Browns Lane plant
The Browns Lane plant in Coventry, England was built as a Second World War shadow factory run by The Daimler Company Limited. In 1951 it was leased by Jaguar Cars and remained the company's home until 2005, it was the site of all Jaguar production until 1998, when production of the Jaguar S-Type commenced at Castle Bromwich. It was the firm's corporate headquarters and the home of the Jaguar Daimler Heritage Trust. Jaguar's production at Browns Lane waned over the years, as new models were assigned to Castle Bromwich Assembly in Birmingham and Halewood Body & Assembly in Halewood, Liverpool. However, the core Jaguar XJ and XK ranges remained on the site until they were moved to Castle Bromwich in 2005. Subsequently, the Browns Lane site housed just the headquarters and museum as well as 500 staff responsible for wood veneering for Jaguar, Aston Martin, Land Rover; the headquarters moved to the Whitley plant, Coventry but the Wood Shop and Pilot Build Workshop remained at Browns Lane. Australian property firm Macquarie Goodman announced its purchase of Browns Lane in 2007.
The assembly halls were demolished in late 2008. In 2010, a portion of the site was purchased by housebuilder Taylor Wimpey. In 2012, the Browns Lane Jaguar Heritage Museum was demolished; the housing estate which took its place is known as "Swallow's Nest". Jaguar's Pilot Plant continues in use. A new business park was built on the Browns Lane Plant site called "Lyons Business Park".
Jaguar Mark V
The Jaguar Mark V is a luxury automobile built by Jaguar Cars Ltd of Coventry in England from 1948 to 1951. It was available as a four door Saloon and a two door convertible known as the Drop Head Coupé, both versions seating five adults, it was the first Jaguar with independent front suspension, first with hydraulic brakes, first with fender skirts, first designed to be produced in both Right and Left Hand Drive configurations, first with disc center wheels, first with smaller wider 16" balloon tires, first to be offered with sealed headlamps and flashing turn signals for the important American market, the last model to use the pushrod engines. The Mark V was introduced to distributors and the press on 30 September 1948 and launched on 27 October 1948 at the London Motor Show at the same time as the announcement of the XK120, with which it shared a stand; the XK120, though not quite ready for production, was the star of the show. However, the Mark V vastly outsold the XK120 by 5,000 cars per year as compared to 2,000 cars per year for the XK120.
Three cars were built in late 1948 and saloon production was well under way at the factory on Swallow Road at Holbrook Lane in the Foleshill district of Coventry by March 1949, though the DHC was delayed for some months, the last cars were built in mid 1951. While the XK120 had a new overhead-camshaft XK engine, the Mark V retained the 1946-48 driveline including the overhead-valve pushrod straight-6 2½L and 3½L engines, now since 1946 produced by Jaguar, which the company had purchased from the Standard Motor Company before the war, the four-speed single-helical gearbox produced by both Jaguar and the Moss Gear Company of Birmingham. Automatic transmission was not available at this time; the 1½L Standard engine used in previous models was not offered in the Mark V. Claimed power output in this application was 102 bhp for the 2664 cc Mark V and 125 bhp for its more popular 3485 cc sibling; the chassis frame was new with deep box sections and cross bracing for improved stiffness in handling and cornering, independent front suspension by double wishbones and torsion bars, an arrangement that would be used by Jaguar for many future vehicles.
It has weldments and brackets provided for both Left Hand and Right Hand Drive brake and clutch pedal linkages, so the chassis could be assembled in either configuration. It had hydraulic brakes, which were necessary with the independent suspension, which Jaguar had been slow to adopt compared to other manufacturers, an all pressed steel body on the saloon, though the DHC still had wood framing in the doors. Another new feature was that the rear of the chassis swept over the rear axle to provide greater movement for improved comfort, where on previous models it had been underslung; the styling of the car followed prewar SS-Jaguar lines with upright chrome grille and the leaping Jaguar radiator cap mascot was available as an option. The Autocar called it rich yet with unostentatious looks, in outline halfway between the old and new. There is a distinct hint of the modernised Bentley look in the style of the front grill; the wheels were 16-inch steel-disc type smaller than the 18-inch wheels on the MK IV.
From the side, a distinctive styling touch on the saloon was a "tuck in" curve at the base of the rear quarter window following the curved profile of the side glass, a feature retained on many subsequent models. Rear-wheel spats were standard. There was a drophead coupé version. For the UK and most foreign markets, 7.7" Lucas PF770 headlamps were used, along with flip-out trafficator semifore turn indicators. For the important American market, 7" sealed headlights were used, along with flashing turn signals incorporated into the front side lamp and rear tail lamp units, the trafficators being deleted; the Mark V was available in 12 single paint colors, in various combinations with 7 upholstery colors, but the factory did not offer two-tone treatment, nor did they offer white wall tires. Two cars were done by the factory in two-tone schemes, 32 others in various special colors, for unknown reasons. Others may have been repainted as two-tone by American dealers before or after the sale, as well as fitting white wall tires.
A 3½ litre car tested by The Motor magazine in 1949 had a top speed of 90.7 mph and could accelerate from 0–60 mph in 20.4 seconds. The Autocar called the steering light at all speeds and free from road reaction, said the new suspension showed great merit in comfort and stability, with performance figures satisfactory. Jaguar's test engineer Norman Dewis used a Mark V regularly; when asked about the top speed he saw in his car, he commented that he verified 90 mph once, but the thrill of the moment did not encourage repeating the feat. A fuel consumption of 18.2 miles per imperial gallon was recorded. The test car cost £1263 including taxes. Production figures were: 2½ litre RHD saloon 1481 2½ litre RHD drop head coupé 17 2½ litre LHD saloon 188 2½ litre LHD drop head coupé 12 2½ litre LHD chassis only 2 3½ litre RHD saloon 5923 3½ litre RHD drop head coupé 108 3½ litre LHD saloon 1902 3½ litre LHD drop head coupé 577 3½ litre RHD chassis only 2 3½ litre LHD chassis only 1 sum total 10,499 In 1951 the Mark V was replaced by the Jaguar Mark VII.
The Mark VII had the same 10-foot wheelbase as the Mark V, but a longer and more streamlined-looking body, which continued in production with little outward change through the Jaguars Mark VIII and Mark IX until 1961. The origin of the Mark V name, always printed in company documents as a Roman numeral V, never an Arabic n
A sedan — saloon — is a passenger car in a three-box configuration with separate compartments for engine and cargo. Sedan's first recorded use as a name for a car body was in 1912; the name comes from a 17th century development of a litter, the sedan chair, a one-person enclosed box with windows and carried by porters. Variations of the sedan style of body include: close-coupled sedan, club sedan, convertible sedan, fastback sedan, hardtop sedan, notchback sedan and sedanet/sedanette; the current definition of a sedan is a car with a closed body with the engine and cargo in separate compartments. This broad definition does not differentiate sedans from various other car body styles, but in practice the typical characteristics of sedans are: a B-pillar that supports the roof two rows of seats a three-box design with the engine at the front and the cargo area at the rear a less steeply sloping roofline than a coupé, which results in increased headroom for rear passenger and a less sporting appearance.
A rear interior volume of at least 33 cu ft It is sometimes suggested that sedans must have four doors. However, several sources state that a sedan can have four doors. In addition, terms such as sedan and coupé have been more loosely interpreted by car manufacturers since 2010; when a manufacturer produces two-door sedan and four-door sedan versions of the same model, the shape and position of the greenhouse on both versions may be identical, with only the B-pillar positioned further back to accommodate the longer doors on the two-door versions. A sedan chair, a sophisticated litter, was an enclosed box with windows used to transport one seated person. Porters at the front and rear carried the chair with horizontal poles. Litters date back to long before ancient Egypt and China. Sedan chairs were developed in the 1630s. Reputable etymologists suggest the name of the chair probably came through Italian dialects from the Latin sedere meaning to sit; the same experts report that the first recorded use of sedan for an automobile body occurred in 1912 when a new Studebaker model was described by its manufacturers as a sedan.
The same American dictionary provides this description: "Sedan an enclosed automobile for four or more people, having two or four doors". There were enclosed automobile bodies before 1912. Long before that time the same enclosed but horse-drawn carriages were known as broughams in the United Kingdom, they were berlinas in France and Italy. Both names are still used there for sedans. There is an unsubstantiated claim that the body of a particular 1899 Renault Voiturette Type B was the first motor vehicle, a sedan, it was a two-door two-seater vehicle with an extra external seat for a footman/mechanic. Georgano claims the earliest usage matching a modern definition of a sedan was a 1911 Speedwell sedan manufactured in the United States. In American English and Latin American Spanish, the term sedan is used. In British English, a car of this configuration is called a saloon. Hatchback sedans are known as hatchbacks. Super saloon is used to describe a high performance saloon car where sports saloon would have been used in the past.
Saloon has been used by British car manufacturers in the United States, for example, the Rolls-Royce Park Ward. In Australia and New Zealand sedan is now predominantly used, they were simply cars. In the 21st century saloon is still found in the long-established names of particular motor races. In other languages, sedans are known as berlina though they may include hatchbacks; these names, like sedan, all come from forms of passenger transport used before the advent of automobiles. In German sedans are berlines or limousines and limousines are stretch-limousines. In the United States notchback sedan distinguishes models with a horizontal trunklid; the term is only referred to in the marketing when it is necessary to distinguish between two sedan body styles of the same model range. Several sedans have a fastback profile, but instead of a trunk lid, the entire back of the vehicle lifts up. Examples include the Chevrolet Malibu Maxx, Audi A5 Sportback and Tesla Model S; the names "hatchback" and "sedan" are used to differentiate between body styles of the same model.
Therefore the term "hatchback sedan" is not used, to avoid confusion. There have been many sedans with a fastback style. Hardtop sedans were a popular body style in the United States from the 1950s to the 1970s. Hardtops are manufactured without a B-pillar leaving uninterrupted open space or, when closed, glass along the side of the car; the top was intended to look like a convertible's top but it was fixed and made of hard material that did not fold. All manufacturers in the United States from the early 1950s into the 1970s provided at least a 2-door hardtop model in their range and, if their engineers could manage it, a 4-door hardtop as well; the lack of side-bracing demanded a strong and heavy chassis frame to combat unavoidable flexing. The fashion may have delayed the introduction of unibody construction. In 1973 the US government passed Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 216 creating a standard roof strength test to measure the integrity of roof structure in motor vehicles to come into effect some years later.
The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing is an American auto racing sanctioning and operating company, best known for stock-car racing. Its three largest or National series are the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series, the Xfinity Series, the Gander Outdoors Truck Series. Regional series include the NASCAR K&N Pro Series East and West, the Whelen Modified Tour, NASCAR Pinty's Series, NASCAR Whelen Euro Series, NASCAR PEAK Mexico Series. NASCAR sanctions over 1,500 races at over 100 tracks in 48 US states as well as in Canada and Europe. NASCAR has presented races at the Suzuka and Motegi circuits in Japan, the Calder Park Thunderdome in Australia. NASCAR ventures into eSports via the PEAK Antifreeze NASCAR iRacing Series and a sanctioned ladder system on that title; the owned company was founded by Bill France Sr. in 1948, Jim France has been CEO since August 6, 2018. The company's headquarters is in Florida. Internationally, its races are broadcast on television in over 150 countries. In the 1920s and 30s, Daytona Beach became known as the place to set world land speed records, supplanting France and Belgium as the preferred location for land speed records, with 8 consecutive world records set between 1927 and 1935.
After a historic race between Ransom Olds and Alexander Winton in 1903, the beach became a mecca for racing enthusiasts and 15 records were set on what became the Daytona Beach Road Course between 1905 and 1935. By the time the Bonneville Salt Flats became the premier location for pursuit of land speed records, Daytona Beach had become synonymous with fast cars in 1936. Drivers raced on a 4.1-mile course, consisting of a 1.5–2.0-mile stretch of beach as one straightaway, a narrow blacktop beachfront highway, State Road A1A, as the other. The two straights were connected by two tight rutted and sand covered turns at each end. Stock car racing in the United States has its origins in bootlegging during Prohibition, when drivers ran bootleg whiskey made in the Appalachian region of the United States. Bootleggers needed to distribute their illicit products, they used small, fast vehicles to better evade the police. Many of the drivers would modify their cars for speed and handling, as well as increased cargo capacity, some of them came to love the fast-paced driving down twisty mountain roads.
The repeal of Prohibition in 1933 dried up some of their business, but by Southerners had developed a taste for moonshine, a number of the drivers continued "runnin' shine", this time evading the "revenuers" who were attempting to tax their operations. The cars continued to improve, by the late 1940s, races featuring these cars were being run for pride and profit; these races were popular entertainment in the rural Southern United States, they are most associated with the Wilkes County region of North Carolina. Most races in those days were of modified cars. Street vehicles were lightened and reinforced. Mechanic William France Sr. moved to Daytona Beach, from Washington, D. C. in 1935 to escape the Great Depression. He was familiar with the history of the area from the land speed record attempts. France entered the 1936 Daytona event, he took over running the course in 1938. He promoted a few races before World War II. France had the notion. Drivers were victimized by unscrupulous promoters who would leave events with all the money before drivers were paid.
In 1947, he decided this racing would not grow without a formal sanctioning organization, standardized rules, regular schedule, an organized championship. On December 14, 1947, France began talks with other influential racers and promoters at the Ebony Bar at the Streamline Hotel at Daytona Beach, that ended with the formation of NASCAR on February 21, 1948; the first Commissioner of NASCAR was Erwin "Cannonball" Baker. A former stock car and open-wheel racer who competed in the Indianapolis 500 and set over one hundred land speed records. Baker earned most of his fame for his transcontinental speed runs and would prove a car's worth by driving it from New York to Los Angeles. After his death, the famous transcontinental race the'Cannonball Run' and the film, inspired by it were both named in his honor. Baker is enshrined in the Automotive Hall of Fame, the Motorcycle Hall of Fame, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Hall of Fame; this level of honor and success in each diverse racing association earned Baker the title of "King of the Road".
In the early 1950s, the United States Navy stationed Bill France Jr. at the Moffett Federal Airfield in northern California. His father asked him to look up Bob Barkhimer in California. Barkhimer was a star of midget car racing from the World War II era, ran about 22 different speedways as the head of the California Stock Car Racing Association. Young Bill developed a relationship with his partner, Margo Burke, he went to events with them, stayed weekends with them and became familiar with racing on the west coast. "Barky", as he was called by his friends, met with Bill France Sr.. In the spring of 1954, NASCAR became a stock car sanctioning body on the Pacific Coast under Barky. Wendell Scott was the first African-American to win a race in the Grand National Series, NASCAR's highest level, he was posthumously inducted into the NASCAR Hall of Fame in Charlotte, N. C. January 30, 2015. On March 8, 1936, a collection of drivers gathered at Florida; the drivers brought coupes, hardtops and sports cars to compete in an event to determine the fastest cars, best dr
Standard Motor Company
The Standard Motor Company Limited was a motor vehicle manufacturer, founded in Coventry, England, in 1903 by Reginald Walter Maudslay. It purchased Triumph in 1945 and in 1959 changed its name to Standard-Triumph International and began to put the Triumph brandname on all its products. For many years, it manufactured. All Standard's tractor assets were sold to Massey Ferguson in 1959. In September 1959, Standard Motor Company was renamed Standard-Triumph International Limited. A new subsidiary took the name The Standard Motor Company Limited and took over the manufacture of the group's products; the Standard name was last used in Britain in 1963, in India in 1988. Maudslay, great grandson of the eminent engineer Henry Maudslay, had trained under Sir John Wolfe-Barry as a civil engineer. In 1902 he joined his cousin Cyril Charles Maudslay at his Maudslay Motor Company to make marine internal combustion engines; the marine engines did not sell well, still in 1902 they made their first engine intended for a car.
It was fitted to a chain-drive chassis. The three-cylinder engine, designed by Alexander Craig was an advanced unit with a single overhead camshaft and pressure lubrication. Realising the enormous potential of the horseless carriage and using a gift of £3,000 from Sir John Wolfe-Barry, R. W. Maudslay left his cousin and became a motor manufacturer on his own account, his Standard Motor Company was incorporated on 2 March 1903 and he established his business in a small factory in a two-storey building in Much Park Street, Coventry. Having undertaken the examination of several proprietary engines to familiarise himself with internal combustion engine design he employed seven people to assemble the first car, powered by a single-cylinder engine with three-speed gearbox and shaft drive to the rear wheels. By the end of 1903 three cars had been built and the labour force had been increased to twenty five; the increased labour force produced a car every three weeks during 1904. The single-cylinder model was soon replaced by a two-cylinder model followed by three- and four-cylinder versions and in 1905 the first six.
The first cars boasted shaft drive as opposed to chains, the engines were not "square" but had 6" diameter pistons with a 3" stroke. As well as supplying complete chassis, the company found a good market selling engines for fitting to other cars where the owner wanted more power. Although Alex Craig, a Scottish engineer, was engaged to do much of the detail work, Maudslay himself was sufficiently confident to undertake much of the preliminary layout. One of the several derivations of the name "Standard" is said to have emanated from a discussion between Maudslay and Craig during which the latter proposed several changes to a design on the grounds of cost, which Maudslay rejected, saying that he was determined to maintain the best possible "Standard". In 1905 Maudslay himself drove the first Standard car to compete in a race; this was the RAC Tourist Trophy in which he finished 11th out of 42 starters, having had a non-stop run. In 1905 the first export order was received, from a Canadian who arrived at the factory in person.
The order was reported in the local newspaper with some emphasis, "Coventry firm makes bold bid for foreign markets". The company exhibited at the 1905 London Motor Show in Crystal Palace, at which a London dealer, Charles Friswell 1872-1926 agreed to buy the entire factory output, he joined Standard and was managing director for many years. In late 1906 production was transferred to larger premises and output was concentrated on 6-cylinder models; the 16/20 h.p. tourer with side-entrance body was priced at £450. An indication of how much this was can be gained from the fact. In 1907 Friswell became company chairman, he worked hard to raise its profile, the resulting increase in demand necessitated the acquisition of a large single-storey building in Cash's Lane, Coventry. This was inadequate after the publicity gained when a fleet of 20 cars, 16/20 tourers, were supplied for the use of Commonwealth editors attending the 1909 Imperial Press Conference in London. In 1909 the company first made use of the famous Union Flag Badge, a feature of the radiator emblem until after the Second World War.
By 1911 the range of vehicles was comprehensive, with the 8-horsepower model being produced in quantity whilst a special order for two 70 hp cars was at the same time executed for a Scottish millionaire. Friswell's influence culminated in supplying seventy 4-cylinder 16 hp cars for King George V and his entourage, including the Viceroy of India, at the 1911 Delhi Durbar. In 1912 Friswell sold his interest in Standard to C. J. Band and Siegfried Bettmann, the founder of the Triumph Motor Cycle Company. During the same year the first commercial vehicle was produced, the 4-cylinder model "S" was introduced at £195, the first to be put into large-scale production. 1,600 were produced before the outbreak of the First World War, 50 of them in the final week of car production. These cars were sold with a three-year guarantee. In 1914 Standard became a public company. During the First World War the company produced more than 1,000 aircraft, including the Royal Aircraft Factory B. E.12, Royal Aircraft Factory R.
E.8, Sopwith Pup and Bristol F.2-B in a new works at Canley that opened on 1 July 1916. Canley would subsequently become the main centre of operations. Other war materials produced included shells, mobile workshops for the Royal Engineers, trench mortars. Civilian car production was restarted in 1919 with models based on pre-war designs, for example the 9.5 model "S" was re-introduced as the model SLS although this was soon superseded by an
Road America is a motorsport road course located near Elkhart Lake, Wisconsin on Wisconsin Highway 67. It has hosted races since the 1950s and hosts races in the NASCAR Xfinity Series, WeatherTech SportsCar Championship, SCCA Pirelli World Challenge, ASRA, AMA Superbike series, IndyCar Series, SCCA Pro Racing's Trans-Am Series. Open-wheel racing journalist Robin Miller says that Road America is "the best test of road racing in North America". Road America is a permanent road course, it is located midway between the cities of Green Bay. The track is situated on 640 acres in Wisconsin's Kettle Moraine and it is located near the Kettle Moraine Scenic Drive, it has hosted races since September 1955 and hosts over 400 events a year. Of its annual events, 9 major weekends are open to the public which include 3 motorcycle events including the MotoAmerica series, 3 vintage car events, Sports Car Club of America events, the United Sports Car Racing Series, the Pirelli World Challenge, the NASCAR XFINITY Series.
Road America is one of only a handful of road circuits in the world maintaining its original configuration being 4.048 miles in length and 14 turns. The track features many elevation changes, along with a long front stretch where speeds approaching 200 mph may be reached. One of the best known features of this course is a turn on the backside known as "the kink." Road America's open seating allows spectators to venture throughout the grounds. Grandstands are available in several locations, as well as permanent hillside seating where crowds of more than 150,000 can be accommodated. In addition to the main course, the facility includes a 0.8-mile karting track called the CTECH Manufacturing Motorplex inside the Carousel. The motorplex hosts two series of karting events, it hosts weekly events on Tuesdays in the summer. It hosts six Saturday events during the summer; the motorplex hosts events sanctioned by the North Woods GP series running Supermoto and street bike racing using small displacement motorcycles.
The Motorplex was built at the site of an earlier off road racing circuit used for several SODA events in the 1990s. In late 2006, Road America began a project to remove the old Billy Mitchell bridge and use a tunnel as the main entrance to the paddock; the tunnel project was completed in May 2007 with the grand opening celebration on May 31 for the AMA Suzuki Superbike Championship weekend. The tunnel is 16.5' high and 36' wide and has two lanes of traffic and two pedestrian walkways on either side. With the removal of the bridge, a new spectator viewing area was created. In the late 1940s, road racing was gaining popularity, owing to the post World War II economy, the influx of sporting automobiles; the Sports Car Club of America was the main organizer of these races, in 1950, the Chicago Region SCCA and the Village of Elkhart Lake organized the first road race at Elkhart Lake. The 1950 circuit start-finish line was on County Road P. Competitors went north to County Road J South into the Village of Elkhart Lake, West on what is now County JP, reconnected with County Road P for a total distance of 3.3 miles.
For the next two races, in 1951 and 1952, a different course was used. It was 6.5 miles long, on County Roads J, A, P. To date, one may still drive most of the original course; the original course was registered on the National Register of Historic Places on February 17, 2006. Signs have been installed marking key locations on the course. After the tragedy at Watkins Glen in 1952, where a child was killed, the U. S. ruled to discontinue motorized contests of speed on public highways. This brought the end of a long-standing tradition; this did not permanently stop road racing, however, it did shift it to private courses. In 1955, Clif Tufte started what is now known as Road America, in a configuration that has changed little over the past 60 years; the addition of Road America as a private track meant a transition from racing through the streets of tiny Elkhart Lake to racing on a big, dedicated race track. Many different racing series have had the occasion to race at Road America; the first was the Sports Car Club of America on September 10, 1955.
The Road America 500 is a sports car race, part of different championships, among them the SCCA National Sports Car Championship, the United States Road Racing Championship and the IMSA GT Championship. It is a points-paying race of the United SportsCar Championship; the Grand Prix of Road America was an open-wheel race held as part of the Champ Car World Series as well as the 24 Hours of Lemons Series' Chubba Cheddar Enduro. Other notable series have included NASCAR's Grand National in 1956 and Xfinity Series since 2010, CART from 1982 until 2007, Grand-Am Rolex Sports Car Racing Series, CanAm, Trans-Am, AMA, the SCCA National Championship Runoffs from 2009 to 2013; the Speed Energy Formula Off-Road series will race at the track starting in 2018. Road America holds a variety of vintage racing events, including the Brian Redman International Challenge, now the HAWK with Brian Redman. At the 2008 Road America 500 an Audi R10 TDI set an LMP1 pole time of 1:46.935. At the 2009 Road Race Showcase, Dyson Racing Team set an LMP2 pole time of 1:51.010.
At the 2011 Road Race Showcase, BMW Team RLL set a GT pole time of 2:05.447, while at the same event a Porsche 997 GT3 set a GTC pole time of 2:14.126. One NASCAR Grand National race was held in 1956. On Dec