Lockhart Road is a street spanning the whole length of Wan Chai from east to west on the Hong Kong Island of Hong Kong. It ends in East Point Road in East Point; the road is named after Sir James Stewart Lockhart, Colonial Secretary of Hong Kong from 1895 to 1902, who signed the Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory. On 17 December 2005, during the WTO Conference, protestors from South Korea broke the police defensive line on Lockhart Road and attempted to break into the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre in Wan Chai North; this action developed into a major clash with the Hong Kong Police Force. Part of Lockhart Road near its western end is the backbone of one of Hong Kong Island's two main bar districts, the other being the more upmarket Lan Kwai Fong and Soho area. Once considered a red light district, the area is now much more mixed, with bars, pubs and discos. A number of the raunchier bars still remain, their doorways festooned with clothed girls from Thailand and the Philippines.
This is the area in which film The World of Suzie Wong were set. Bottoms Up Club List of streets and roads in Hong Kong Media related to Lockhart Road at Wikimedia Commons
Traditional Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, in the Kangxi Dictionary; the modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, have been more or less stable since the 5th century. The retronym "traditional Chinese" is used to contrast traditional characters with Simplified Chinese characters, a standardized character set introduced by the government of the People's Republic of China on Mainland China in the 1950s. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau. In contrast, Simplified Chinese characters are used in mainland China and Malaysia in official publications. However, several countries – such as Australia, the US and Canada – are increasing their number of printed materials in Simplified Chinese, to better accommodate citizens from mainland China.
The debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters has been a long-running issue among Chinese communities. A large number of overseas Chinese online newspapers allow users to switch between both character sets. Although simplified characters are taught and endorsed by the government of China, there is no prohibition against the use of traditional characters. Traditional characters are used informally in regions in China in handwriting and used for inscriptions and religious text, they are retained in logos or graphics to evoke yesteryear. Nonetheless, the vast majority of media and communications in China is dominated by simplified characters. In Hong Kong and Macau, Traditional Chinese has been the legal written form since colonial times. In recent years, simplified Chinese characters in Hong Kong and Macau has appeared to accommodate Mainland Chinese tourists and immigrants; this has led to concerns by many residents to protect their local heritage. Taiwan has never adopted simplified characters.
The use of simplified characters in official documents is prohibited by the government of Taiwan. Simplified characters are understood to a certain extent by any educated Taiwanese, learning to read them takes little effort; some stroke simplifications that have been incorporated into Simplified Chinese are in common use in handwriting. For example, while the name of Taiwan is written as 臺灣, the semi-simplified name 台灣 is acceptable to write in official documents. In Southeast Asia, the Chinese Filipino community continues to be one of the most conservative regarding simplification. While major public universities are teaching simplified characters, many well-established Chinese schools still use traditional characters. Publications like the Chinese Commercial News, World News, United Daily News still use traditional characters. On the other hand, the Philippine Chinese Daily uses simplified. Aside from local newspapers, magazines from Hong Kong, such as the Yazhou Zhoukan, are found in some bookstores.
In case of film or television subtitles on DVD, the Chinese dub, used in Philippines is the same as the one used in Taiwan. This is because the DVDs belongs to DVD Region Code 3. Hence, most of the subtitles are in Traditional Characters. Overseas Chinese in the United States have long used traditional characters. A major influx of Chinese immigrants to the United States occurred during the latter half of the 19th century, before the standardization of simplified characters. Therefore, United States public notices and signage in Chinese are in Traditional Chinese. Traditional Chinese characters are called several different names within the Chinese-speaking world; the government of Taiwan calls traditional Chinese characters standard characters or orthodox characters. However, the same term is used outside Taiwan to distinguish standard and traditional characters from variant and idiomatic characters. In contrast, users of traditional characters outside Taiwan, such as those in Hong Kong and overseas Chinese communities, users of simplified Chinese characters, call them complex characters.
An informal name sometimes used by users of simplified characters is "old characters". Users of traditional characters sometimes refer them as "Full Chinese characters" to distinguish them from simplified Chinese characters; some traditional character users argue that traditional characters are the original form of the Chinese characters and cannot be called "complex". Simplified characters cannot be "standard" because they are not used in all Chinese-speaking regions. Conversely, supporters of simplified Chinese characters object to the description of traditional characters as "standard," since they view the new simplified characters as the contemporary standard used by the vast majority of Chinese speakers, they point out that traditional characters are not traditional as many Chinese characters have been made more elaborate over time. Some people refer to traditional characters as "proper characters" and modernized characters as "simplified-stroke characters" (sim
Novotel Century Hong Kong
Novotel Century Hong Kong is a 4-star hotel in Hong Kong. It is located at the junction of Jaffe Road and Steward Road in Wan Chai. Novotel Century Hong Kong is a convention and business hotel located close to the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre, it is equipped with business and meeting facilities, three restaurants, a bar, health club, swimming pool, sauna and a range of leisure facilities. The hotel opened in 1991 and was known as the Century Hong Kong Hotel. On 1 November 2001, in conjunction with the 10th Anniversary of Century Hong Kong Hotel, the Hotel was co-branded to Novotel Century Hong Kong; the new co-branded name signifies the introduction of Accor's hotel brand Novotel in Hong Kong, following the partnership announcement early in 2001 between Century International Hotels and Accor. The hotel has 511 rooms, 3 restaurants, a bar and conference facilities, a gym and an outdoor swimming pool as well as a sauna. Le Cafe Pepino Cucina Italiana Delicious AK's bar + lounge It takes about 60 minutes from the Hong Kong International Airport to the hotel.
The nearest MTR station is Wan Chai Station. Official site Accorhotels.com site
Hong Kong the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and abbreviated as HK, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre territory, Hong Kong is the world's fourth most densely populated region. Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island at the end of the First Opium War in 1842; the colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War, was further extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. The entire territory was transferred to China in 1997; as a special administrative region, Hong Kong's system of government is separate from that of mainland China and its people identify more as Hongkongers rather than Chinese. A sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages, the territory has become one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports.
It is the world's seventh-largest trading entity, its legal tender is the world's 13th-most traded currency. Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, it has severe income inequality; the territory has the largest number of skyscrapers in most surrounding Victoria Harbour. Hong Kong ranks seventh on the UN Human Development Index, has the sixth-longest life expectancy in the world. Although over 90 per cent of its population uses public transportation, air pollution from neighbouring industrial areas of mainland China has resulted in a high level of atmospheric particulates; the name of the territory, first spelled "He-Ong-Kong" in 1780 referred to a small inlet between Aberdeen Island and the southern coast of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen was an initial point of contact between local fishermen. Although the source of the romanised name is unknown, it is believed to be an early phonetic rendering of the Cantonese pronunciation hēung góng; the name translates as "fragrant harbour" or "incense harbour".
"Fragrant" may refer to the sweet taste of the harbour's freshwater influx from the Pearl River or to the odor from incense factories lining the coast of northern Kowloon. The incense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export. Sir John Davis offered an alternative origin; the simplified name Hong Kong was used by 1810 written as a single word. Hongkong was common until 1926, when the government adopted the two-word name; some corporations founded during the early colonial era still keep this name, including Hongkong Land, Hongkong Electric and Shanghai Hotels and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. The region is first known to have been occupied by humans during the Neolithic period, about 6,000 years ago. Early Hong Kong settlers were a semi-coastal people who migrated from inland and brought knowledge of rice cultivation; the Qin dynasty incorporated the Hong Kong area into China for the first time in 214 BCE, after conquering the indigenous Baiyue. The region was consolidated under the Nanyue kingdom after the Qin collapse, recaptured by China after the Han conquest.
During the Mongol conquest, the Southern Song court was located in modern-day Kowloon City before its final defeat in the 1279 Battle of Yamen. By the end of the Yuan dynasty, seven large families had settled in the region and owned most of the land. Settlers from nearby provinces migrated to Kowloon throughout the Ming dynasty; the earliest European visitor was Portuguese explorer Jorge Álvares, who arrived in 1513. Portuguese merchants established a trading post called in Hong Kong waters, began regular trade with southern China. Although the traders were expelled after military clashes in the 1520s, Portuguese-Chinese trade relations were reestablished by 1549. Portugal acquired a permanent lease for Macau in 1557. After the Qing conquest, maritime trade was banned under the Haijin policies; the Kangxi Emperor lifted the prohibition, allowing foreigners to enter Chinese ports in 1684. Qing authorities established the Canton System in 1757 to regulate trade more restricting non-Russian ships to the port of Canton.
Although European demand for Chinese commodities like tea and porcelain was high, Chinese interest in European manufactured goods was insignificant. To counter the trade imbalance, the British sold large amounts of Indian opium to China. Faced with a drug crisis, Qing officials pursued ever-more-aggressive actions to halt the opium trade; the Daoguang Emperor rejected proposals to legalise and tax opium, ordering imperial commissioner Lin Zexu to eradicate the opium trade in 1839. The commissioner destroyed opium stockpiles and halted all foreign trade, forcing a British military response and triggering the First Opium War; the Qing ceded Hong Kong Island in the Convention of Chuenpi. However, both countries did not ratify the agreement. After over a year of further hostilities, Hong Kong Island was formally ceded to the United Kingdom in the 1842 Treaty of Nanking. Administrative infrastructure was built up by early 1842, but piracy and hostile Qing policies towards Hong Kong prevented the government from attracting merchants.
The Taiping Rebellion, when many wealthy Chinese fled mainland turbulence and settled in the colon
Wan Chai is a metropolitan area situated at the western part of the Wan Chai District on the northern shore of Hong Kong Island, in Hong Kong. Its other boundaries are Canal Road to the east, Arsenal Street to the west and Bowen Road to the south; the area north of Gloucester Road is referred to as Wan Chai North. Wan Chai is one of the busiest commercial areas in Hong Kong with offices of many small and medium-sized companies. Wan Chai North features office towers, hotels and an international conference and exhibition centre; as one of the first areas developed in Hong Kong, the locale is densely populated yet with noticeable residential zones facing urban decay. Arousing considerable public concern, the government has undertaken several urban renewal projects in recent years. There are various landmarks and skyscrapers within the area, most notably the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre, Central Plaza and Hopewell Centre. Wan Chai began as Ha Wan meaning "a bottom ring" or "lower circuit".
As one of the earliest developed areas in Hong Kong along the Victoria Harbour, Sheung Wan, Sai Wan and Wan Chai are collectively known as the four rings by the locals. Wan Chai means "a cove" in Cantonese from the shape of its coastal line; the area is no longer a cove, due to drastic city development and continual land reclamation. Wan Chai was first home to the many Chinese villagers living along the undisturbed coastlines in proximity to Hung Shing Temple. Most of them were fishermen, who worked around the area near Hung Shing Temple overlooking the entire harbour. Hung Shing Ye, the God of the Sea, was one of the deities worshiped by the locals. With the growth of the British Hong Kong administration, centred in old Victoria, Wan Chai attracted those on the fringes of society, such as "coolie" workers, who came to live on Queen's Road East. A focal point of development at that time was a red-light zone. By the 1850s the area was becoming a Chinese residential area. There were dockyards on McGregor Street for building and repairing ships.
The edge of Sun Street, Moon Street and Star Street was the original site of the first power station in Hong Kong, operated by the Hongkong Electric Company, which began supplying power in 1890. One of the first water-front hospitals was the Seaman's Hospital, built in 1843, funded by the British merchant group Jardine's, it was sold to the British Royal Navy in 1873 and subsequently redeveloped into the Royal Naval Hospital. After the Second World War, the hospital was revitalised as the Ruttonjee Hospital and became one of the main public hospitals in Hong Kong; the district was home to several well-known schools. One of these schools was established by Mo Dunmei. Started as a shushu in 1919, the school was renamed Dunmei School in 1934 after him, it taught Confucian ethics. In 1936, the Chinese Methodist Church moved its building from Caine Road, Mid-levels Central, to Hennessy Road, Wanchai, a thoroughfare of the district running from west to east; this church building became the landmark of the district.
In 1998, this building was replaced by a 23-storey building. During the Japanese occupation in the early 1940s, many bombardments took place in Wan Chai. There were abundant incidences of cannibalism, starvation and abuses of the local population by the Japanese soldiers, including the illegal use of child labour. Senior residents could recall vividly how they survived the hardships: this oral history became an important, first-hand source of the harsh life conditions in Hong Kong under the Japanese period; the Dunmei school was closed during the Japanese occupation period. After the war, the school continued to provide Chinese education for children from families of higher income. During the 1950s the pro-Communist underground cell network Hailiushe established their headquarters at the rooftop of a multi-story house on Spring Garden Lane; this group was raided by the Hong Kong police. Prostitution has been one of the oldest occupations in Wan Chai. There are numerous historical accounts of women trading sex for western merchandise with sailors from trading ships visiting this area.
In the 1960s, Wan Chai became legendary for its exotic night life for the US servicemen resting there during the Vietnam War. Despite rapid changes of Wan Chai's demography from reclamation and redevelopment, the presence of sex workers operating among ordinary residential areas has continued to be a distinctive feature; some of the lifestyle was illustrated in past movies such as The World of Suzie Wong. Wan Chai's HKCEC has been home to major economic events, it was the site of the Hong Kong handover ceremony in 1997, in which the last governor of Hong Kong, Chris Patten, formally concluded the British chapter and transferred Hong Kong to China. The WTO Ministerial Conference in 2005 was one of the largest international events hosted in Hong Kong, with delegates from 148 countries participating. In May 2009, 300 guests and staff members at the Metropark Hotel in Wan Chai were quarantined, suspected of being infected or in contact with the H1N1 virus during the global outbreak of swine flu.
A 25-year-old Mexican man who had stayed at the hotel was found to have caught the viral infection. He had travelled to Hong Kong from Mexico via Shanghai. Wan Chai's coastal line has been extended outward after a series of land reclamation schemes. Early in 1841, the coastline was located at Queen's Road East; the first reclamation took place and new land
Daniel Joseph Jaffé
Daniel Joseph Jaffé was a British civil engineer. He was the younger son of Martin Jaffé and nephew of Sir Otto Jaffé. Jaffe Road, a street in Wan Chai and Causeway Bay, Hong Kong was named after him. Daniel Jaffé was born in London and educated at City & Guilds Westminster, earning a diploma of associate. In 1896, he was articled for three years as civil engineer to Sir James Mansergh, famous as a waterworks consulting engineer, he spent time on the Elan Valley Aqueduct and was assistant to one of the resident engineers up to December 1901. On January 14, 1902, he became associate member of the Institution of Civil Engineers; that year, he went to Hong Kong as Assistant Engineer in Public Works Department. In 1904 he became Acting Executive Engineer and from January 1906 was Executive Engineer, he was responsible for Tytam waterworks with intermediate dam the 2nd section of the Tytam Tuk with the construction of the then-largest dam in the Far East, opened by Sir Henry May in February 1918. He was responsible for the typhoon shelter at Mong Kok Tsui.
He went home on leave in 1918, suffering from sprue and inflammation of the liver, was invalided out of the Colonial Service in autumn 1919. He spent considerable time in Eversleigh Hospital for Tropical Diseases suffering from pernicious anaemia. Jaffe died in Croydon in 1921. Obituary, in The China Mail, 1921-09-07, p.1. Copy Picture of the Memorial Stone of the Tai Tam Tuk Reservoir, mentioning "D. Jaffe"
Admiralty, Hong Kong
Admiralty is the eastern extension of the central business district on the Hong Kong Island of Hong Kong. It is located on the eastern end of the Central and Western District, bordered by Wan Chai to the east and Victoria Harbour to the north; the name of Admiralty refers to the former Admiralty Dock in the area. The dock was demolished when land was reclaimed and developed northward as the naval base HMS Tamar; the Chinese name, Kam Chung, lit. "Golden Bell", refers to a gold-coloured bell, used for timekeeping at Wellington Barracks. The area was developed as a military area by the British military in the 19th century, they built the Wellington Barracks, Murray Barracks, Victoria Barracks and Admiralty Dock at the site. Following the urbanisation of the north shore of Hong Kong Island, the military area split the urban area; the Hong Kong Government tried many times to get the land from the British military to connect the two urban areas, but the military refused. It was not until the 1970s that the land was returned to government and changed to commercial buildings and gardens.
The Admiralty Station of the MTR was built on the former site of the Hong Kong dockyards, built in 1878 and demolished in the 1970s. After its completion, the area became known as Admiralty, rather than Central. During the 2014 Hong Kong protests, substantial tracts of the area were occupied by suffragists, who dubbed it Umbrella Square. Buildings in Admiralty consist of office buildings, government buildings, shopping malls and hotels. There are several parks in the area: Hong Kong Park, Tamar Park and Harcourt Garden; the main development of the area in recent years has been the development of the Tamar site into the Central Government Complex, which started operating in 2011. Facing Victoria Harbour, the complex houses the Office of the Chief Executive, the Legislative Council Complex and the Central Government Offices; as one of the main financial areas in Hong Kong, there are plenty of Grade-A commercial buildings in Admiralty including: Admiralty Centre Bank of America Tower British Consulate General Hong Kong Chinese People's Liberation Army Forces Hong Kong Building CITIC Tower Far East Financial Centre High Court Building Lippo Centre, which houses the Taipei Economic and Cultural Office Pacific Place, a complex featuring a shopping mall, several hotels and office towers, that opened in Admiralty in phases between 1988 and 1991.
The complex is connected to the MTR Admiralty Station via an underground walkway. A phase, Three Pacific Place, is located in Wan Chai Queensway Government Offices Queensway Plaza, a shopping centre located above Admiralty Station United Centre Queensway and Harcourt Road are the major roads in the area. Both roads run from west to connect Central to Wan Chai. Other streets include Tim Mei Avenue. Trams are running across Admiralty along Queensway. Most of the buildings of the area are connected through the Central Elevated Walkway, an extensive footbridge network which extends to the western part of Central; the area is served by the peaktram and Admiralty Station of the MTR. It is an interchange station between Tsuen Wan Line and South Island Line, it is planned to be the terminus of the future Sha Tin to Central Link. The Admiralty Public Transport Interchange, a major bus terminus, is located above the station. Major corporations headquartered in Admiralty include: Everbright International, in the Far East Finance Centre List of buildings and areas in Hong Kong Central and Wan Chai Reclamation