Ammunition is the material fired, dropped or detonated from any weapon. Ammunition is both expendable weapons and the component parts of other weapons that create the effect on a target. Nearly all mechanical weapons require some form of ammunition to operate; the term ammunition can be traced back to the mid-17th century. The word comes for the material used for war. Ammunition and munitions are used interchangeably, although munition now refers to the actual weapons system with the ammunition required to operate it. In some languages other than English ammunition is still referred to as munition, such as French, German or Italian; the purpose of ammunition is to project a force against a selected target to have an effect. The most iconic example of ammunition is the firearm cartridge, which includes all components required to deliver the weapon effect in a single package. Ammunition comes in a great range of sizes and types and is designed to work only in specific weapons systems. However, there are internationally recognized standards for certain ammunition types that enable their use across different weapons and by different users.
There are specific types of ammunition that are designed to have a specialized effect on a target, such as armor-piercing shells and tracer ammunition, used only in certain circumstances. Ammunition is colored in a specific manner to assist in the identification and to prevent the wrong ammunition types from being used accidentally. A round is a single cartridge containing a projectile, propellant and casing. A shell is a form of ammunition, fired by a large caliber cannon or artillery piece. Before the mid-19th century, these shells were made of solid materials and relied on kinetic energy to have an effect. However, since that time, they are more filled with high-explosives. A shot refers to a single release of a weapons system; this may involve firing just one round or piece of ammunition, but can refer to ammunition types that release a large number of projectiles at the same time. A dud refers to loaded ammunition that fails to function as intended failing to detonate on landing. However, it can refer to ammunition that fails to fire inside the weapon, known as a misfire, or when the ammunition only functions, known as a hang fire.
Dud ammunition, classified as an unexploded ordnance, is regarded as dangerous. In former conflict zones, it is not uncommon for dud ammunition to remain buried in the ground for many years. Large quantities of ammunition from World War I continue to be found in fields throughout France and Belgium and still claim lives. Although classified as an unexploded ordnance, landmines that have been left behind after conflict are not considered duds as they have not failed to work and may still be functioning and forgotten. A bomb, or more a guided or unguided bomb, is an airdropped, unpowered explosive weapon. Mines and the warheads used in guided missiles and rockets are referred to as bomb-type ammunition. Ammunition design has evolved throughout history as different weapons have been developed and different effects required. Ammunition was of simple design and build, but as weapon designs developed and became more refined, the requirement for more specialized ammunition increased. Modern ammunition can vary in quality but is manufactured to high standards.
For example, ammunition for hunting can be designed to expand inside the target, maximizing the damage inflicted by a single round. Anti-personnel shells can affect a large area. Armor-piercing rounds are specially hardened to penetrate armor, while smoke ammunition covers an area with a fog that screens people from view. More generic ammunition can be altered to give it a more specific effect, whilst larger explosive rounds can be altered by using different fuzes; the components of ammunition intended for rifles and munitions may be divided into these categories: Fuze or primer explosive materials and propellants projectiles of all kinds cartridge casing The term "fuze" refers to the detonator of an explosive round or shell. The spelling is different in British English and American English and they are unrelated from a fuse. A fuse was earlier used to ignite the propellant until the advent of more reliable systems such as the primer or igniter, used in most modern ammunitions; the fuze of a weapon can be used to alter.
For example, a common artillery shell fuze can be set to'point detonation', time-delay and proximity. These allow a single ammunition type to be altered to suit the situation. There are many designs of a fuze, ranging from simple mechanical to complex radar and barometric systems. Fuzes are armed by the acceleration force of firing the projectile, arm several meters after clearing the bore of the weapon
The F123 Brandenburg class is a class of German frigate. They were ordered by the German Navy in June 1989, completed and commissioned between 1994 and 1996 to replace the Hamburg-class destroyers; these frigates carry out antisubmarine warfare, but they contribute to antiaircraft warfare defenses, the tactical command of squadrons, surface-to-surface warfare operations. Their design includes; the F123 class is being upgraded under the auspices of the Fähigkeitsanpassung FüWES project. The primary component being upgraded under this program is the Combat Management System, for which a version of the Thales Nederland TACTICOS system will be used; the ships will receive an IFF upgrade, to the EADS MSSR 2000 I secondary radar system. However, its primary radars its long-range 2D search radar, the Thales Nederland LW08, its medium-range 3D surveillance radar, the Thales Nederland SMART-S, are to remain; the ships were to receive low-frequency active sonars under the Franco-German LFTASS programme but the French withdrew in 2000 and are now using a derivative of the British Sonar 2087.
All ships of the class are named after German Bundesländer and are based in Wilhelmshaven as 2. Fregattengeschwader of the German Navy. On the morning of Wednesday 9 December 2015, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern was transiting the Kiel Canal when she was involved in a collision with the container ship Nordic Bremen causing damage to both vessels. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern suffered a 4 metres gash along her bow at the level of the main deck, whilst Nordic Bremen fared better, having only to offload two damaged containers before continuing its voyage; the cause of the incident is under investigation, though some reports suggest it was caused by wind conditions. List of naval ship classes in service Halifax-class frigate Anzac-class frigate Formidable-class frigate La Fayette-class frigate naval-technology.com
Royal Saudi Navy
The Royal Saudi Arabian Navy, sometimes referred to as the Royal Saudi Naval Forces, is the naval force of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The Navy has more than 60,000 men, including Marines; the Naval headquarters is in Riyadh. The Western Fleet is based in the Red Sea with the main base at Jeddah; the Eastern Fleet is based in the Persian Gulf with headquarters at Jubail. Other naval facilities were located at Yanbu and Ras Mishab; the modern Saudi Arabian navy was founded in 1957 and began a significant expansion with United States assistance in 1972 aiming to match the Imperial Iranian Navy. Following the Iranian Revolution a further expansion programme, was initiated with French assistance. Further vessels were purchased from France in the 1980s and 1990s. In 1980, U. S. defense contractor Science Applications International Corporation began work with the Royal Saudi Navy to design and integrate the country's own command and communications centers. The navy is a modern force with foreign built ships: French-built frigates and support vessels U.
S.-built corvettes and patrol boats British-built Sandown-class minehunters Three Al Riyadh-class frigates are modified versions of the La Fayette-class frigate. Each has a loaded displacement of 4,725 tons, is armed with eight MBDA Exocet MM40 Block II surface-to-surface missiles, two eight-cell Sylver vertical launch systems for the Eurosam Aster 15 surface-to-air missile, an Oto Melara 76 mm/62 Super Rapid gun, four 533 mm aft torpedo tubes; the ships are armed with the DCNS F17 heavyweight anti-submarine torpedo. The helicopter deck at the stern has a single landing spot for a medium size helicopter, such as the Eurocopter AS 365 Dauphin or the larger AS 532 Cougar or NH90 helicopters. Four Al Madinah-class frigates based in the Red Sea, built in France (Arsenal de Marine, Lorient in the mid-1980s, their full load displacement is 2,610 tons and they are armed with eight Otomat surface-to-surface missiles, one 8-cell Crotale surface-to-air missile launcher, one 100 mm/44 dual purpose gun, two 40 mm anti-aircraft guns, four torpedo tubes, an aft helicopter deck and hangar.
It was believed the Saudis intended to order two new British-built Type 45 destroyers, however production of the destroyers came to an end with no order made. Another destroyer that the Saudis are considering is the American built Arleigh Burke-class destroyer, having been briefed by the US Navy in May 2011 on the acquisition of two destroyers in a package that includes an unknown number of Littoral Combat Ships. 4 Badr-class corvettes built in the United States in 1981–83, based in the Persian Gulf, full load displacement of 1,038 tons, armament of eight Harpoon SSM, one 76 mm OTO Melara DP gun, one 20 mm Phalanx CIWS, two 20 mm guns, one 81 mm mortar, two 40 mm grenade launchers, two triple 12.75 inch torpedo tubes 9 Al Sadiq-class patrol boats built in the United States 1972–1980, full load displacement of 495 tons, armed with four Harpoon SSM, one 76 mm OTO gun, one 20 mm Phalanx CIWS, two 20 mm guns, one 81 mm mortar, two 40 mm grenade launchers, two triple 12.75 inch torpedo tubes Possible sale of 30 Mark V Special Operations Craft 3 Sandown-class minehunters, full load displacement of 480 tons: 2 French built Boraida-class replenishment oiler (modified Durance-class replenishment ships built by CN La Ciotat, with a helicopter deck aft and hangars for 2 helicopters.
Many smaller patrol craft, two Danish-built royal yachts Prince Abdul Aziz – built by Helsingør Værft Al Yamana The Royal Saudi Navy maintains two, 1,500-man marine brigades consisting of three battalions each. The brigades are assigned to the Western Fleet headquartered in Jeddah and the Eastern Fleet headquartered in Jubail; the brigades are equipped with 200 Pegaso BMR HMMWVs. Germany will supply 48 patrol boats to Saudi Arabia within the framework of its border security project, a cost of 1.5 billion euros has been noted for this deal. Lürssen, has started building 15 patrol vessels for the project's first phase; the patrol boats to be procured under the current contract come in two forms. The first are the'TNC 35' models, which are 35-meter-long and are propelled by two diesel engines with a combined output of 7,800 kilowatts; the boat can reach speeds of up to 40 knots. The second models, ` FPB 38' can reach speeds of up to 31 knots; as of November 2016 1 TNC 35 has been delivered to Saudi Arabia.
Saudi Arabia wants to buy five German submarines for around €2.5 billion and more than two dozen more in the future. In December 2014, the U. S. awarded Lockheed Martin a contract for a Foreign Military Sale of the Mk 41 Vertical Launching System to Saudi Arabia. With no surface ships compatible with the Mk 41 and no plans to acquire a land-based missile defense system, this indicates the country is close to purchasing a VLS-equipped surface combatant. Saudi Arabia has evaluated the Arleigh Burke-class destroyer and the Multi-mission Combat Ship version of the Freedom-class littoral combat ship able to carry a VLS. In October 2015, the US Congress was informed of a possible sale of Multi-Mission Surface Combatant Ships, a variant of the LCS. In July 2018 it was announced that Navantia had signed an agreement with the Royal Saudi Navy for the production of 5 Avante 2000 Corvettes with the last to be delivered by 2022 at a cost of 2 billion Euros. Jeddah – Red Sea base home to the navy's Western fleet for frigates and 2 missile boats, 1 replenishing ship and
The eight F122 Bremen-class frigates of the German Navy were a series of frigates commissioned between 1982 and 1990. The design is based on the proven Dutch Kortenaer class but uses a different propulsion system and hangar lay-out; the ships were built for anti-submarine warfare as a primary task though they are not fitted with towed array sonars. They are suited for anti-aircraft warfare and anti-surface warfare; this class of ship was one of the last to be constructed under post-war displacement limitations imposed by the WEU on West Germany. All eight Bremen-class frigates will be replaced by the planned F125-class frigates, starting around 2016. Prior to that the Bremen class served as the backbone of the German Navy. During the Cold War period, the ships' main war task was to escort convoys for reinforcement and resupply of allied forces in Europe, they took part in NATO Standing Naval Forces. Since 1990, all ships have served in additional supporting missions such as the embargo operations against former Yugoslavia in the Adriatic Sea or Operation Enduring Freedom against the international terrorism.
During their lifetime, the ships' equipment has been modernized and a further adaptation of combat systems is foreseen in the near future. Karlsruhe assisted an Egyptian freighter repel pirates on 25 December 2008 in the Gulf of Aden. In 2012 Rheinland-Pfalz was used to gather intelligence on Syrian troop movements to be passed to the Free Syrian Army assist in their attacks on the Syrian Army. In December 2015 Augsburg joined the French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle in the south-eastern Mediterranean Sea to go to the Arabian Sea as part of the intervention against ISIS in the Syrian Civil War. All ships are based in Wilhelmshaven. Together they form the 4. Fregattengeschwader of the German Navy. List of naval ship classes in service Website for all active and retired Frigate F213 Seamen "Fregatte BREMEN-Klasse". Deutsche Marine. Retrieved 4 August 2008. Naval-technology.com https://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/26/world/africa/26pirates.html?ref=world http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7799796.stm Media related to Bremen class at Wikimedia Commons
In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, maneuverable long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller powerful short-range attackers. They were developed in the late 19th century by Fernando Villaamil for the Spanish Navy as a defense against torpedo boats, by the time of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, these "torpedo boat destroyers" were "large and powerfully armed torpedo boats designed to destroy other torpedo boats". Although the term "destroyer" had been used interchangeably with "TBD" and "torpedo boat destroyer" by navies since 1892, the term "torpedo boat destroyer" had been shortened to "destroyer" by nearly all navies by the First World War. Before World War II destroyers were light vessels with little endurance for unattended ocean operations. After the war, the advent of the guided missile allowed destroyers to take on the surface combatant roles filled by battleships and cruisers; this resulted in larger and more powerful guided missile destroyers more capable of independent operation.
At the start of the 21st century, destroyers are the global standard for surface combatant ships, with only two nations operating the heavier class cruisers, with no battleships or true battlecruisers remaining. Modern guided missile destroyers are equivalent in tonnage but vastly superior in firepower to cruisers of the World War II era, are capable of carrying nuclear tipped cruise missiles. At 510 feet long, a displacement of 9,200 tons, with armament of more than 90 missiles, guided missile destroyers such as the Arleigh Burke-class are larger and more armed than most previous ships classified as guided missile cruisers; some European navies, such as the French, Spanish, or German, use the term "frigate" for their destroyers, which leads to some confusion. The emergence and development of the destroyer was related to the invention of the self-propelled torpedo in the 1860s. A navy now had the potential to destroy a superior enemy battle fleet using steam launches to fire torpedoes. Cheap, fast boats armed with torpedoes called torpedo boats were built and became a threat to large capital ships near enemy coasts.
The first seagoing vessel designed to launch the self-propelled Whitehead torpedo was the 33-ton HMS Lightning in 1876. She was armed with two drop collars to launch these weapons, these were replaced in 1879 by a single torpedo tube in the bow. By the 1880s, the type had evolved into small ships of 50–100 tons, fast enough to evade enemy picket boats. At first, the threat of a torpedo boat attack to a battle fleet was considered to exist only when at anchor. In response to this new threat, more gunned picket boats called "catchers" were built which were used to escort the battle fleet at sea, they needed significant seaworthiness and endurance to operate with the battle fleet, as they became larger, they became designated "torpedo boat destroyers", by the First World War were known as "destroyers" in English. The anti-torpedo boat origin of this type of ship is retained in its name in other languages, including French, Portuguese, Greek, Dutch and, up until the Second World War, Polish. Once destroyers became more than just catchers guarding an anchorage, it was realized that they were ideal to take over the role of torpedo boats themselves, so they were fitted with torpedo tubes as well as guns.
At that time, into World War I, the only function of destroyers was to protect their own battle fleet from enemy torpedo attacks and to make such attacks on the battleships of the enemy. The task of escorting merchant convoys was still in the future. An important development came with the construction of HMS Swift in 1884 redesignated TB 81; this was a large torpedo boat with three torpedo tubes. At 23.75 knots, while still not fast enough to engage enemy torpedo boats reliably, the ship at least had the armament to deal with them. Another forerunner of the torpedo boat destroyer was the Japanese torpedo boat Kotaka, built in 1885. Designed to Japanese specifications and ordered from the Glasgow Yarrow shipyards in 1885, she was transported in parts to Japan, where she was assembled and launched in 1887; the 165-foot long vessel was armed with four 1-pounder quick-firing guns and six torpedo tubes, reached 19 knots, at 203 tons, was the largest torpedo boat built to date. In her trials in 1889, Kotaka demonstrated that she could exceed the role of coastal defense, was capable of accompanying larger warships on the high seas.
The Yarrow shipyards, builder of the parts for Kotaka, "considered Japan to have invented the destroyer". The first vessel designed for the explicit purpose of hunting and destroying torpedo boats was the torpedo gunboat. Small cruisers, torpedo gunboats were equipped with torpedo tubes and an adequate gun armament, intended for hunting down smaller enemy boats. By the end of the 1890s torpedo gunboats were made obsolete by their more successful contemporaries, the torpedo boat destroyers, which were much faster; the first example of this was HMS Rattlesnake, designed by Nathaniel Barnaby in 1885, commissioned in response to the Russian War scare. The gunboat was armed with torpedoes and designed for hunting and destroying
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, the District of Columbia to its south and west. The state's largest city is Baltimore, its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, the Chesapeake Bay State, it is named after the English queen Henrietta Maria, known in England as Queen Mary. Sixteen of Maryland's twenty-three counties border the tidal waters of the Chesapeake Bay estuary and its many tributaries, which combined total more than 4,000 miles of shoreline. Although one of the smallest states in the U. S. it features a variety of climates and topographical features that have earned it the moniker of America in Miniature. In a similar vein, Maryland's geography and history combines elements of the Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic regions of the country. One of the original Thirteen Colonies of Great Britain, Maryland was founded by George Calvert, a Catholic convert who sought to provide a religious haven for Catholics persecuted in England.
In 1632, Charles I of England granted Calvert a colonial charter, naming the colony after his wife, Queen Mary. Unlike the Pilgrims and Puritans, who enforced religious conformity in their settlements, Calvert envisioned a colony where people of different religious sects would coexist under the principle of toleration. Accordingly, in 1649 the Maryland General Assembly passed an Act Concerning Religion, which enshrined this principle by penalizing anyone who "reproached" a fellow Marylander based on religious affiliation. Religious strife was common in the early years, Catholics remained a minority, albeit in greater numbers than in any other English colony. Maryland's early settlements and population centers clustered around rivers and other waterways that empty into the Chesapeake Bay, its economy was plantation-based, centered on the cultivation of tobacco. The need for cheap labor led to a rapid expansion of indentured servants, penal labor, African slaves. In 1760, Maryland's current boundaries took form following the settlement of a long-running border dispute with Pennsylvania.
Maryland was an active participant in the events leading up to the American Revolution, by 1776 its delegates signed the Declaration of Independence. Many of its citizens subsequently played key military roles in the war. In 1790, the state ceded land for the establishment of the U. S. capital of Washington, D. C. Although a slave state, Maryland remained in the Union during the U. S. Civil War, its strategic location giving it a significant role in the conflict. After the war, Maryland took part in the Industrial Revolution, driven by its seaports, railroad networks, mass immigration from Europe. Since the Second World War, the state's population has grown to six million residents, it is among the most densely populated states in the nation; as of 2015, Maryland had the highest median household income of any state, owing in large part to its close proximity to Washington, D. C. and a diversified economy spanning manufacturing, higher education, biotechnology. Maryland has been ranked as one of the best governed states in the country.
The state's central role in American history is reflected by its hosting of some of the highest numbers of historic landmarks per capita. Maryland is comparable in overall area with Belgium, it is the 42nd largest and 9th smallest state and is closest in size to the state of Hawaii, the next smaller state. The next larger state, its neighbor West Virginia, is twice the size of Maryland. Maryland possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature, it ranges from sandy dunes dotted with seagrass in the east, to low marshlands teeming with wildlife and large bald cypress near the Chesapeake Bay, to rolling hills of oak forests in the Piedmont Region, pine groves in the Maryland mountains to the west. Maryland is bounded on its north by Pennsylvania, on its west by West Virginia, on its east by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean, on its south, across the Potomac River, by West Virginia and Virginia; the mid-portion of this border is interrupted by District of Columbia, which sits on land, part of Montgomery and Prince George's counties and including the town of Georgetown, Maryland.
This land was ceded to the United States Federal Government in 1790 to form the District of Columbia.. The Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore. Most of the state's waterways are part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, with the exceptions of a tiny portion of extreme western Garrett County, the eastern half of Worcester County, a small portion of the state's northeast corner. So prominent is the Chesapeake in Maryland's geography and economic life that there has been periodic agitation to change the state's official nickname to the "Bay State", a nickname, used by Massachusetts for decades; the highest point in Maryland, with an elevation of 3,360 feet, is Hoye Crest on Backbone Mountain, in the southwest corner of Garrett County, near the bo