Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has 3.3 million inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union, smaller than only London and Berlin, its monocentric metropolitan area is the third-largest in the EU, smaller only than those of London and Paris; the municipality covers 604.3 km2. Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the Community of Madrid; as the capital city of Spain, seat of government, residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is the political and cultural centre of the country. The current mayor is Manuela Carmena from the party Ahora Madrid; the Madrid urban agglomeration has the third-largest GDP in the European Union and its influence in politics, entertainment, media, science and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities. Madrid is home to Real Madrid and Atlético Madrid. Due to its economic output, high standard of living, market size, Madrid is considered the leading economic hub of the Iberian Peninsula and of Southern Europe.
It hosts the head offices of the vast majority of major Spanish companies, such as Telefónica, IAG or Repsol. Madrid is the 10th most liveable city in the world according to Monocle magazine, in its 2017 index. Madrid houses the headquarters of the World Tourism Organization, belonging to the United Nations Organization, the Ibero-American General Secretariat, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Public Interest Oversight Board, it hosts major international regulators and promoters of the Spanish language: the Standing Committee of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, headquarters of the Royal Spanish Academy, the Cervantes Institute and the Foundation of Urgent Spanish. Madrid organises fairs such as ARCO, SIMO TCI and the Madrid Fashion Week. While Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets, its landmarks include the Royal Palace of Madrid. Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city.
مجريط Majrīṭ is the first documented reference to the city. It is recorded in Andalusi Arabic during the al-Andalus period; the name Magerit was retained in Medieval Spanish. The most ancient recorded name of the city "Magerit" comes from the name of a fortress built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD, means "Place of abundant water" in Arabic. A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins. According to legend, Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor and was named "Metragirta" or "Mantua Carpetana". Others contend that the original name of the city was "Ursaria", because of the many bears that were to be found in the nearby forests, together with the strawberry tree, have been the emblem of the city since the Middle Ages, it is speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river; the name of this first village was "Matrice". Following the invasions carried out by the Germanic Sueves and Vandals, as well as the Sarmatic Alans during the 5th century AD, the Roman Empire no longer had the military presence required to defend its territories on the Iberian Peninsula, as a consequence, these territories were soon occupied by the Vandals, who were in turn dispelled by the Visigoths, who ruled Hispania in the name of the Roman emperor taking control of "Matrice".
In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the name changed to "Mayrit", from the Arabic term ميرا Mayra and the Ibero-Roman suffix it that means'place'. The modern "Madrid" evolved from the Mozarabic "Matrit", still in the Madrilenian gentilic. Although the site of modern-day Madrid has been occupied since prehistoric times, there are archaeological remains of Carpetani settlement, Roman villas, a Visigoth basilica near the church of Santa María de la Almudena and three Visigoth necropoleis near Casa de Campo, Tetúan and Vicálvaro, the first historical document about the existence of an established settlement in Madrid dates from the Muslim age. At the second half of the 9th century, Emir Muhammad I of Córdoba built a fortress on a headland near the river Manzanares, as one of the many fortresses he ordered to be built on the border between Al-Andalus and the kingdoms of León and Castile, with the objective of protecting Toledo from the Christian invasions and as a starting point for Muslim offensives.
After the disintegration of t
"Eres tú" is a popular Spanish language song written in 1973 by Juan Carlos Calderón and performed by the Spanish band Mocedades, with Amaya Uranga performing the lead vocal. This song was chosen as Spain's entry in the 1973 Eurovision Song Contest. After the song reached the second place in the contest, it was released as a single; this song has an English version entitled "Touch the Wind" with lyrics by Mike Hawker. The 1973 edition of the Eurovision Song Contest took place on 7 April 1973 and was held at Luxembourg, the capital of Luxembourg; the song was performed seventh on the night, following Monaco's Marie with "Un train qui part" and preceding Switzerland's Patrick Juvet with "Je vais me marier, Marie". Composer Juan Carlos Calderón himself conducted the live orchestra. At the close of voting, the song had received 125 points, placing 2nd in a field of 17, after Luxembourg's own Anne-Marie David with "Tu te reconnaîtras" with 129 points; the United Kingdom's Cliff Richard with "Power to All Our Friends" finished third with 123 points.
"Eres tú" was succeeded as Spanish representative at the 1974 Contest by Peret with "Canta y sé feliz". In 1974, "Eres tú" became one of the few Spanish language songs to reach the top 10 in the United States, peaking at #9 in the Billboard Hot 100 chart and reaching the top 10 on the Adult Contemporary chart. In the United States, the song is still heard on Adult Standards and Easy Listening radio; the B-side of the single was the English-language version of the song entitled "Touch the Wind", which featured a different set of lyrics, rather than a translation of the original Spanish lyrics. There were several cover versions of the tune in both English and Spanish, only one of which, becoming a minor Adult Contemporary hit. With "Eres tú", Mocedades are one of the five musical acts from Spain to have scored a top ten hit in the United States, the only to have a top ten hit sung in Spanish; the song was inducted into the Latin Grammy Hall of Fame in 2013. In 2015, "Eres" ranked #47 on Billboard's 50 Greatest Latin Songs of All Time.
The success of "Eres tú" was not limited to Spanish music radio. In 1976, a guitar instrumental version by country singer Sonny James reached No. 67 on the Hot Country Singles chart. In 1977, Tex-Mex country singer Johnny Rodriguez – who had earlier success with mixing English and Spanish lyrics in his songs – recorded a cover version and released it to country radio; the song peaked at No. 25 in the fall of 1977 on the Hot Country Singles chart. The melody of the song is quite similar, the opening part being identical, to the Slovene song "Brez besed", sung by Berta Ambrož at the Eurovision Song Contest in 1966. "Eres tú" "Touch the Wind" "Das bist du" "C'est pour toi" "Viva noi" "Zu zara" "Rør Ved Mig" "Touch The Wind" "I Mitt Liv" "Rör vid mig" "Eres tu" ”Eres tu” Morat "Runoni Kaunein Olla Voit" "Sinä Vain" "Co Gai Rung Mo" "That's You" "Will My Love Be You" "C'est pour toi" "Jy's vir my" "É você" "Du Bist Wie Die Sonne" "Waar naartoe" "Selline sa oled" "그대 있는 곳까지" Il Divo, "Eres tú".101 Strings - "Eres tú" Acker Bilk - "Eres tú" Al estilo de Mocedades - "Eres tú" Alvaro Clemente - "Eres tú" Amaya Uranga & Juan Carlos Calderon - "Eres tú" Anacani - "Eres tú" Andrés Calamaro - "Eres tú" An & Jan - Dicht bij jou Atalaje - "Eres tú" Austin Kelley & Mantovani - "Eres tú" Bedevilers - "Eres tú" Bert Kaempfert - "Touch The Wind" Bertín Osborne - "Eres tú" Bing Crosby - "Eres tú" Bo Doerek - "Eres tú" Bres Bezed - "Eres tú" Bullerfnis - "Rør Ved Mig" Byron Lee and the Dragonaries - "Eres tú" Calito Soul - "Eres tú" Cerveza Mahou - "Eres tú" Charo - "Eres tú" Collage -"Selline sa oled" Daniela Castillo - "Eres tú" Dansk top - "Rør Ved Mig" David and the High Spirits - "Eres tú" Eydie Gormé - "Eres tú" Eydie Gormé - "Touch the Wind" El Chaval De La Peca - "Eres tú" El Consorcio - "Eres tú" El Frenillo de Gaugin - "Eres tú" El ser y ser - "Eres tú" Ennio Emmanuel- "Eres tú" Estela Raval - "Eres tú" Floyd Cramer - "Touch The Wind" Gé Korsten - "Touch The Wind" Gebroeder Brouwer - "Eres tú" GrupoSarao - "Eres tú" Hella Joof & Peter Frödin - "Rør Ved Mig" Howard Morrison Chor - "Eres tú" III of a Kind Philippines - "Eres tú" Ilanit - "Eres tú" Inger Lise Rypdal - "I Mitt Liv" Inger Öst - "Rör vid mig" Jimmy Mitchell - "Eres tú" Johnny Mathis and Juan Carlos Calderon - "Touch the Wind" Johnny Reimar - "Rør Ved Mig" Johnny Rodriguez - "Eres tú" Josh Santana - "Eres tú" Juan Carlos Calderón - "Eres tú" Justo Lamas - "Eres tú" Karel Gott, Spravny Ton - "Eres tú" Kathy Kelly - "Eres tú" Katri Helena - "Runoni Kaunein Olla Voit" Katri Helena - "Sinä Vain" The Kelly Family - "Eres tú" on Honest Workers Khanh Ha - "Co Gai Rung Mo" Korean Choir - "Eres tú" La Academia 4ta Generación - "Eres tú" La Decada Prodigiosa - "Eres tú" Lady Lu - "Eres tú" Landscape - "Touch the Wind" (En
Spain in the Eurovision Song Contest
For the candidacy of Spain in 2018, see Spain in the Eurovision Song Contest 2018 and for the edition of the Festival, see Eurovision Song Contest 2018 Spain has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 58 times since making its debut in 1961, where they finished ninth. Since 1999, Spain is one of the "Big Five", along with France, Germany and the United Kingdom, who are automatically allowed to participate in the final because they are the five biggest financial contributors to the European Broadcasting Union. Spain has competed in the contest continuously since the country's debut in 1961; the only country with a longer run of uninterrupted Eurovision appearances is the United Kingdom, ever-present since 1959. Spain has won the contest twice, first in 1968 with the song "La, la, la" sung by Massiel and again in 1969, when Salomé's "Vivo cantando" was involved in a four-way tie with France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom; the 1969 contest in Madrid is the only time Spain has hosted the event, since lots were drawn after 1969's four way tie and the 1970 contest was hosted by the Netherlands.
Spain has finished second in the contest four times, with Karina in 1971, Mocedades in 1973, Betty Missiego in 1979 and Anabel Conde in 1995, third in 1984 with Bravo. The country finished last with "Nul points" three times: in 1962, 1965 and 1983, finished last in 1999 and 2017. Spain has had less success in recent years, failing to reach the top 10 in 12 of the last 14 contests, the exceptions being 10th-place finishes for Pastora Soler in 2012 and Ruth Lorenzo in 2014. Spain has changed the selection process used in order to find the country's entry for the contest, either a national final or internal selection has been held by the broadcaster at the time. Between 1977 and 1999, Spain's entries were selected internally by TVE. Before that, internal selections and national contests, like Pasaporte a Dublín in 1971, were alternated. From 2000, Spain has used various selection formats with different results. In 2000 and 2001, TVE organised a national final called Eurocanción, where the Spanish representative was selected for the contest.
From 2002 to 2004, the reality television talent competition Operación Triunfo was used to select the entry, a format that renewed the Spanish audience's interest in the contest and brought three top 10 results in a row, until TVE decided not to host any further editions of the series. In 2005, the national final Eurovisión 2005: Elige nuestra canción was organised, where the audience chose their favourite song among a pre-selection made by TVE of unknown artists submitted to them by record labels; the result in the Eurovision final was not good and for 2006, the selection was made internally for the first time since 1999, with a similar result. In 2007, Spain's entry was decided through the Misión Eurovisión 2007 show, with a disappointing result once again. From 2008 to 2010, the Internet was the key element of the competitions used by TVE to select the Spanish entry. In 2008, the social networking website MySpace was involved in the national final Salvemos Eurovisión. A website was created to make it possible for anyone to upload a song and proceed to a televised final if chosen by online voters or an expert jury.
The result not much. For 2009, MySpace was still involved in the selection process Eurovisión 2009: El retorno, although some changes were introduced in the format; the result was the worst in the 2000s: 24th place. In 2010, a similar format, Eurovisión: Destino Oslo, selected the Spanish entry, with the best result since 2004. In 2011, Internet voting was scrapped from the new selection method Destino Eurovisión. After a further disappointing result, for 2012, TVE decided to approach an established act, Pastora Soler, organise a national final to select her song. A top ten result was achieved for the first time since 2004; the same procedure was repeated in 2013, with El Sueño de Morfeo as the established act, which turned out one of the most disappointing results in the country's Eurovision history. In 2014, TVE decided to return to a multi-artist national final procedure, called Mira quién va a Eurovisión. A top ten result was achieved for the second time in three years. In 2015, for the first time since 2006, both the artist and the song were selected internally by TVE.
On 18 December 2015, TVE announced that it would organise a national final in order to select the Spanish entry for the Eurovision Song Contest 2016. Six acts competed in the national final named Objetivo Eurovisión, Barei won the selection process; the same format was used in 2017, Manel Navarro won the selection process. In 2017, TVE commissioned a new season of Operación Triunfo, which returned to TVE after 13 years, the series served for the fourth time as the platform to select the Spanish entry for the 2018 contest; the result was disappointing, but the 2018 Eurovision final was the most-watched in Spain since 2008. A further season of the talent show will choose the Spanish entry for the 2019 contest. Since 1999, four particular countries have automatically qualified for the Eurovision final, regardless of their positions on the scoreboard in previous Contests, they earned this specia
Alicante, or Alacant, both the Spanish and Valencian being official names, is a city and port in Spain on the Costa Blanca, the capital of the province of Alicante and of the comarca of Alacantí, in the south of the Valencian Community. It is a historic Mediterranean port; the population of the city of Alicante proper was 330,525, estimated as of 2016, ranking as the second-largest Valencian city. Including nearby municipalities, the Alicante conurbation had 452,462 residents; the population of the metropolitan area was 757,085 as of 2014 estimates, ranking as the eighth-largest metropolitan area of Spain. The name of the city echoes the Arabic name Laqant or Al-Laqant, which in turn reflects the Latin Lucentum; the area around Alicante has been inhabited for over 7000 years. The first tribes of hunter-gatherers moved down from Central Europe between 5000 and 3000 BC; some of the earliest settlements were made on the slopes of Mount Benacantil. By 1000 BC Greek and Phoenician traders had begun to visit the eastern coast of Spain, establishing small trading ports and introducing the native Iberian tribes to the alphabet and the pottery wheel.
The Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca established the fortified settlement of Akra Leuka, in the mid-230s BC, presumed to have been on the site of modern Alicante. Although the Carthaginians conquered much of the land around Alicante, the Romans would rule Hispania Tarraconensis for over 700 years. By the 5th century AD, Rome was in decline and the Roman predecessor town of Alicante, known as Lucentum, was more or less under the control of the Visigothic warlord Theudimer and thereafter under Visigothic rule from 400 to 700 A. D; the Goths did not put up much resistance to the Arab conquest of Medina Laqant in the beginning of the 8th century. The Moors ruled eastern Spain until the 13th century Reconquista. Alicante was taken in 1247 by the Castilian king Alfonso X, but it passed soon and definitively to the Kingdom of Valencia in 1296 with King James II of Aragon, it gained the status of Royal Village with representation in the medieval Valencian Parliament. After several decades of being the battlefield where the Kingdom of Castile and the Crown of Aragon clashed, Alicante became a major Mediterranean trading station exporting rice, olive oil and wool.
But between 1609 and 1614 King Felipe III expelled thousands of Moriscos who had remained in Valencia after the Reconquista, due to their cooperation with Barbary pirates who continually attacked coastal cities and caused much harm to trade. This act cost the region dearly. Things got worse in the early 18th century; the end of the 19th century witnessed a sharp recovery of the local economy with increasing international trade and the growth of the city harbour leading to increased exports of several products. During the early 20th century, Alicante was a minor capital that enjoyed the benefit of Spain's neutrality during World War I, that provided new opportunities for local industry and agriculture; the Rif War in the 1920s saw numerous alicantinos drafted to fight in the long and bloody campaigns in the former Spanish protectorate against the Rif rebels. The political unrest of the late 1920s led to the victory of Republican candidates in local council elections throughout the country, the abdication of King Alfonso XIII.
The proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic was much celebrated in the city on 14 April 1931. The Spanish Civil War broke out on 17 July 1936. Alicante was the last city loyal to the Republican government to be occupied by General Franco's troops on 1 April 1939, its harbour saw the last Republican government officials fleeing the country. Vicious air bombings were targeted on Alicante during the three years of civil conflict, most notably the bombing by the Italian Aviazione Legionaria of the Mercado de Abastos on 25 May 1938 in which more than 300 civilians perished; the late 1950s and early 1960s saw the onset of a lasting transformation of the city by the tourist industry. Large buildings and complexes rose in nearby Albufereta and Playa de San Juan, with the benign climate being the biggest draw to attract prospective buyers and tourists who kept the hotels reasonably busy. New construction benefited the whole economy, as the development of the tourism sector spawned new businesses such as restaurants and other tourist-oriented enterprises.
The old airfield at Rabassa was closed and air traffic moved to the new El Altet Airport, which made a more convenient and modern facility for charter flights bringing tourists from northern European countries. When Franco died in 1975, his successor Juan Carlos I played his part as the living symbol of the transition of Spain to a democratic constitutional monarchy; the governments of regional communities were given constitutional status as nationalities, their governments were given more autonomy, including that of the Valencian region, the Generalitat Valenciana. The Port of Alicante has been reinventing itself since the industrial decline the city suffered in the 1980s. In recent years
Mocedades is a Spanish singing group from the Basque Autonomous Community, who represented Spain in the Eurovision Song Contest in 1973 with the hit song "Eres Tú". Since June 2014, Mocedades has been the name of two bands: one with Izaskun Uranga as its leader and the other with Javier Garay. A third group, El Consorcio, is composed of former Mocedades members who left the group but have continued a career together outside the Mocedades brand. In 1967, in the Basque city of Bilbao, three young sisters, Amaya and Estibaliz Uranga, formed a vocal trio named Las Hermanas Uranga, they sang in various locations at Bilbao. During their rehearsals, their brothers and friends joined, they decided to form a vocal group named Voces y guitarras with folk and spiritual music and The Beatles as their influences. The members of Voces y guitarras were Amaya Uranga, Izaskun Uranga, Estibaliz Uranga, Roberto Uranga, Rafael Blanco, Sergio Blanco, José Ipiña, Javier Garay and Francisco "Paco" Panera, they spent a year performing around their hometown before sending a demo cassette to producer Juan Carlos Calderón in Madrid.
He took an immediate interest in the group and renamed them Mocedades, meaning "youths," from the Spanish word mocedad, which means "youth." Javier Garay could not join them because of his military service, so Mocedades started out as an eight-member group. In 1970, both Ipiña and Panera left Mocedades. Javier Garay who had belonged to Voces y Guitarras rejoined the group in 1970 after serving in the Spanish military in Africa. Estíbaliz Uranga and the Blanco brothers followed in 1971, in 1972 Ipiña returned and Carlos Zubiaga joined, it was with this configuration of six, known in Spain as "The Six Historic Ones", that Mocedades achieved its greatest successes. The group was now on its way to making a remarkable string of hits, most notably "Eres tú ", runner up in 1973 and the next year a massive hit in Europe and the United States of America. "Eres tú" became one of the only Spanish language songs to reach the top 10 in the United States, peaking at #9 in the Billboard Hot 100 chart and reaching the top 10 on the Adult Contemporary chart.
The B-side of the single was the English-language version of the song, but radio stations preferred to play the original A-side version. There were several cover versions of the tune in both English and Spanish, only one of which, becoming a minor Adult Contemporary hit; the song was re-released in English as "Touch The Wind" in years. It was subsequently released in German, French and Basque; the song was the only U. S. Billboard hit for Mocedades; the 1973 Eurovision Song Contest was marked by a scandal, with charges that "Eres tú" was plagiarized and a rewrite of the Yugoslav entry from the 1966 contest. "Eres tú" was not disqualified. After winning second place in the contest, as of 2013 the highest score for Spain with 125 points, the song went on to become a huge international hit. However, many more hits followed in Latin America and Spain, most notably "Tómame o déjame", "El vendedor", "La otra España" and "Me siento seguro". In 1980 Mocedades signed up to CBS Records, now Sony, recorded more songs for the Spanish-speaking market, including "¡Ay amor!" and "Amor de hombre", the first Mocedades track to enter English-speaking charts since the smash hit "Eres tú".
In 1984, the lead singer, Amaya Uranga, left the group to pursue a solo career, was replaced by Ana Bejerano, with whom Mocedades recorded three more albums for CBS. For the third album José Ipiña and Carlos Zubiaga had left the group, had been replaced by Iñaki Uranga, one of the youngest brothers of the family; the comparisons between Amaya and Ana were lethal for Mocedades' mainstream popularity, after this last album at Sony, the group was disbanded when Ana, Iñaki and Roberto left it, leaving Izaskun and Javier as the only historic members left. They reformed the group adding Ines Rangil, José García and Iñigo Zubizarreta to the group, establishing Izaskun as the female leader of the team and recovering the style of the first years, without a particular soloist at all; this Mocedades made in 1995 another album entitled "Suave luz" before the new members left it again in 1996. They were replaced by Idoia Arteaga, Jose Antonio Las Heras, Arsenio Gutierrez and Fernando Gonzalez, this new team worked again with Juan Carlos Calderon to make an album for Walt Disney Records, where they performed their own versions of Disney songs in Spanish.
They started appearing in television again, but in 1999, Izaskun had a car accident which forced her to stay in bed for two years, in the meantime, the group ceased its activity. Due to the lack of work, Idoia and Fernando left Mocedades, while José Antonio and Javier patiently waited for Izaskun's full recovery. In 2001, Mocedades came back, recruited Luis Hornedo and Iratxe Martinez, started performing live concerts in Spain and Latin America with a some success, while they promoted themselves in the Internet, they reco
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia