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Jah or Yah is a short form, the first syllable, of Yahweh, the personal name of God which the ancient Israelites used. This short form of the name occurs 50 times in the text of the Hebrew Bible, of which 24 form part of the phrase "Hallelujah", a two-word phrase, not one word. In an English-language context, the name Jah is now most associated with the Rastafari, it is otherwise limited to the phrase Hallelujah and theophoric names such as Elijah. In the King James Version there is only a single instance of JAH, in Psalm 68:4. An American Translation follows KJV in using Yah in this verse; the conventional English pronunciation of Jah is though the letter J here transliterates the palatal approximant. The spelling Yah is designed to make the pronunciation explicit in an English-language context. On the assumption that a and e are the correct vowels, Yahweh is a name of God in the Hebrew language. Yahu is a well-attested short form of the extended name Yahweh; the short form Jah/Yah, which appears in Exodus 15:2 and 17:16, Psalm 89:9, Song of Songs 8:6, is preserved in theophoric names such as Elijah and Adonijah, etc. as well as in the phrase Hallelujah.

The name "Joel" is derived from combining the word Jah with the word El. While pronouncing the Tetragrammaton is forbidden for Jews, articulating "Jah"/"Yah" is allowed, but is confined to prayer and study. Rastafari use the terms "Jah" or sometimes "Jah Jah" as a term for the Lord God of Israel and/or Haile Selassie, who some Rastafarians regard as the incarnation of the God of the Old Testament or as the reincarnation of Jesus Christ, known by the Ethiopian title Janhoy. Yah occurs 50 times: 43 times in the Psalms, in Exodus 15:2. At Revelation 19:1-6, Jah—a contraction of the name Yahweh—is embedded in the phrase "hallelujah", a Hebrew expression that means "Praise Jah"; the short form "IA" in the phrase hallelouia is transcribed by the Greek "Ia". In the King James Version of the Christian Bible, the Hebrew יהּ is transliterated as "JAH" in only one instance: "Sing unto God, sing praises to his name: extol him that rideth upon the heavens by his name JAH, rejoice before him". An American Translation renders the Hebrew word as "Yah" in this verse.

In the 1885 Revised Version and its annotated study edition, The Modern Reader's Bible, which uses the Revised Version as its base text transliterates "JAH" in Psalms 89:8 which reads,"O LORD God of hosts, a mighty one, like unto thee, O JAH? and thy faithfulness is round about thee". With the rise of the Reformation, reconstructions of the Tetragrammaton became popular; the Tyndale Bible was the first English translation to use the anglicized reconstruction. The modern letter "J" settled on its current English pronunciation only around 500 years ago. Rotherham's Emphasised Bible includes 49 uses of Jah. In the Sacred Scriptures Bethel Edition Bible, the Jerusalem Bible, the New Jerusalem Bible the name "YHWH" and its abbreviated form "Yah" is found; the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures, used by Jehovah's Witnesses, employs "Jah" in the Hebrew Scriptures, translates Hallelujah as "Praise Jah" in the Greek Scriptures. The Divine Name King James Bible employs "JAH" in 50 instances within the Old Testament according to the Divine Name Concordance of the Divine Name King James Bible, Second Edition.

The Spanish language Reina Valera Bible employs "JAH" in 21 instances within the Old Testament according to the Nueva Concordancia Strong Exhaustiva. The Darby Bible, Young's Literal Translation, The Jubilee Bible 2000, Lexham English Bible, The Complete Jewish Bible, Names of God Bible, The Recovery Version, Green's Literal Translation, the New Jewish Publication Society or NJPS Tanakh and World English Bible includes "Jah" numerous times within the Old Testament as "Hallelujah!" or "Alleluia!", employed throughout the Old Testament of these Bible versions. "Hallelujah!" or "Alleluia!" is used in other Bible versions such as the Divine Name King James Bible, American Standard Version, the Recovery Version, The Tree of Life Version, Amplified Bible, God's Word Translation, Holman Christian Standard Bible, International Standard Version, The Message, New American Bible Revised Edition, The Jerusalem Bible, The New Jerusalem Bible, NJPS Tanakh, The first JPS translation, The Living Bible, The Bible in Living English, Young's Literal Translation, King James Version, The Spanish language Reina Valera and in Bible versions that otherwise do not use the Divine Name such as the New King James Version, English Standard Version, J.

B. Phillips New Testament, New International Version, Douay-Rheims Version, God's Word Translation, Revised Standard Version, New Revised Standard Version, The Jubilee Bible 2000, New American Standard Bible, New Century Version, New International Reader's Version and several other versions, translations and/or editions in English and other languages varying from once to numerous times depending on the Bible version and most notably in Revelation Chapter 19 in Christian and Messian

Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Wales

The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Wales referred to as the Welsh Office Minister is a junior ministerial post in the United Kingdom government, supporting the Secretary of State for Wales. A post of Minister of Welsh Affairs was created in 1951 under the Home Secretary and was upgraded to Minister of State level in 1954. On 17 October 1964 The post was further upgraded to Secretary of State for Wales, a cabinet level role, being assisted by a junior minister. Between 1964 and the establishment of devolution in 1999 there were two junior ministers within the Welsh Office but not always consisting of a Minister of State and a Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, with each assigned specific roles. Following devolution and the transfer of powers from Westminster to The National Assembly there was only one Under-Secretary of State working directly with the Secretary of State. A second Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State role was created in 2012 during the Coalition Government with one minister serving in the Commons and one in the Lords.

This situation was maintained following the 2015 general election with two Under-Secretary of States, one being paid by the Welsh Office and one unpaid. Following the appointment of Boris Johnson as Prime Minister, Nick Bourne resigned and no replacement Minister was appointed. For a list of Ministers of Welsh Affairs see: Ministers of Welsh Affairs 1964-1966 Goronwy Roberts 1966-1969 Ifor Davies 1967-1970 Eirene White 1970-1974 David Gibson-Watt 1974-1983 None. Two Under-Secretary of States for Wales existed, see below 1983-1987 John Stradling Thomas 1987-1994 Wyn Roberts 1994-1999 None. Two Under-Secretary of States for Wales were created, see below 1974-1976 Alec Jones & Barry Jones 1976-1979 Alec Jones & Edward Rowlands 1979-1983 Wyn Roberts & Michael Roberts 1983-1985 Wyn Roberts &??? 1985-1987 Wyn Roberts & Mark Robinson 1987-1990 Ian Grist 1990-1992 Nicholas Bennett 20 July 1994 – 2 June 1996 Gwilym Jones & Rod Richards 2 June 1996 – 2 May 1997 Gwilym Jones & Jonathan Evans 2 May 1997 - 28 July 1998 and Peter Hain and Win Griffiths 29 July 1998 - 29 July 1999 Peter Hain and Jon Owen Jones Colour key Labour Conservative Colour key Conservative Liberal Democrats 1.^ Promoted to Minister of State in 1987.

Under-Secretary of State for Scotland Secretary of State for Wales First Minister for Wales

1941 Hampstead by-election

The Hampstead by-election, 1941 was a by-election held for the British House of Commons constituency of Hampstead in London on 27 November 1941. The seat had become vacant on the death of the constituency’s Conservative Member of Parliament, George Balfour. In accordance with the war-time electoral pact, neither the Labour nor the Liberal parties fielded a candidate; the Conservative candidate was Charles Challen. Challen was opposed by three independents. Noel Pemberton Billing had been MP for Hertford from 1916 to 1921, he stood as a National Independent. Billing had won a by-election during the First World War as a right-wing independent and was seeking to replicate his success, he stood on a policy of aerial reprisals against Nazi Germany. William Reginald Hipwell, editor of Reveille, a " barrack room newspaper for the fighting forces", stood as an Independent Progressive; this was a label, common in by-elections in 1938, as part of Popular Front agreements opposed to the Munich Agreement and the leadership of Neville Chamberlain.

A. L. Dolland stood as an independent, advocated all-out aid to the Soviet Union. Hampstead constituency List of United Kingdom by-elections

Lamar Towers

Lamar Towers are a pair of skyscrapers under construction in the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Located on Jeddah Corniche, Tower 1 will be 321.6 m tall with 72 floors above ground, Tower 2 will be 300 m tall with 62 floors above ground. The proposal for the project was approved in the same year. Construction began in 2008 and, when completed in 2016, Tower 1 will be the tallest building in Jeddah, till date, surpassing the completed National Commercial Bank; the development is expected to cost about $600 million. The tower was designed by Saudi Diyar Consultants; the Construction Management Service is by MIDRAR. The Lamar company is the main developer of the project and Drake & Scull Construction are the main contractors for this landmark development; the holding company has declared construction on the building has stopped. There are many civil suits against the company for property sold in these buildings. Lamar is Arabic for liquid gold, which describes the reflection of the golden glass in the waters of the Red Sea.

The Lamar Towers will include the following: Underground parking for over 500 cars. Retail center - The Lamar Mall. Offices - Over 10 floors of office space; the Lamar Spa - this membership only spa will provide separate facilities for men and women. Residential - 1, 2, 3, or 4 bedroom apartments and Penthouse/Royal Floors. Drake & Scull International is carrying out the MEP works, with KASKTAS Arabia responsible for the piling, grouting, soil improvement and dewatering works; the architectural and engineering concept and schematic design for Lamar Towers was undertaken by RMJM Dubai. The main contract was awarded to Arabian Construction Company in October 2008, but it was subsequently reawarded to Arabtec in May 2009 by developer Cayan Investment & Development, according to Arab News; the structure part of the project was awarded on 12 October 2010 to the Saudi Lebanese Tarouk Contracting company Ltd who constructed a substantial part of the Project and two towers before being terminated by the Owner on 31 December 2012.

The remaining part of the structure and the Project were transferred in July 2013 to the UAE based general contractor Drake & Scull Construction, part of the Drake & Scull International PJSC group. List of tallest buildings in Saudi Arabia Official Website Emporis Artist Rendering Article From Construction Week Online Ventures Onsite | Projects Database for MENA Region

Hinnerk Bruhns

Hinnerk Bruhns is an emeritus research professor at the CNRS, a member of the Centre de recherches historiques. After he began his academic career in Ancient History at Cologne and Bochum, since his appointment as directeur de recherche au CNRS, his work focuses on the historiography of the nineteenth and twentieth and the history of social sciences in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Many of his publications are devoted to the Historical school of national German economics, in the work of Otto Hintze and more to that of Max Weber. Franco-German and European cooperation in social sciences plays a central role in his activities, which includes the creation of the journal Trivium, which Hinnerk Bruhns heads since 2007. After his teaching activities at the University of Cologne, Aix-en-Provence and Bochum, Hinnerk Bruhns has been teaching at the École des hautes études en sciences sociales in Paris since 1982. Max Webers historische Sozialökonomie. L'économie de Max Weber entre histoire et sociologie.

Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2014. One language, one history? On the uncertain future of social sciences in Europe, Portuguese Journal of Social Science, 11, 2012, p. 55-69. Max Weber et la bureaucratie / Max Weber und die Bürokratie, Revue franco-allemande de sciences humaines et sociales, n° 7. Max Weber and the Political, Max Weber Studies, vol. 1/9.2, January/July 2009. Max Weber et le politique, Paris: L. G. D. J. 2009. Sociologie économique et économie de l’Antiquité: à propos de Max Weber, Cahiers du Centre de Recherches Historiques, n° 34, October 2004. Histoire et économie politique en Allemagne de Gustav Schmoller à Max Weber. Nouvelles perspectives sur l’école historique de l’économie, preface by J.-Y. Grenier, texts translated by F. Laroche, Paris: Éd. de la Maison des sciences de l’homme, 2004. Max Weber und die Stadt im Kulturvergleich, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2000. Die späte römische Republik – La fin de la république romaine. Un débat franco-allemand d'histoire et d'historiographie, École Française de Rome, 1997.

Otto Hintze: Féodalité, capitalisme et État moderne. Essais d’histoire sociale comparée, chosen and presented by H. Bruhns, Paris: Ed. de la Maison des sciences de l’homme, 1991. Parenté et stratégies familiales dans l’Antiquité Romaine, actes de la table ronde des 2-4 octobre 1986, Rome: Palais Farnèse, 1990. Barbara Stambolis, Leben mit und in der Geschichte. Deutsche Historiker Jahrgang 1943. Klartext Verlag, Essen 2010. Page personnelle sur le site du Centre de recherches historiques Entrevista com Hinnerk Bruhns, Concedida a Bernardo Borges Buarque de Hollanda, Paris, 14 de dezembro de 2010, Est. Hist. Rio de Janeiro, vol. 25, nº 49, p. 209-222, janeiro-junho 2012. Translation of an interview conducted in German by Mareike König January 2013: Les langues essentielles doivent être préservées Présentation on Trivium

Scholar Rescue Fund

The Institute of International Education Scholar Rescue Fund provides fellowships for established scholars whose lives and work are threatened in their home countries. These fellowships permit professors and other senior academics to find temporary refuge at host universities and colleges anywhere in the world, enabling them to pursue their academic work and to continue to share their knowledge with students and the community at large. During the fellowship, conditions in a scholar's home country may improve, permitting safe return to help rebuild universities and societies ravaged by fear and repression. If safe return is not possible, the scholar may use the fellowship period to identify a longer-term opportunity. N. B; this is a program of the Institute of International Education. In 2007, as a response to an urgent appeal from Iraq's Ministry of Higher Education, IIE-SRF launched the Iraq Scholar Rescue Project; the Project's goal is to rescue Iraq's most senior academics – in any academic discipline – by placing them at institutions of higher learning in countries within the Middle East and North Africa region.

The Institute of International Education has helped rescue threatened scholars since its inception in 1919, demonstrating a commitment to protecting academic freedom. In the 1930s, IIE was instrumental in founding the Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, led by Edward R. Murrow; the program assisted scholars who were barred from teaching and threatened with imprisonment by the Nazis. Over 300 scholars were rescued, some of whom became Nobel Laureates and many whose work and ideas helped shape the post-war world. Other major activities undertaken throughout the Institute's history, before the formal establishment of IIE-SRF in 2002, include: The Russian Student Fund, Rescue of Scholars from Fascist Italy, Rescue of Scholars from the Spanish Civil War, Committee on Awards for Chinese Students, Emergency Program to Aid Hungarian University Students, The South African Education Program, Rescue of Burmese Refugees, Asia-Help, Balkan-Help. IIE-SRF was founded in 2002, when IIE's trustees committed to making scholar rescue a permanent part of its work.

Dr. Henry Jarecki, Dr. Henry Kaufman, Thomas Russo, founded the Scholar Rescue Fund to aid threatened scholars find safe haven and continue their academic work. Since IIE-SRF has provided over 1,290 awards with the collaboration of over 400 institutions from over 45 different countries. In 2006, when security concerns in Iraq reached unprecedented levels, the IIE Scholar Rescue Fund began receiving hundreds of requests for assistance from threatened Iraqi scholars at major higher education institutions across the country and it became clear that the scope and scale of the Iraqi crisis required special attention. With generous funding from the private and public sectors, most notably, the U. S. Department of State's Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the Richard Lounsbery Foundation, the IIE Scholar Rescue Fund responded by launching the Iraq Project. From 2007 to 2014, the Iraq Project provided support to Iraqi university professors and scientists to resume their teaching and research in safety.

The Project's goal was to rescue more than 200 of Iraq's most senior academics – in any academic discipline – by placing them temporarily at institutions of higher learning in countries within the Middle East and North Africa region. By the Project's completion in September 2014, over 280 Iraqi scholars had received fellowships to help them resume their teaching and research activities in safety; the Iraq Project continues today through the Iraq Distance Learning Initiative, which " curricular gaps within Iraqi university courses with lectures in subjects ranging from nanotechnology to renewable energy mitigate the potential for brain drain." This include the IIE-SRF University Joint Courses Project. To rescue scholars and, by protecting their lives and work, increase their countries' and the world's level of knowledge; the IIE Scholar Rescue Fund formalizes an unwavering commitment to academic freedom that the Institute of International Education has demonstrated for over 90 years. At the heart of IIE-SRF is the idea that each scholar helped who continues his or her work in safety is a beacon of hope in our world.

IIE-SRF grantees are professors, established researchers and other senior academics from any country, field or discipline. Candidates are reviewed for academic qualifications, the quality/potential of the candidate's work, the urgency of threats faced; as stated by Scholar Rescue Fund, preference is given to scholars: "- Who are facing immediate and targeted threats to their lives and/or careers in their home country or country of residence. D. or other highest degree in their field who have extensive teaching or research experience at a university, college or other institution of higher learning. IIE-SRF states that: "- Applications from female scholars and scholars who are members of ethnic, cultural or religious minority groups, or those otherwise underrepresented in their field, are encouraged. - Fellowships are approved by the IIE-SRF Selection Committee which convenes at least three times per year. - The final fellowship award is dependent upon the location of the host institution, the cost of living, the value of any