Johann Georg Leopold Mozart was a German composer, conductor and violinist. Mozart is best known today as the father and teacher of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, for his violin textbook Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule, he was born in Augsburg, son of Johann Georg Mozart, a bookbinder, his second wife Anna Maria Sulzer. From an early age he sang as a choirboy, he attended a local Jesuit school, the St. Salvator Gymnasium, where he studied logic, theology, graduating magna cum laude in 1735, he moved on to a more advanced school, the St. Salvator Lyceum. While a student in Augsburg, he appeared in student theatrical productions as an actor and singer, became a skilled violinist and organist, he developed an interest, which he retained, in microscopes and telescopes. Although his parents had planned a career for Leopold as a Catholic priest, this was not Leopold's own wish. An old school friend told Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in 1777. My father thought the world of him, and how he hoodwinked the clerics about becoming a priest!"He withdrew from the St. Salvator Lyceum after less than a year.
Following a year's delay, he moved to Salzburg to resume his education, enrolling in November 1737 at the Benedictine University to study philosophy and jurisprudence. At the time Salzburg was the capital of an independent state within the Holy Roman Empire, now part of Austria. Except for periods of travel, Leopold spent the rest of his life there. Leopold received the degree of Bachelor of Philosophy in 1738. However, in September 1739 he was expelled from the university for poor attendance, having "hardly attended Natural Science more than once or twice". In 1740, he began his career as a professional musician, becoming violinist and valet to one of the university's canons, Johann Baptist, Count of Thurn-Valsassina and Taxis; this was the year of his first musical publication, the six Trio Sonatas, Opus 1. These were titled Sonate sei da chiesa e da camera, he continued producing a series of German Passion cantatas. In 1747 he married Anna Maria Pertl, who bore him seven children, although only two of them survived past infancy: Johann Leopold Joachim Maria Anna Cordula Maria Anna Nepomucena Walpurgis Maria Anna Walburga Ignatia, Nannerl Johann Karl Amadeus Maria Crescentia Francisca de Paula Johann Chrysostomus Wolfgang Amadeus In 1743 Leopold Mozart was appointed to a position in the musical establishment of Count Leopold Anton von Firmian, the ruling Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg.
His duties included composition and the teaching of violin to the choirboys of the Salzburg cathedral. He was promoted in 1763 to deputy Kapellmeister, he rose no further. The question of whether Leopold was successful as a composer is debated; the Grove Dictionary says that as of 1756, "Mozart was well-known. His works circulated in German-speaking Europe." However, biographer Maynard Solomon asserts that he "failed to make his mark as a composer", Alfred Einstein "judged him to be an undistinguished composer". For discussion of Leopold's musical works, see below. Scholars agree, that Leopold was successful as a pedagogue. In 1755, he wrote his Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule, a comprehensive treatise on violin playing; this work was published in 1756, went through two further German editions, as well as being translated into Dutch and French. Today, the work is consulted by musicians interested in 18th century performance practice; this work made a reputation in Europe for Leopold, his name begins to appear around this time in music dictionaries and other works of musical pedagogy.
Leopold discovered that his two children were musically gifted in about 1759, when he began with keyboard lessons for the seven-year-old Nannerl. The toddler Wolfgang began imitating his sister, at first picking out thirds on the keyboard and making rapid progress under Leopold's instruction. By 1762, the children were ready to work as concert performers, Leopold began taking the family on extensive concert tours, performing for both aristocracy and public, throughout central and western Europe; this tour included Munich, Presburg and the Hague together with a lengthy stay in London. The discovery of his children's talent is considered to have been a life-transforming event for Leopold, he once referred to his son as the "miracle which God let be born in Salzburg". Of Leopold's attitude, the Grove Dictionary says: The recognition of this'miracle' must have struck Leopold with the force of a divine revelation and he felt his responsibility to be not a father's and teacher's but a missionary's as well.
By "missionary", the Grove Dictionary refers to the family's concert tours. Scholars differ on. To be sure the children performed before large audiences and took in large sums, but the expenses of travel were very high, no money at all was made during the various times that Leopold and the children suffered serious illnesses. Mozart biographer Maynard Solomon takes the view that the tou
A symphony is an extended musical composition in Western classical music, most written by composers for orchestra. Although the term has had many meanings from its origins in the ancient Greek era, by the late 18th century the word had taken on the meaning common today: a work consisting of multiple distinct sections or movements four, with the first movement in sonata form. Symphonies are always scored for an orchestra consisting of a string section, brass and percussion instruments which altogether number about 30 to 100 musicians. Symphonies are notated in a musical score. Orchestral musicians play from parts; some symphonies contain vocal parts. The word symphony is derived from the Greek word συμφωνία, meaning "agreement or concord of sound", "concert of vocal or instrumental music", from σύμφωνος, "harmonious"; the word referred to a variety of different concepts before settling on its current meaning designating a musical form. In late Greek and medieval theory, the word was used for consonance, as opposed to διαφωνία, the word for "dissonance".
In the Middle Ages and the Latin form symphonia was used to describe various instruments those capable of producing more than one sound simultaneously. Isidore of Seville was the first to use the word symphonia as the name of a two-headed drum, from c. 1155 to 1377 the French form symphonie was the name of the organistrum or hurdy-gurdy. In late medieval England, symphony was used in both of these senses, whereas by the 16th century it was equated with the dulcimer. In German, Symphonie was a generic term for spinets and virginals from the late 16th century to the 18th century. In the sense of "sounding together," the word begins to appear in the titles of some works by 16th- and 17th-century composers including Giovanni Gabrieli's Sacrae symphoniae, Symphoniae sacrae, liber secundus, published in 1597 and 1615, respectively. 16, published in 1607. 18, published in 1610. 6, Symphoniarum sacrarum secunda pars, op. 10, published in 1629 and 1647, respectively. Except for Viadana's collection, which contained purely instrumental and secular music, these were all collections of sacred vocal works, some with instrumental accompaniment.
In the 17th century, for most of the Baroque period, the terms symphony and sinfonia were used for a range of different compositions, including instrumental pieces used in operas and concertos—usually part of a larger work. The opera sinfonia, or Italian overture had, by the 18th century, a standard structure of three contrasting movements: fast, slow and dance-like, it is this form, considered as the direct forerunner of the orchestral symphony. The terms "overture", "symphony" and "sinfonia" were regarded as interchangeable for much of the 18th century. In the 17th century, pieces scored for large instrumental ensemble did not designate which instruments were to play which parts, as is the practice from the 19th century to the current period; when composers from the 17th century wrote pieces, they expected that these works would be performed by whatever group of musicians were available. To give one example, whereas the bassline in a 19th-century work is scored for cellos, double basses and other specific instruments, in a 17th-century work, a basso continuo part for a sinfonia would not specify which instruments would play the part.
A performance of the piece might be done with a basso continuo group as small as a single cello and harpsichord. However, if a bigger budget was available for a performance and a larger sound was required, a basso continuo group might include multiple chord-playing instruments and a range of bass instruments, including cello, double bass, bass viol or a serpent, an early bass woodwind instrument. LaRue, Bonds and Wilson write in the second edition of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians that "the symphony was cultivated with extraordinary intensity" in the 18th century, it played a role in many areas of public life, including church services, but a strong area of support for symphonic performances was the aristocracy. In Vienna the most important location in Europe for the composition of symphonies, "literally hundreds of noble families supported musical establishments dividing their time between Vienna and their ancestral estate ". Since the normal size of the orchestra at the time was quite small, many of these courtly establishments were capable of performing symphonies.
The young Joseph Haydn, taking up his first job as a music director in 1757 for the Morzin family, found that when the Morzin household was in Vienna, his own orchestra was only part of a lively and competitive musical scene, with multiple aristocrats sponsoring concerts with their own ensembles. LaRue, Bonds and Wilson's article traces the gradual expansion of the symphonic orchestra through the 18th century. At first, symphonies were string symphonies, written in just four parts: first violin, second violin and bass; the early symphonists dispensed with the viola part, thus creating three-part symphonies. A basso continuo part including a bassoon together with a harpsichord or other chording instrument was pos