Soviet occupation and successful Communist takeover of Romania's government.
As Socialist realism had become Romania's cultural policy, he could only publish books for children. Although he published several books in the line of Socialist realism, which he reneged on afterwards, he never stopped writing Surrealist poems, such as the 1958 poem composed of several parts Heraclitus or the esoteric manuscript The Way of the Snake, written in 1948–1949 and published after his death, in 2002. Between 1950 and 1953, he taught philosophy at the Agronomic Institute in Bucharest while working as a translator, he translated works by Samuel Beckett, René Char, Denis Diderot, Alexandre Dumas, père, Julien Gracq, Victor Hugo, Franz Kafka, Gérard de Nerval, Jacques Prévert and Jules Verne. He resumed his literary career in 1968, in the wake of a relative cultural liberalization under Nicolae Ceauşescu's regime. After the Romanian Revolution of 1989, he traveled abroad and gave public readings in France, Germany and the Netherlands. In 1995, the German Academic Exchange Service appointed him scholar at the University of Berlin.
Naum spent much of his final years at his retreat in Comana. Drumeţul incendiar, Bucharest, 1936 Vasco de Gama, Bucharest, 1940 Culoarul somnului, Bucharest, 1944 Medium, Bucharest, 1945 Critica mizeriei, Bucharest, 1945 Teribilul interzis, Bucharest, 1945 Spectrul longevităţii: 122 de cadavre, Bucharest, 1946 Castelul Orbilor, Bucharest, 1946 L'infra-noir, Bucharest, 1947 Éloge de Malombra – Cerne de l'amour absolu, Bucharest, 1947 Filonul, Bucharest, 1952 Tabăra din munţi, Bucharest, 1953 Aşa-i Sanda, Bucharest, 1956 Cartea cu Apolodor, Bucharest, 1959 Poem despre tinereţea noastră, Bucharest, 1960 Soarele calm, Bucharest, 1961 A doua carte cu Apolodor, Bucharest, 1964 Athanor, Bucharest, 1968 Poetizaţi, poetizaţi... Bucharest, 1970 Copacul-animal, Bucharest, 1971 Tatăl meu obosit, Bucharest, 1972 Poeme alese, Bucharest, 1974 Cărţile cu Apolodor, Bucharest, 1975 Descrierea turnului, Bucharest, 1975 Insula. Ceasornicăria Taus. Poate Eleonora, Bucharest, 1979 Partea cealaltă, Bucharest, 1980 Zenobia, Bucharest, 1985 Amedeu, cel mai cumsecade leu, Bucharest, 1988 Apolodor, un mic pinguin călător, Bucharest, 1988 Malul albastru, Bucharest, 1990 Faţa şi suprafaţa, urmat de Malul albastru, Bucharest, 1994 Focul negru, Bucharest, 1995 Sora fântână, Bucharest, 1995 Întrebătorul, Bucharest, 1996 Copacul-animal, urmat de Avantajul vertebrelor, Cluj-Napoca, 2000 Ascet la baraca de tir, Bucharest, 2000 Calea şearpelui, Bucharest, 2002 Testament - Anthology of Romanian Verse - American Edition - monolingual English edition
Claude Cahun, born Lucie Renee Mathilde Schwob, was a French photographer and writer. Lucie Renee Mathilde Schwob adopted the gender-ambiguous name Claude Cahun in 1917 and is best known for self-portraits, in which they assumed a variety of personae. Cahun's work was both political and personal, undermined traditional concepts of static gender roles. In their autobiography, they explained, “Masculine? Feminine? It depends on the situation. Neuter is the only gender that always suits me.” Born in Nantes in 1894, Cahun was born into a prominent intellectual Jewish family. Cahun was the niece of avant-garde writer Marcel Schwob and the great-niece of Orientalist David Léon Cahun; when Cahun was four years old, her mother, Mary-Antoinette Courbebaisse, began suffering from mental illness, which led to her permanent internment at a psychiatric facility. In her mother's absence, Cahun was brought up by Mathilde Cahun. Cahun attended a private school in Surrey after experiences with anti-Semitism at her high school in Nantes.
She attended the University of Sorbonne. She began making photographic self-portraits as early as 1912, continued taking images of herself through the 1930s. Around 1919, she changed her name to Claude Cahun, after having used the names Claude Courlis and Daniel Douglas. During the early 1920s, they settled in Paris with lifelong partner and step-sibling Suzanne Malherbe, who adopted the pseudonym Marcel Moore. For the rest of their lives together and Moore collaborated on various written works, sculptures and collages; the two published articles and novels, notably in the periodical Mercure de France, befriended Henri Michaux, Pierre Morhange, Robert Desnos. Around 1922 Claude and Moore began holding artists' salons at their home. Among the regulars who would attend were artists Henri Michaux and André Breton and literary entrepreneurs Sylvia Beach and Adrienne Monnier. Cahun's works encompassed writing and theatre, they is most remembered for their staged self-portraits and tableaux that incorporated the visual aesthetics of Surrealism.
During the 1920s Cahun produced an astonishing number of self-portraits in various guises such as aviator, doll, body builder and vampire, Japanese puppet. Many of Cahun's portraits feature the artist looking directly at the viewer, head shaved revealing only head and shoulders, a blurring of gender indicators and behaviors which serve to undermine the patriarchal gaze. Cahun's published writings include "Heroines," a series of monologues based upon female fairy tale characters intertwined with witty comparisons to the contemporary image of women. In 1932 Cahun joined the Association des Écrivains et Artistes Révolutionnaires, where they met André Breton and René Crevel. Following this, they started associating with the surrealist group, participated in a number of surrealist exhibitions, including the London International Surrealist Exhibition and Exposition surréaliste d'Objets, both in 1936. Cahun's photograph from the London exhibition of Sheila Legge standing in the middle of Trafalgar Square, their head obscured by a flower arrangement and pigeons perching on their outstretched arms, appeared in numerous newspapers and was reproduced in a number of books.
In 1934, Cahun published a short polemic essay, Les Paris sont Ouverts, in 1935 took part in the founding of the left-wing anti-fascist alliance Contre Attaque, alongside André Breton and Georges Bataille. Breton called Cahun "one of the most curious spirits of our time."In 1994 the Institute of Contemporary Arts in London held an exhibition of Cahun's photographic self-portraits from 1927–47, alongside the work of two young contemporary British artists, Virginia Nimarkoh and Tacita Dean, entitled Mise en Scene. In the surrealist self-portraits, Cahun represented themself as an androgyne, nymph and soldier. In 2007, David Bowie created a multi-media exhibition of Cahun’s work in the gardens of the General Theological Seminary in New York, it was part of a venue called the Highline Festival, which included offerings by Air, Laurie Anderson, Mike Garson and Ricky Gervais. Bowie said of Cahun: You could call her transgressive or you could call her a cross dressing Man Ray with surrealist tendencies.
I find this work quite mad, in the nicest way. Outside of France and now the UK she has not had the kind of recognition that, as a founding follower and worker of the original surrealist movement, she deserves." Cahun’s work was a collaboration with Marcel Moore. Cahun and Moore collaborated though this goes unrecognized, it is believed that Moore was the person standing behind the camera during Cahun's portrait shoots and was an equal partner in their collages. With the majority of the photographs attributed to Cahun coming from a personal collection, not one meant for public display, it has been proposed that these personal photographs allowed for Cahun to experiment with gender presentation and the role of the viewer to a greater degree. In 1937 Cahun and Moore settled in Jersey. Following the fall of France and the German occupation of Jersey and the other Channel Islands, they became active as resistance workers and propagandists. Fervently against war, the two worked extensively in producing anti-German fliers.
Many were snippets from English-to-German translations of
Leonora Carrington OBE was a British-born Mexican artist, surrealist painter, novelist. She lived most of her adult life in Mexico City and was one of the last surviving participants in the Surrealist movement of the 1930s. Carrington was a founding member of the Women's Liberation Movement in Mexico during the 1970s. Carrington was born in Clayton Green, Lancashire, England, her father was a wealthy textile manufacturer, her mother, was Irish. She had three brothers: Patrick and Arthur. Educated by governesses and nuns, she was expelled from two schools, including New Hall School, for her rebellious behaviour, until her family sent her to Florence, where she attended Mrs Penrose's Academy of Art, she briefly, attended St Mary's convent school in Ascot. In 1927, at the age of ten, she saw her first Surrealist painting in a Left Bank gallery in Paris and met many Surrealists, including Paul Éluard, her father opposed her career as an artist. She returned to England and was presented at Court, but according to her, she brought a copy of Aldous Huxley's Eyeless in Gaza to read instead.
In 1935, she attended the Chelsea School of Art in London for one year, with the help of her father's friend Serge Chermayeff, she was able to transfer to the Ozenfant Academy of Fine Arts established by the French modernist Amédée Ozenfant in London. She became familiar with Surrealism from a copy of Herbert Read's book, given to her by her mother, but she received little encouragement from her family to forge an artistic career; the Surrealist poet and patron Edward James was the champion of her work in Britain. Some works are still hanging at James' former family home West Dean College in West Dean, West Sussex. In 1936, Leonora saw the work of the German surrealist Max Ernst at the International Surrealist Exhibition in London and was attracted to the Surrealist artist before she met him. In 1937, Carrington met Ernst at a party held in London; the artists returned together to Paris, where Ernst promptly separated from his wife. In 1938, leaving Paris, they settled in Saint Martin d'Ardèche in southern France.
The new couple supported each other's artistic development. The two artists created sculptures of guardian animals to decorate their home in Saint Martin d'Ardèche. In 1939, Carrington painted a Portrait of Max Ernst as a capture of some ambivalences in their relationship; this portrait was not her first Surrealist work though. Before that, between 1937–38, Leonora painted Self-portrait called The Inn of the Dawn Horse, it is now exhibited in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Sporting white jodhpurs and a wild mane of hair, Carrington is perched on the edge of a chair in this curious, dreamlike scene, with her hand outstretched toward the prancing hyena and her back to the tailless rocking horse flying behind her. With the outbreak of World War II Ernst, German, was arrested by the French authorities for being a "hostile alien". With the intercession of Paul Éluard, other friends, including the American journalist Varian Fry, he was discharged a few weeks later. Soon after the Nazis invaded France, Ernst was arrested again, this time by the Gestapo, because his art was considered by the Nazis to be "degenerate".
He managed to escape and, leaving Carrington behind, fled to America with the help of Peggy Guggenheim, a sponsor of the arts. After Ernst's arrest, Carrington was fled to Spain. Paralyzing anxiety and growing delusions culminated in a final breakdown at the British Embassy in Madrid, her parents had her hospitalised. She was given "convulsive therapy" and was treated with the drugs cardiazol, a powerful anxiolytic drug, Luminal, a barbiturate. After being released into the care of a nurse who took her to Lisbon, Carrington ran away and sought refuge in the Mexican Embassy. Meanwhile, Ernst had married Peggy Guggenheim in New York in 1941; that marriage ended a few years later. Ernst and Carrington never resumed their relationship. Three years after being released from the asylum and with the encouragement of André Breton, Carrington wrote about her psychotic experience in her novel Down Below. In this, she explained how she had a nervous breakdown, didn't want to eat, left Spain; this is. She illustrates all, done to her: ruthless institutional therapies, sexual assault, hallucinatory drugs, unsanitary conditions.
It has been suggested that the events of the book should not be taken given Carrington's state at the time of her institutionalization. She created art to depict her experience, such as her Portrait of Dr. Morales and Map of Down Below. Following the escape to Lisbon, Carrington arranged passage out of Europe with Renato Leduc, a Mexican Ambassador. Leduc was a friend of Pablo Picasso, agreed to a marriage of convenience with Carrington so that she would be accorded the immunity given to a diplomat's wife. Leduc spirited Carrington away to Mexico, which she grew to love and where she lived, on and off, for the rest of her life; the pair divorced in 1943. Events from this period continued to inform her work. After spending part of the 1960s in New York City, Carrington worked in Mexico once again. While in Mexico, she was a
Arthur Cravan was a Swiss writer, poet and boxer. He was the second son of Hélène Clara St. Clair, his brother Otho Lloyd was a painter and photographer married to the Russian émigré artist Olga Sacharoff. His father's sister, Constance Mary Lloyd, was married to Irish poet Oscar Wilde, he changed his name to Cravan in 1912 in honour of his fiancée Renée Bouchet, born in the small village of Cravans in the department of Charente-Maritime in western France. Cravan was last seen at Salina Cruz, Mexico in 1918 and most drowned in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Mexico in November 1918. Cravan was born and educated in Lausanne, Switzerland at an English military academy from which he was expelled after spanking a teacher. After his schooling, during World War I, he travelled throughout Europe and America using a variety of passports and documents, some of them forged, he declared no single nationality and claimed instead to be "a citizen of 20 countries". Cravan set out to promote himself as an eccentric poet and art critic, but his interest in art and literature was that of the provocateur, typified by his claim in Maintenant that art is “situated more in the guts than in the brain” and that he wanted to'break the face' of the modern art movement.
He staged public spectacles with himself at the centre, once acting on the front of a line of carts where he paraded his skills as a boxer and singer. His proclivity for shock was what endeared him to the New York Dadaist movement, who adopted him as a poster boy after his death despite the fact Cravan never self-identified with the movement. From 1911 to 1915, Cravan published and edited a critical literary magazine, Maintenant! which appeared in five issues and which he notoriously distributed around Paris with a wheelbarrow. It was gathered together and reprinted by Eric Losfeld in 1971 as J'étais Cigare in the Dadaist collection "Le Désordre"; the magazine was designed to cause sensation. His remarks drove Laurencin's lover and influential modernist critic and poet Guillaume Apollinaire into a fury that resulted in a bid for a duel, it is not known whether the duel happened, though Apollinaire was depicted more than once with a sling on his arm around that time. Cravan's rough vibrant poetry and provocative, anarchistic lectures and public appearances earned him the admiration of Marcel Duchamp, Francis Picabia, André Breton, other young artists and intellectuals.
Carolyn Burke notes that Amelia von Ende, writing in The Dial in 1914, argued that Cravan'had not only put the idea of pluralisme into poetic form but invented the term "machinisme," which appropriately characterizes the mechanical and industrial side of our life.” Observed that Cravan’s “machinisme” had not found favour because it was less euphonious than “dynamism,” the critical term in vogue." After the First World War began, Cravan left Paris to avoid being drafted into military service. On a stopover in the Canary Islands a boxing match was arranged in Barcelona between Cravan and the former world champion Jack Johnson to raise money for Cravan's passage to the United States. Posters for the match touted Cravan as "European champion." Johnson, who didn't know who the man was, knocked Cravan out cold after six rounds. In his autobiography, My Life and Battles, Johnson noted. Cravan's pride in being the nephew of Oscar Wilde produced hoax documents and poems which Cravan wrote and signed "Oscar Wilde".
In 1913 he published an article in Maintenant claiming that his uncle was still alive and had visited him in Paris. The New York Times published the rumour though Cravan and Wilde never met. In 1915 Cravan held an exhibition of his paintings at the gallery Bernheim Jeune in Paris under the pseudonym Èdouard Archinard. On January 13th 1916 Cravan arrived into New York on the same ship as Leon Trotsky, Carolyn Burke notes,'just a few weeks before the Kaiser announced the resumption of attacks on steamships.' On the journey Trotsky and Cravan became acquainted and, although Cravan liked Trotsky he felt that “It was useless telling him the result of his revolution would be the founding of a red army to protect the red liberty.” Whilst Cravan's practices may align with certain anarchist and socialist principles he was staunchly unaffiliated, mocked all notions of progress, prescribed to no single ideology or movement. In 1917, Cravan met the poet Mina Loy at a war benefit ball where the dress code was modern art movements.
That night Cravan had to deliver an address on'The Independent Artists of France and America' but he was pranked by Picabia and Duchamp who got him drunk such that he ended up swaying and slurring his speech on the platform, as well as shouting obscenities, removing his coat, vest and suspenders. This led to his arrest by four private detectives at the event but, after being taken to the local police station, Cravan was soon bailed out by friend Walter Conrad Arensberg who took him back to his home at West Sixty-Seventh Street. Loy was to describe him, as the love of her life. Cravan left New York for Mexico on September 1st with a friend called Frost. Around this time in his letters to Loy, who remained in New York, he wrote that “I am only at my best when travelling” and that “hen I have to stay too long in in the same place, I become imbecilic.’ Together Cravan and Frost hitchhiked north through Connecticut and Maine to Canada
Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquis of Dalí de Púbol, known professionally as Salvador Dalí, was a prominent Spanish surrealist born in Figueres, Spain. Dalí was a skilled draftsman, best known for the bizarre images in his surrealist work, his painterly skills are attributed to the influence of Renaissance masters. His best-known work, The Persistence of Memory, was completed in August 1931. Dalí's expansive artistic repertoire included film and photography, at times in collaboration with a range of artists in a variety of media. Dalí attributed his "love of everything, gilded and excessive, my passion for luxury and my love of oriental clothes" to an "Arab lineage", claiming that his ancestors were descendants of the Moors. Dalí was imaginative, enjoyed indulging in unusual and grandiose behavior. To the dismay of those who held his work in high regard, to the irritation of his critics, his eccentric manner and attention-grabbing public actions sometimes drew more attention than his artwork.
Salvador Dalí was born on 11 May 1904, at 8:45 am GMT, on the first floor of Carrer Monturiol, 20, in the town of Figueres, in the Empordà region, close to the French border in Catalonia, Spain. Dalí's older brother, named Salvador, had died of gastroenteritis nine months earlier, on 1 August 1903, his father, Salvador Rafael Aniceto Dalí Cusí was a middle-class lawyer and notary, an anti-clerical atheist and Catalan federalist, whose strict disciplinary approach was tempered by his wife, Felipa Domènech Ferrés, who encouraged her son's artistic endeavors. In the summer of 1912, the family moved to the top floor of Carrer Monturiol 24; as a child Dalí was taken to his brother's grave and told by his parents that he was his brother's reincarnation, a concept which he came to believe. Of his brother, Dalí said, " resembled each other like two drops of water, but we had different reflections." He "was a first version of myself but conceived too much in the absolute." Images of his long-dead brother would reappear embedded in his works, including Portrait of My Dead Brother.
Dalí had a sister, Anna Maria, three years younger. In 1949, she published a book about her brother, his childhood friends included Josep Samitier. During holidays at the Catalan resort of Cadaqués, the trio played football together. Dalí attended drawing school. In 1916, he discovered modern painting on a summer vacation trip to Cadaqués with the family of Ramon Pichot, a local artist who made regular trips to Paris; the next year, Dalí's father organized an exhibition of his charcoal drawings in their family home. He had his first public exhibition at the Municipal Theatre in Figueres in 1918, a site he would return to decades later. On 6 February 1921, Dalí's mother died of uterus cancer. Dalí was 16 years old. I worshipped her... I could not resign myself to the loss of a being on whom I counted to make invisible the unavoidable blemishes of my soul." After her death, Dalí's father married his deceased wife's sister. Dalí did not resent this marriage, because he had great respect for his aunt. In 1922, Dalí moved into the Residencia de Estudiantes in Madrid and studied at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando.
A lean 1.72 metres tall, Dalí drew attention as an eccentric and dandy. He had long hair and sideburns, coat and knee-breeches in the style of English aesthetes of the late 19th century. At the Residencia, he became close friends with Pepín Bello, Luis Buñuel, Federico García Lorca; the friendship with Lorca had a strong element of mutual passion, but Dalí rejected the poet's sexual advances. It was his paintings in which he experimented with Cubism, that earned him the most attention from his fellow students. Since there were no Cubist artists in Madrid at the time, his knowledge of Cubist art had come from magazine articles and a catalog given to him by Pichot. Dalí, still unknown to the public, illustrated a book for the first time in 1924, it was a publication of the Catalan poem Les bruixes de Llers by his friend and schoolmate, poet Carles Fages de Climent. Dalí experimented with Dada, which influenced his work throughout his life. Dalí held his first solo exhibition at Galeries Dalmau in Barcelona, from 14 to 27 November 1925.
At the time Dalí was not yet immersed in the Surrealist style for which he would become famous. The exhibition was well received by critics; the following year he exhibited again at Galeries Dalmau, from 31 December 1926 to 14 January 1927, with the support of the art critic Sebastià Gasch. Dalí left the Academy in 1926, shortly before his final exams, his mastery of painting skills at that time was evidenced by his realistic The Basket of Bread, painted in 1926. That same year, he made his first visit to Paris, where he met Pablo Picasso, whom the young Dalí revered. Picasso had heard favorable reports about Dalí from Joan Miró, a fellow Catalan who introduced him to many Surrealist friends; as he developed his own style over the next few years, Dalí made a number of works influenced by Picasso and Miró. Some trends in Dalí's work that would continue throughout his life were evident in the 1920s. Dalí was influenced by many styles of art, ranging from the most academically classic, to the most cutting-edge avant-garde.
His classical influences i