Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia. The federal constitutional monarchy consists of 13 states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two sized regions, Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia. Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore and Indonesia. East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. Kuala Lumpur is the national capital and largest city while Putrajaya is the seat of federal government. With a population of over 30 million, Malaysia is the world's 44th most populous country; the southernmost point of continental Eurasia, Tanjung Piai, is in Malaysia. In the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries, with large numbers of endemic species. Malaysia has its origins in the Malay kingdoms which, from the 18th century, became subject to the British Empire, along with the British Straits Settlements protectorate.
Peninsular Malaysia was unified as the Malayan Union in 1946. Malaya was restructured as the Federation of Malaya in 1948, achieved independence on 31 August 1957. Malaya united with North Borneo and Singapore on 16 September 1963 to become Malaysia. In 1965, Singapore was expelled from the federation; the country is multi-cultural, which plays a large role in its politics. About half the population is ethnically Malay, with large minorities of Malaysian Chinese, Malaysian Indians, indigenous peoples. While recognising Islam as the country's established religion, the constitution grants freedom of religion to non-Muslims; the government system is modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and the legal system is based on common law. The head of state is the king, known as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, he is an elected monarch chosen from the hereditary rulers of the nine Malay states every five years. The head of government is the Prime Minister; the country's official language is a standard form of the Malay language.
English remains an active second language. Since independence, Malaysian GDP has grown at an average of 6.5% per annum for 50 years. The economy has traditionally been fuelled by its natural resources, but is expanding in the sectors of science, tourism and medical tourism. Today, Malaysia has a newly industrialised market economy, ranked fourth largest in Southeast Asia and 38th largest in the world, it is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the East Asia Summit and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, a member of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement. The name "Malaysia" is a combination of the word "Malay" and the Latin-Greek suffix "-sia"/-σία; the word "melayu" in Malay may derive from the Tamil words "malai" and "ur" meaning "mountain" and "city, land", respectively. "Malayadvipa" was the word used by ancient Indian traders. Whether or not it originated from these roots, the word "melayu" or "mlayu" may have been used in early Malay/Javanese to mean to accelerate or run.
This term was applied to describe the strong current of the river Melayu in Sumatra. The name was adopted by the Melayu Kingdom that existed in the seventh century on Sumatra. Before the onset of European colonisation, the Malay Peninsula was known natively as "Tanah Melayu". Under a racial classification created by a German scholar Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, the natives of maritime Southeast Asia were grouped into a single category, the Malay race. Following the expedition of French navigator Jules Dumont d'Urville to Oceania in 1826, he proposed the terms of "Malaysia", "Micronesia" and "Melanesia" to the Société de Géographie in 1831, distinguishing these Pacific cultures and island groups from the existing term "Polynesia". Dumont d'Urville described Malaysia as "an area known as the East Indies". In 1850, the English ethnologist George Samuel Windsor Earl, writing in the Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia, proposed naming the islands of Southeast Asia as "Melayunesia" or "Indunesia", favouring the former.
In modern terminology, "Malay" remains the name of an ethnoreligious group of Austronesian people predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula and portions of the adjacent islands of Southeast Asia, including the east coast of Sumatra, the coast of Borneo, smaller islands that lie between these areas. The state that gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1957 took the name the "Federation of Malaya", chosen in preference to other potential names such as "Langkasuka", after the historic kingdom located at the upper section of the Malay Peninsula in the first millennium CE; the name "Malaysia" was adopted in 1963 when the existing states of the Federation of Malaya, plus Singapore, North Borneo and Sarawak formed a new federation. One theory posits the name was chosen so that "si" represented the inclusion of Singapore, North Borneo, Sarawak to Malaya in 1963. Politicians in the Philippines contemplated renaming their state "Malaysia" before the modern country took the name. Evidence of modern human habitation in Malaysia dates back 40,000 years.
In the Malay Peninsula, the first inhabitants are thought to be Negritos. Traders and settlers from India and China arrived as early as the first century AD, establishing trading ports and coastal towns in the second and third centuries, their presence resulted in strong Indian and Chinese influences on the local cultures, the people of the Malay Peninsula adopted the religions of Hinduism and Buddhism. Sanskrit inscriptions appear as early as the fifth century; the Kingdom of
The Drunken Forest
First published in 1956, The Drunken Forest is an account of a six-month trip Gerald Durrell made with his wife Jacquie to South America in 1954
Elopement, colloquially speaking, is used to refer to a marriage conducted in sudden and secretive fashion involving a hurried flight away from one's place of residence together with one's beloved with the intention of getting married. Elopements, in which a couple runs away together and seeks the consent of their parents may be referred to as non-consensual and consensual abductions respectively. To elope, most means to run away and to not come back to the point of origin. Today the term "elopement" is colloquially used for any marriage performed in haste, with a limited public engagement period or without a public engagement period; some couples elope because they wish to avoid objections from religious obligations. In addition, the term elopement is used in psychiatric hospitals to refer to a patient leaving the psychiatric unit without authorization. In some modern cases, the couple collude together to elope under the guise of a bride kidnapping, presenting their parents with a fait accompli.
In most cases, the men who resort to capturing a wife are of lower social status, because of poverty, poor character or criminality. They are sometimes deterred from legitimately seeking a wife because of the payment the woman's family expects, the bride price. In England, a legal prerequisite of religious marriage is the "reading of the banns"—for the three Sundays prior to the intended date of the ceremony, the names of every couple intending marriage has to be read aloud by the priest of their parish of residence, or the posting of a'Notice of Intent to Marry' in the registry office for civil ceremonies; the intention of this is to prevent bigamy or other unlawful marriages by giving fair warning to anybody who might have a legal right to object. In practice, however, it gives warning to the couples' parents, who sometimes objected on purely personal grounds. To work around this law, it is necessary to get a special licence from the Archbishop of Canterbury—or to flee somewhere the law did not apply, across the border to Gretna Green, for instance.
For civil marriages notices must be posted at the appropriate register office. In the Philippines, elopement is called "tanan". Tanan is a long-standing practice in Filipino culture when a woman leaves her home without her parents' permission to live a life with her partner, she will elope during the nighttime hours and is awaited by her lover nearby, who takes her away to a location not of her origin. The next morning, the distraught parents are clueless to the whereabouts of their daughter. Tanan occurs as a result of an impending arranged marriage or in defiance to parents' dislike of a preferred suitor. In Indonesia, an elopement is considered as "kawin lari" or in literal translation, marriage on a run; this happens if the bride didn't get the permission to get married with each other. As Indonesia is a religiously strict country, a couple couldn't get married without parent's consent, hence, it is practiced. Thus, most Indonesian couples who engage in elopement end up marrying without their marriage recognized/registered by the government.
In Assyrian society, elopement against parental request is disreputable, is practised. In the 19th and early 20th century, Assyrians had guarded their females from abduction and consensual elopement, when it came to their neighbours such as Kurds and Turks, who would abduct Assyrian women and marry them, in some cases forcefully, where they would convert them to Islam. Bride kidnapping Marriage law Fuitina
The aye-aye is a lemur, a strepsirrhine primate native to Madagascar that combines rodent-like teeth that perpetually grow and a special thin middle finger. It is the world's largest nocturnal primate, it is characterized by its unusual method of finding food: it taps on trees to find grubs gnaws holes in the wood using its forward slanting incisors to create a small hole in which it inserts its narrow middle finger to pull the grubs out. This foraging method is called percussive foraging, takes up 5–41% of foraging time; the only other animal species known to find food in this way is the striped possum. From an ecological point of view, the aye-aye fills the niche of a woodpecker, as it is capable of penetrating wood to extract the invertebrates within; the aye-aye is the only extant member of the genus family Daubentoniidae. It is classified as Endangered by the IUCN; the genus Daubentonia was named after the French naturalist Louis-Jean-Marie Daubenton by his student, Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, in 1795.
Geoffroy considered using the Greek name Scolecophagus in reference to its eating habits, but he decided against it because he was uncertain about the aye-aye's habits and whether other related species might be discovered. In 1863, British zoologist John Edward Gray coined the family name Daubentoniidae; the French naturalist Pierre Sonnerat was the first to use the vernacular name "aye-aye" in 1782 when he described and illustrated the lemur, though it was called the "long-fingered lemur" by English zoologist George Shaw in 1800—a name that did not stick. According to Sonnerat, the name "aye-aye" was a "cri d'exclamation & d'étonnement". However, American paleoanthropologist Ian Tattersall noted in 1982 that the name resembles the Malagasy name "hai hai" or "hay hay", used around the island. According to Dunkel et al. in 2012, the widespread use of the Malagasy name indicates that the name could not have come from Sonnerat. Another hypothesis proposed by Simons and Meyers in 2001 is that it derives from "heh heh", Malagasy for "I don't know".
If correct the name might have originated from Malagasy people saying "heh heh" to avoid saying the name of a feared, magical animal. Due to its derived morphological features, the classification of the aye-aye has been debated since its discovery; the possession of continually growing incisors parallels those of rodents, leading early naturalists to mistakenly classify the aye-aye within the mammalian order Rodentia and as a squirrel, due to its toes, hair coloring, tail. However, the aye-aye is similar to felines in its head shape, eyes and nostrils; the aye-aye's classification with the order Primates has been just as uncertain. It has been considered a derived member of the family Indridae, a basal branch of the strepsirrhine suborder, of indeterminate relation to all living primates. In 1931, Anthony and Coupin classified the aye-aye under infraorder Chiromyiformes, a sister group to the other strepsirrhines. Colin Groves upheld this classification in 2005 because he was not convinced the aye-aye formed a clade with the rest of the Malagasy lemurs, despite molecular tests that had shown Daubentoniidae was basal to all Lemuriformes, deriving from the same lemur ancestor that rafted to Madagascar during the Paleocene or Eocene.
In 2008, Russell Mittermeier, Colin Groves, others ignored addressing higher-level taxonomy by defining lemurs as monophyletic and containing five living families, including Daubentoniidae. Further evidence indicating that the aye-aye belongs in the superfamily Lemuroidea can be inferred from the presence of petrosal bullae encasing the ossicles of the ear. However, the bones may have some resemblance to those of rodents; the aye-ayes are similar to lemurs in their shorter back legs. The species has an average head and body length of 14–17 inches plus a tail of 22–24 inches, weighs around 4 pounds. Young aye-ayes are silver colored on their front and have a stripe down their back. However, as the aye-ayes begin to reach maturity, their bodies will be covered in thick fur and are not one solid color. On the head and back, the ends of the hair are tipped with white while the rest of the body will ordinarily be a yellow and/or brown color. In length, a full-grown aye-aye is about three feet long with a tail as long as its body.
Among the aye-aye's signature traits are its fingers. The third finger, thinner than the others, is used for tapping, while the fourth finger, the longest, is used for pulling bugs out of trees; the middle finger is unique in. The complex geometry of ridges on the inner surface of aye-aye ears helps to focus not only echolocation signals from the tapping of its finger, but to passively listen for any other sound produced by the prey; these ridges can be regarded as the acoustic equivalent of a Fresnel lens, may be seen in a large variety of unrelated animals, such as lesser galago, bat-eared fox, mouse lemur, others. Females have two nipples located in the region of the groin; the aye-aye is a nocturnal and arboreal animal meaning that it spends most of its life high in the trees. Although they are known to come down to the ground on occasion, aye-ayes sleep, eat and mate in the trees and are most found close to the canopy where there is plenty of cover from the dense foliage. During the day, aye-ayes sleep in spherical nests in the forks of tree branch
The pygmy hog is a critically endangered suid spread across Bhutan and Nepal, but now only found in India. The current world population is fewer. Recent conservation measures have improved the prospects of survival in the wild of this critically endangered species, they stand at 20 -- 30 cm, with a tail of 2.5 cm. They weigh 6.6–11.8 kg. Their skin is dark brownish-black and the hair is dark. Piglets are born becoming brown with yellow stripes along the body length, their heads are tapered and they have a slight crest of hair on their foreheads and on the back of their necks. Adult males have the upper canines visible on the sides of their mouths, they live for about eight years. They breed seasonally before the monsoons giving birth to a litter of three to six after a gestation of 100 days. In the wild, they make small nests by lining it with vegetation. During the heat of the day, they stay within these nests, they feed on roots, insects and small reptiles. The species was first described as the only member of the genus Porcula, by Brian Houghton Hodgson but was moved with other pig species in the genus Sus and named Sus salvanius.
A 2007 genetic analysis of the variation in a large section of mitochondrial DNA suggested that the original classification of the pygmy hog as a distinct genus was justified. The resurrection of the original genus status and the species name Porcula salvania has been adopted by GenBank; the species name salvania is after the sal forests. The pygmy hog is the sole representative of Porcula, making the conservation of this critically endangered species more important, as its extinction would result in the loss of a unique evolutionary branch of pigs, they used to be widespread in the tall, wet grasslands in the southern Himalayan foothills from Uttar Pradesh to Assam, through Nepal and north Bengal. However, human encroachment has destroyed the natural habitat of the pygmy hog by development, domestic grazing, deliberate fires. Only one viable population remains in the Manas National Park, but there, threats due to livestock grazing, poaching and tigers persist; the total wild population has been estimated as less than 150 animals and the species is listed as "critically endangered".
Their rarity contrasts with the massive population of wild boars in India. Conservation of the species has been hampered by the lack of public support, unlike that for charismatic South Asian mammals such as the Bengal tiger or Indian rhinoceros. Local political unrest in the area has severely hampered effective conservation efforts, but these conflicts have now ceased.. The pygmy hog is designated as a Schedule I species in India under the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 and offences against them invite heavy penalties. Pygmy hogs were exhibited in the zoos of Berlin in the 19th century. However, this captivity was not aimed at conservation, none of the captive populations survived. Zürich Zoo exhibited pygmy hogs from 1976 to 1978; the success of captive breeding increased after the Pygmy Hog Conservation Programme was established in 1995. The PHCP was established under the umbrella of a formal'International Conservation Management and Research Agreement' by the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, the IUCN's Pigs and Hippo Specialist Group, the Forest Department, Government of Assam, the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India.
Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust has launched a comprehensive conservation strategy including field status surveys of pygmy hogs and their habitats, behavioural studies, personnel training, local community awareness and assistance programmes, the establishment of a successful captive-breeding programme at the Pygmy Hog Research and Breeding Centre in Assam. Active habitat management has been established and a reintroduction programme has now been launched.. Bibhuti Lahkar Conservation Biologist Pygmy hog-sucking louse Palawan bearded pig Bornean bearded pig Pygmy Hog Conservation Programme Entry on "Pygmy Hog - Sus salvanius".
The Overloaded Ark
The Overloaded Ark, first published in 1953, is the debut book by British naturalist Gerald Durrell. It is the chronicle of a six-month collecting trip, from December 1947 to August 1948, to the West African colony of British Cameroon - now Cameroon - that Durrell made with aviculturist and ornithologist John Yealland, their reasons for going on the trip were twofold: "to collect and bring back alive some of the fascinating animals and reptiles that inhabit the region," and secondly, for both men to realise a long cherished dream to see Africa. Its combination of comic exaggeration and environmental accuracy, portrayed in Durrell's light, clever prose, made it a great success, it launched Durrell's career as a writer of both non-fiction and fiction, which in turn financed his work as a zookeeper and conservationist. The Bafut Beagles and A Zoo in My Luggage are sequels of sorts, telling of his returns to the region. Durrell had married Jacqueline Sonia Wolfenden, 21, a music student, on 26 February 1951.
She knew that he could keep a company spellbound with his talk, wondered why he couldn't present stories of his animal collecting to a wider audience. Durrell, having criticized a BBC radio talk about life in West Africa, sent in a fifteen-minute radio script about his trials attempting to catch a hairy frog in the Cameroons, it was his first piece of professional writing. The BBC accepted the script, which he read, live, on the BBC Home Service the morning of Sunday 9 December 1951; the Overloaded Ark appeared in 1953
A guest house is a kind of lodging. In some parts of the world, guest houses are a type of inexpensive hotel-like lodging. In still others, it is a private home, converted for the exclusive use of guest accommodation; the owner lives in an separate area within the property and the guest house may serve as a form of lodging business. This type of accommodation presents some major benefits such as: Personalized attention Healthy and homemade food Quietness Inexpensiveness Modern design In some areas of the world, guest houses are the only kind of accommodation available for visitors who have no local relatives to stay with. Among the features which distinguish a guest house from a hotel, or inn is the lack of a full-time staff. Bed and breakfasts and guest houses in England are family owned and the family live on the premises though family members are not available during the evening; however most family members work a 10- to 12-hour day from 6am as they may employ part-time service staff. Hotels maintain a staff presence 24 hours a day and 7 days a week, whereas a guest house has a more limited staff presence.
Because of limited staff presence, check in at a guest house is by appointment. An inn usually has a restaurant attached. In India, a tremendous growth can be seen in the guest house business in Delhi-NCR where progress in IT sector and Commonwealth Games 2010 were two most influential factor. Nowadays guest house accommodation sector has improved itself a lot. A home converted guest house is offering 3 stars equivalent facilities to its guests. People living in a paying guest house can be from different states and cultures so one who lives in PG accommodation choose these good points so that their life become easy and comfortable. Sharing and adjustments Acknowledging the small matters Exchanging of contact numbers Keeping focus on study Using of eye band and ear plugs Participating in get-together Safety check Generally there are two variations of paying guest house: Home converted guest house Professionally run guest house with all necessary amenities and staffIn the first version of the guest house you have to live with a family where you get shelter and food only and for rest of the jobs like washing of clothes and utensils, cleaning of room or area around your bed is to be done by yourself.
In the second version, you get the all necessary amenities which are required to live life comfortably like a furnished room, comfortable bed, air-conditioner, TV, hot and cold water supply and one important aspect, security. A big plus point of a professionally run paying guest accommodation service is that the owner follows the safety norms set by their local government; some of the important safety points are: Fire safety with regular fire drills Disaster management Updated safety equipments Information sign boards for guests and staff Government certifications Hotel Ryokan Secondary suite