In Jainism, Samavasarana or Samosharana is the divine preaching hall of the Tirthankara. The word samavasarana is derived from two words, meaning general and avasara, meaning opportunity, it is a place. The divine pavilion is built by heavenly beings; the theme of Samavasaranas has been popular in Jain art. In samavasarana, the tirthankara sits on a throne without touching it. Around the tirthankara sit the ganadharas. Living beings sit in the following order: In the first hall, ascetics In the second hall, one class of deva ladies In the third hall and laywomen In the next three halls, three other classes of deva ladies In the next four halls, the four classes of devas Men, in the eleventh hall Animals, in the last hallAccording to Jain texts, there would be four wide roads with four huge columns, one in each side; the total size of the hall varies depending upon the height of the people in that era. The size of Rishabhadeva's samavasarana was 12 km2. In samavasarana, a tirthankara appears to be looking in all directions.
Tirthankara sits on a soft cushion. All humans and animals can understand the discourse. Jain scriptures say that all creatures who listen would become less greedy; the speech of the tirthankara is distinctly heard by every one present. God in Jainism Rai, Champat Jain, Risabha Deva, India: Bhagwan Rishabhdeo Granth Mala, ISBN 9788177720228 Pramansagar, jain tattvavidya, India: Bhartiya Gyanpeeth, ISBN 978-81-263-1480-5 Wiley, Kristi L; the A to Z of Jainism, Scarecrow Press, ISBN 9780810868212 Champat Rai Jain. "X: THE SAMAVASARANA". Risabha Deva - The Founder of Jainism. K. Mitra, Indian Press, Allahabad. P. 126. Article with Picture of Samavasarana Samavasarana in Detail
Mahaveer Janma Kalyanak, is one of the most important religious festivals for Jains. It celebrates the birth of Mahaveer, the twenty-fourth and last Tirthankara of Avasarpiṇī; as per the Gregorian calendar, the holiday occurs either in April. Most modern historians consider Kundagram as Mahaveer's birthplace. According to Jain texts, Mahaveer was born on the thirteenth day of the bright half of the moon in the month of Chaitra in the year 599 BCE. Mahaveer was born in a democratic kingdom, where the king was chosen by votes. Vaishali was its capital. Mahaveer was named'Vardhamana', which means "One who grows", because of the increased prosperity in the kingdom at the time of his birth. In Vasokund, Mahaveer is much revered by the villagers. A place called Ahalya bhumi has not been ploughed for hundreds of years by the family that owns it, as it is considered to be the birthplace of Mahaveer. Mahaveer was born into Ikshvaku dynasty as the son of King Siddhartha of Kundagrama and Queen Trishala. During her pregnancy, Trishala was believed to have had a number of auspicious dreams, all signifying the coming of a great soul.
Digambara sect of Jainism holds that the mother saw sixteen dreams which were interpreted by the King Siddhartha. According to the Svetambara sect, the total number of auspicious dreams is fourteen, it is said that when Queen Trishala gave birth to Mahaveer, the head of heavenly beings performed a ritual called abhisheka on Sumeru Parvat, this being the second of five auspicious events, said to occur in the life of all Tirthankaras. The idol of Mahaveer is carried out in a procession called rath yatra. On the way stavans are recited. Statues of Mahaveer are given a ceremonial anointment called the abhisheka. During the day, most members of the Jain community engage in some sort of charitable act, prayers and vratas. Many devotees visit temples dedicated to Mahaveer to offer prayers. Lectures by monks and nuns are held in temples to preach the path of virtue. Donations are collected in order to promote charitable missions like saving cows from slaughter or helping to feed poor people. Ancient Jain temples across India see an high volume of practitioners come to pay their respects and join in the celebrations.
Ahimsa rallies preaching the Mahaveer's message of Ahiṃsā are taken out on this day. Jain, Kailash Chand, Lord Mahāvīra and His Times, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0805-8 Jain, Uttarapurāṇa of Āchārya Guṇabhadra, Bhartiya Jnanpith, ISBN 978-81-263-1738-7 Jalaj, Dr. Jaykumar, The Basic Thought of Bhagavan Mahavir, Mumbai: Hindi Granth Karyalay, ISBN 978-81-88769-41-4 History of Jainism Lord Mahavira Sayings The Significance of Mahavir Jayanti
History of Jainism
History of Jainism is the history of a religion founded in Ancient India. Jains trace their history through twenty-four tirthankara and revere Rishabhanatha as the first tirthankara; some artifacts found in the Indus Valley civilization have been suggested as a link to ancient Jain culture, but this is speculative and a subjective interpretation. This theory has not been accepted by most scholars because little is known about the Indus Valley iconography and script; the last two tirthankara, the 23rd tirthankara Parshvanatha and the 24th tirthankara Mahavira are considered historical figures. Mahavira was the elder contemporary of the Buddha. According to Jain texts, the 22nd Tirthankara Arshth-nemi lived about 85,000 years ago and was the cousin of Hindu god Krishna. Jains consider their religion eternal; the two main sects of Jainism, the Digambara and the Śvētāmbara sect started forming about the 3rd century BCE and the schism was complete by about 5th century CE. These sects subdivided into several sub-sects such as Sthānakavāsī and Terapanthis.
Jainism co-existed with Hinduism in ancient and medieval India. Many of its historic temples were built near the Buddhist and Hindu temples in 1st millennium CE. After the 12th-century, the temples and naked ascetic tradition of Jainism suffered persecution during the Muslim rule, with the exception of Akbar whose religious tolerance and support for Jainism led to a temporary ban on animal killing during the Jain religious festival of Paryusan; the origins of Jainism are obscure. The Jains claim their religion is eternal, consider Rishabhanatha the founder in the present time-cycle, someone who lived for 8,400,000 purva years. Rishabhanatha is the first tirthankar among the 24 Tirthankaras who are considered mythical figures by historians. Different scholars have had different views on the origin; some artifacts found in the Indus Valley civilization have been suggested as a link to ancient Jain culture, but this is speculative. According to a 1925 proposal of Glasenapp, Jainism's origin can be traced to the 23rd Tirthankara Parshvanatha, he considers the first twenty-two tirthankaras as legendary mythical figures.
According to another proposal by Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, the first vice president of India, Jainism was in existence long before the Vedas were composed. Jain texts and tradition believes in 24 Tirthankaras. Historians only consider the last two based on historical figures of the 1st millennium BCE. Buddhist sources don't mention Mahavira as a founder of new the tradition, but as part of an ascetic Nirgranthas tradition; this has led scholars to conclude that Mahavira was not the founder, but a reformer of a tradition established by his predecessor, Parsvanatha. During the 6th century BCE, Mahāvīra became one of the most influential teachers of Jainism. Jains revere him as the last tirthankara of present cosmic age. Though, Mahavira is sometimes mistakenly regarded as the founder, he appears in the tradition as one who, from the beginning, had followed a religion established long ago. There is reasonable historical evidence that the 23rd Tirthankara, the predecessor of Mahavira, lived somewhere in the 9th–7th century BCE.
Neminatha was the predecessor of Parshvanatha, 84,000 years ago, 22nd Tirthankara of the Jain tradition. The texts of Jainism call the Hindu god Krishna a cousin of Neminatha, say that Neminatha taught Krishna all the wisdom that he gave to Arjuna in the Bhagavad Gita. According to Jeffery D. Long, a professor of Religion known for his publications on Jainism, this connection between Krishna and Neminatha has been a historic reason for Jains to accept and cite the Bhagavad Gita as a spiritually important text, celebrate Krishna related festivals and intermingle with Hindus as spiritual cousins; the Vedas mention the name Rishabha. However, the context in the Rigveda and the Upanishads suggests that it means the bull, sometimes "any male animal" or "most excellent of any kind", or "a kind of medicinal plant". Elsewhere it is an epithet for the Hindu god Shiva. Hindu mythical texts such as the Bhagavata Purana include Rishabha Jina as an avatar of Vishnu. After the nirvana of Parshvanatha, his disciple Subhadatta became the head of the monks.
Subhadatta was succeeded by Haridatta, Aryasamudra and lastly Kesi. Uttaradhyayana, a Svetambara text have records of a dialogue between Kesi; the Tirthankaras are believed in the Jain tradition to have attained omniscience, known as kevala jnana. After Mahavira, one of his disciples Sudharma Svami is said to have taken over the leadership, he was the head of Jain community till 515 BCE. After his death, Jambuswami, a disciple of Sudharma Svami became the head of the monks, he was the head till 463 BCE. Sudharma Svami and Jambu Svami are traditionally said to have attained keval jnana, it is said. After Sudharma svami, there followed five sutrakevalis, i.e. those who were well versed in the scriptures, who headed the monks of the Jain community. Bhadrabahu was the last sutrakevali. After Bhadrabahu, there were seven leaders. Knowledge of the scriptures was progressively being lost with each in turn. During Chandragupta Maurya's reign, Acharya Bhadrabahu moved to Karnataka to survive a twelve-year-long famine.
Sthulabhadra, a pupil of Acharya Bhadrabahu, stayed in Magadha. When followers of Acharya Bhadrabahu returned, there was a dispute between them regarding the authenticity of the Angas; those who stayed at magadha started wea
Karma in Jainism
Karma is the basic principle within an overarching psycho-cosmology in Jainism. Human moral actions form the basis of the transmigration of the soul; the soul is constrained to a cycle of rebirth, trapped within the temporal world, until it achieves liberation. Liberation is achieved by following a path of purification. Jains believe that karma is a physical substance, everywhere in the universe. Karma particles are attracted to the soul by the actions of that soul. Karma particles are attracted when we do, think, or say things, when we kill something, when we lie, when we steal and so on. Karma not only encompasses the causality of transmigration, but is conceived of as an subtle matter, which infiltrates the soul—obscuring its natural and pure qualities. Karma is thought of as a kind of pollution. Based on its karma, a soul undergoes transmigration and reincarnates in various states of existence—like heavens or hells, or as humans or animals. Jains cite inequalities and pain as evidence for the existence of karma.
Various types of karma are classified according to their effects on the potency of the soul. The Jain theory seeks to explain the karmic process by specifying the various causes of karmic influx and bondage, placing equal emphasis on deeds themselves, the intentions behind those deeds; the Jain karmic theory attaches great responsibility to individual actions, eliminates any reliance on some supposed existence of divine grace or retribution. The Jain doctrine holds that it is possible for us to both modify our karma, to obtain release from it, through the austerities and purity of conduct. According to Jains, all souls are intrinsically pure in their inherent and ideal state, possessing the qualities of infinite knowledge, infinite perception, infinite bliss and infinite energy. However, in contemporary experience, these qualities are found to be defiled and obstructed, on account of the association of these souls with karma; the soul has been associated with karma in this way throughout an eternity of beginning-less time.
This bondage of the soul is explained in the Jain texts by analogy with gold ore, which—in its natural state—is always found unrefined of admixture with impurities. The ideally pure state of the soul has always been overlaid with the impurities of karma; this analogy with gold ore is taken one step further: the purification of the soul can be achieved if the proper methods of refining are applied. Over the centuries, Jain monks have developed a large and sophisticated corpus of literature describing the nature of the soul, various aspects of the working of karma, the ways and means of attaining mokṣa. Jainism speaks of karmic "dirt", as karma is thought to be manifest as subtle and sensually imperceptible particles pervading the entire universe, they are so small that one space-point—the smallest possible extent of space—contains an infinite number of karmic particles. It is these karmic particles that affect its natural potency; this material karma is called dravya karma. The relationship between the material and psychic karma is that of effect.
The material karma gives rise to the feelings and emotions in worldly souls, which—in turn—give rise to psychic karma, causing emotional modifications within the soul. These emotions, yet again, result in bondage of fresh material karma. Jains hold that the karmic matter is an agent that enables the consciousness to act within the material context of this universe, they are the material carrier of a soul's desire to physically experience this world. When attracted to the consciousness, they are stored in an interactive karmic field called kārmaṇa śarīra, which emanates from the soul. Thus, karma is a subtle matter surrounding the consciousness of a soul; when these two components—consciousness and ripened karma—interact, the soul experiences life as known in the present material universe. According to Indologist Robert J. Zydenbos, karma is a system of natural laws, where actions that carry moral significance are considered to cause certain consequences in the same way as physical actions; when one holds an apple and lets it go, the apple will fall.
There is no judge, no moral judgment involved, since this is a mechanical consequence of the physical action. In the same manner, consequences occur when one utters a lie, steals something, commits senseless violence or leads a life of debauchery. Rather than assume that these consequences—the moral rewards and retributions—are a work of some divine judge, Jains believe that there is an innate moral order in the cosmos, self-regulating through the workings of the law of karma. Morality and ethics are important in Jainism not because of a God, but because a life led in agreement with moral and ethical principles is considered beneficial: it leads to a decrease—and to the total loss of—karma, which in turn leads to everlasting happiness; the Jain conception of karma takes away the responsibility for salvation from God and bestows it on man himself. In the words of the Jain scholar, J. L. Jaini: Jainism, more than any other creed, gives absolute religious independence and freedom to man. Nothing can the fruits thereof.
Once done, they must fructify. As my independence is great, so my responsibility is co-extensive with it. I can live. No God, his Prophet or his deputy or beloved can interf
Jain cosmology is the description of the shape and functioning of the Universe and its constituents according to Jainism. Jain cosmology considers the universe, as an uncreated entity, existing since infinity, having neither beginning nor end. Jain texts describe the shape of the universe as similar to a man standing with legs apart and arm resting on his waist; this Universe, according to Jainism, is broad at the top, narrow at the middle and once again becomes broad at the bottom. According to Jains, the Universe is made up of six simple and eternal substances called dravya which are broadly categorized under Jiva and Ajiva as follows: Jīva Jīva i.e. Souls – Jīva exists as a reality, having a separate existence from the body that houses it, it is characterised by upayoga. Though the soul experiences both birth and death, it is neither destroyed nor created. Decay and origin refer to the disappearing of one state of soul and appearing of another state, these being the modes of the soul. Ajīva Pudgala – Matter is classified as solid, gaseous, fine Karmic materials and extra-fine matter i.e. ultimate particles.
Paramāṇu or ultimate particle is the basic building block of all matter. The Paramāṇu and Pudgala are indestructible. Matter combines and changes its modes but its basic qualities remain the same. According to Jainism, it destroyed. Dharma-dravya and Adharma-dravya – Dharmastikāya and Adharmastikāya are distinctly peculiar to Jaina system of thought depicting the principle of Motion and Rest, they are said to pervade the entire universe. Dharma and Adharma are by itself not motion or rest but mediate motion and rest in other bodies. Without Dharmastikāya motion is not possible and without Adharmastikāya rest is not possible in the universe. Ākāśa – Space is a substance that accommodates the living souls, the matter, the principle of motion, the principle of rest and time. It is all-pervading and made of infinite space-points. Kāla – Kāla is an eternal substance according to Jainism and all activities, changes or modifications can be achieved only through the progress of time. According to the Jain text, Dravyasaṃgraha: Conventional time is perceived by the senses through the transformations and modifications of substances.
Real time, however, is the cause of imperceptible, minute changes that go on incessantly in all substances. The Jain doctrine postulates an eternal and ever-existing world which works on universal natural laws; the existence of a creator deity is overwhelmingly opposed in the Jain doctrine. Mahāpurāṇa, a Jain text authored by Ācārya Jinasena is famous for this quote: According to Jains, the universe has a firm and an unalterable shape, measured in the Jain texts by means of a unit called Rajju, supposed to be large; the Digambara sect of Jainism postulates that the universe is fourteen Rajju high and extends seven Rajjus from north to south. Its breadth is seven Rajjus at the bottom and decreases till the middle where it is one Rajju; the width increases till it is five Rajju and again decreases till it is one Rajju. The apex of the universe is one Rajju wide and eight Rajju high; the total space of the world is thus 343 cubic Rajju. The svetambara view differs and postulates that there is constant increase and decrease in the breadth and the space is 239 cubic Rajju.
Apart from the apex, the abode of liberated beings, the universe is divided into three parts. The world is surrounded by three atmospheres: dense-wind and thin-wind, it is surrounded by infinitely large non-world, empty. The whole world is said to be filled with living beings. In all the three parts, there is the existence of small living beings called nigoda. Nigoda are of two types: Itara-nigoda. Nitya-nigoda are those which will reborn as nigoda throughout eternity where as Itara-nigoda will be reborn as other beings too; the mobile region of universe is one Rajju broad and fourteen Rajju high. Within this, there are animals and plants everywhere where as Human beings are restricted to 2.5 continents of middle world. The beings inhabiting lower world are called Naraki. Deva live in top three realms of lower world. Living beings are divided in fourteen classes: 1. Fine beings with one sense. 2. Crude beings with one sense. 3. Beings with two sense. 4. Beings with three sense. 5. Beings with four sense. 6.
Beings with five sense without mind. 7. Beings with five sense with a mind; these can be developed which makes it a total of fourteen. Human beings are the only ones which can attain salvation; the early Jains contemplated the nature of the earth and universe and developed a detailed hypothesis on the various aspects of astronomy and cosmology. According to the Jain texts, the universe is divided into 3 parts: Urdhva Loka – the realms of the gods or heavens Madhya Loka – the realms of the humans and plants Adho Loka – the realms of the hellish beings or the infernal regionsThe following Upanga āgamas describe the Jain cosmology and geography in a great detail: Sūryaprajñapti – Treatise on Sun Jambūdvīpaprajñapti - Treatise on the island of Roseapple tree.
Rishabhanatha is the first Tirthankara of Jainism. A leader, he is believed in Jainism to have lived billions of billions of years ago, he was the first of twenty-four teachers in the present half-cycle of time in Jain cosmology, called a "ford maker" because his teachings helped one across the sea of interminable rebirths and deaths. He is known as Ādinātha of Jainism which translates into "First Lord", as well as Adishvara, Yugadideva and Nebheya. Along with Mahavira and Neminatha, Rishabhanatha is one of the four Tirthankaras that attract the most devotional worship among the Jains. According to Jain traditional accounts, he was born to king Nabhi and queen Marudevi in the north Indian city of Ayodhya called Vinita, he had two wives and Sumangala. Sumangala is described as one daughter, Brahmi. Sunanda is depicted as the mother of Sundari; the sudden death of Nilanjana, one of the dancers of Indra, reminded him of the world's transitory nature, he developed a desire for renunciation. After his renunciation, the Jain legends state Rishabhanatha wandered without food for an entire year.
The day on which he got his first ahara is celebrated by Jains as Akshaya Tritiya. He is said to have attained Moksha on Mount Asthapada; the text Adi Purana by Jinasena is an account of the events of his life. His iconography includes colossal statues such as Statue of Ahimsa and those erected in Gopachal hill, his icons include the eponymous bull as his emblem, the Nyagrodha tree, Gomukha Yaksha, Chakreshvari Yakshi. Guinness world record holder 113 ft. tall statue of lord Rishabh is situated at Mangitungi by inspiration of Sumpreme Jain Sadhvi Ganini Gyanmati Mataji. According to Jain cosmology, the universe does not have end, its "Universal History" divides the cycle of time into two halves with six aras in each half, the cycles keep repeating perpetually. Twenty-four Tirthankaras appear in the first Tirthankara founding Jainism each time. In the present time cycle, Rishabhanatha is credited as being the first tīrthaṅkara, born at the end of the third half. According to Jain texts, Rishabhanatha was born in a king's family in the age when there was happiness all around with no one needing to do any work because of Kalpavriksha.
As the cycle progressed, the efficacy of these trees decreased, people rushed to their king for help. Rishabhanatha is said to have taught the men six main professions; these were: Asi, Krishi, Vidya and Shilp. In other words, he is credited with introducing karma-bhumi by founding arts and professions to enable householders to sustain themselves, he is, in the Jain belief, the one who organized a social system that created the varna based on professions. Rishabhanatha is credited in Jainism to have invented and taught fire and all skills needed for human beings to live. In total, Rishabhanatha is said to have taught seventy-two sciences to men and sixty-four to women. According to Paul Dundas, Rishabhanatha in Jain mythology is thus not a spiritual teacher but one who founded knowledge in its various forms and a form of culture hero for the current cosmological cycle; the institution of marriage is stated to have come into existence after he married to set an example for other humans to follow.
His life is credited by Jains with starting the institution of charity from layperson to mendicants, when he received sugarcane juice in his hand from King Shreyansha, to break his fast. This is accepted in the Jain tradition as what started the tradition of alms giving in its various forms, one that has continued since ancient times in India. Rishabhanatha is said to be the founder of Jainism by the different Jain sub-traditions. Jain chronology places Rishabhanatha in historical terms, as someone, he is stated to have lived for 8,400,000 purva years. His height is described in the Jain texts to be about 1,200 feet; such descriptions of non-human heights and age are found for the next 21 Tirthankaras in Jain texts and according to Kristi Wiley – a scholar at University of California Berkeley known for her publications in Jainism, most Indologists and scholars consider all the first 22 of 24 Tirthankaras to be prehistorical, or historical and a part of Jain mythology. However, among Jain writers and some Indian scholars, some of the first 22 Tirthankaras are considered to reflect historical figures, with a few conceding that the inflated biographical statistics are mythical.
According to Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, a professor of comparative religions and philosophy at Oxford who became the second President of India, there is evidence to show that Rishabhdeva was being worshipped by the first century BCE. The Yajurveda mentions the name of three Tirthankaras – Rishabha and Arishtanemi, states Radhakrishnan, "the Bhāgavata Purāṇa endorses the view that Rishabha was the founder of Jainism"; the Vedas mention the name Rishabha. However, the context in the Rigveda and the Upanishads suggests that it means the bull, sometimes "any male animal" or "most excellent of any kind", or "a kind of medicinal plant". Elsewhere it is an epithet for the Hindu god Shiva.. 0 Rudra-like Div