Entrepreneurship is the process of designing and running a new business, initially a small business. The people who create these businesses are called entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship has been described as the "capacity and willingness to develop and manage a business venture along with any of its risks in order to make a profit". While definitions of entrepreneurship focus on the launching and running of businesses, due to the high risks involved in launching a start-up, a significant proportion of start-up businesses have to close due to "lack of funding, bad business decisions, an economic crisis, lack of market demand—or a combination of all of these. A broader definition of the term is sometimes used in the field of economics. In this usage, an Entrepreneur is an entity which has the ability to find and act upon opportunities to translate inventions or technology into new products: "The entrepreneur is able to recognize the commercial potential of the invention and organize the capital and other resources that turn an invention into a commercially viable innovation."
In this sense, the term "Entrepreneurship" captures innovative activities on the part of established firms, in addition to similar activities on the part of new businesses. Entrepreneurship is the act of being an entrepreneur, or "the owner or manager of a business enterprise who, by risk and initiative, attempts to make profits". Entrepreneurs oversee the launch and growth of an enterprise. Entrepreneurship is the process by which either an individual or a team identifies a business opportunity and acquires and deploys the necessary resources required for its exploitation. Early-19th-century French economist Jean-Baptiste Say provided a broad definition of entrepreneurship, saying that it "shifts economic resources out of an area of lower and into an area of higher productivity and greater yield". Entrepreneurs create something new, something different—they change or transmute values. Regardless of the firm size, big or small, they can partake in entrepreneurship opportunities; the opportunity to become an entrepreneur requires four criteria.
First, there must be situations to recombine resources to generate profit. Second, entrepreneurship requires differences between people, such as preferential access to certain individuals or the ability to recognize information about opportunities. Third, taking on risk is a necessity. Fourth, the entrepreneurial process requires the organization of resources; the entrepreneur is a factor in and the study of entrepreneurship reaches back to the work of Richard Cantillon and Adam Smith in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. However, entrepreneurship was ignored theoretically until the late 19th and early 20th centuries and empirically until a profound resurgence in business and economics since the late 1970s. In the 20th century, the understanding of entrepreneurship owes much to the work of economist Joseph Schumpeter in the 1930s and other Austrian economists such as Carl Menger, Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich von Hayek. According to Schumpeter, an entrepreneur is a person, willing and able to convert a new idea or invention into a successful innovation.
Entrepreneurship employs what Schumpeter called "the gale of creative destruction" to replace in whole or in part inferior innovations across markets and industries creating new products including new business models. In this way, creative destruction is responsible for the dynamism of industries and long-run economic growth; the supposition that entrepreneurship leads to economic growth is an interpretation of the residual in endogenous growth theory and as such is hotly debated in academic economics. An alternative description posited by Israel Kirzner suggests that the majority of innovations may be much more incremental improvements such as the replacement of paper with plastic in the making of drinking straws; the exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities may include: Developing a business plan Hiring the human resources Acquiring financial and material resources Providing leadership Being responsible for both the venture's success or failure Risk aversionEconomist Joseph Schumpeter saw the role of the entrepreneur in the economy as "creative destruction" – launching innovations that destroy old industries while ushering in new industries and approaches.
For Schumpeter, the changes and "dynamic disequilibrium brought on by the innovating entrepreneur the norm of a healthy economy". While entrepreneurship is associated with new, for-profit start-ups, entrepreneurial behavior can be seen in small-, medium- and large-sized firms and established firms and in for-profit and not-for-profit organizations, including voluntary-sector groups, charitable organizations and government. Entrepreneurship may operate within an entrepreneurship ecosystem which includes: Government programs and services that promote entrepreneurship and support entrepreneurs and start-ups Non-governmental organizations such as small-business associations and organizations that offer advice and mentoring to entrepreneurs Small-business advocacy organizations that lobby governments for increased support for entrepreneurship programs and more small business-friendly laws and regulations Entrepreneurship resources and facilities Entrepreneurship education and training programs offered by schools and universities Financing In the 2000s, usage of the term "entrepreneurship" expanded to include how and why some individuals ide
Symantec Corporation is an American software company headquartered in Mountain View, United States. The company provides services. Symantec is a member of the S&P 500 stock-market index; the company has development centers in Pune and Bengaluru. On October 9, 2014, Symantec declared it would split into two independent publicly traded companies by the end of 2015. One company would focus on the other on information management. On January 29, 2016, Symantec sold its information-management subsidiary, named Veritas Technologies to The Carlyle Group; the name "Symantec" is a portmanteau of the words "syntax" and "semantics" with "technology". Founded in 1982 by Gary Hendrix with a National Science Foundation grant, Symantec was focused on artificial intelligence-related projects, including a database program. Hendrix hired several Stanford University natural language processing researchers as the company's first employees, among them Barry Greenstein. Hendrix hired Jerry Kaplan as a consultant to build the in-RAM database for Q&A.
In 1984, it became clear that the advanced natural language and database system that Symantec had developed could not be ported from DEC minicomputers to the PC. This left Symantec without a product, but with expertise in natural language database query systems and technology; as a result in 1984 Symantec was acquired by another, smaller software startup company, C&E Software, founded by Denis Coleman and Gordon Eubanks and headed by Eubanks. C&E Software developed a combined file management and word processing program called Q&A for "question and answer."The merged company retained the name Symantec. Eubanks became its chairman, Vern Raburn, the former President of the original Symantec, remained as President of the combined company; the new Symantec combined the file management and word processing functionality that C&E had planned, added an advanced Natural Language query system that set new standards for ease of database query and report generation. The natural language system was named "The Intelligent Assistant".
Turner chose the name of Q&A for Symantec's flagship product, in large part because the name lent itself to use in a short merchandised logo. Brett Walter designed the user interface of Q&A. Q&A was released in November 1985. During 1986, Vern Raburn and Gordon Eubanks swapped roles, Eubanks became CEO and president of Symantec, while Raburn became its chairman. Subsequent to this change, Raburn had little involvement with Symantec, in a few years time, Eubanks added the Chairmanship to his other roles. After a slow start for sales of Q&A in the fall of 1985 and spring of 1986, Turner signed up a new advertising agency called Elliott/Dickens, embarked on an aggressive new advertising campaign, came up with the "Six Pack Program" in which all Symantec employees, regardless of role, went on the road and selling dealer sales staff nationwide in the United States. Turner named it Six Pack because employees were to work six days a week, see six dealerships per day, train six sales representatives per store and stay with friends free or at Motel 6.
A promotion was run jointly with SofSell. This promotion was successful in encouraging dealers to try Q&A. During this time, Symantec was advised by Jim Lally and John Doerr — both were board members of Symantec at that stage — that if Symantec would cut its expenses and grow revenues enough to achieve cash flow break-even KPCB would back the company in raising more venture capital. To accomplish this, the management team worked out a salary reduction schedule where the chairman and the CEO would take zero pay, all vice presidents would take a 50% pay cut, all other employees' pay was cut by 15%. Two employees were laid off. Eubanks negotiated a sizable rent reduction on the office space the company had leased in the days of the original Symantec; these expense reductions, combined with strong international sales of Q&A, enabled the company to attain break-even. The increased traction for Q&A from this re-launch grew Symantec's revenues along with early success for Q&A in international markets following Turner's having placed emphasis on establishing international sales distribution and multiple language versions of Q&A from initial shipment.
In 1985, Rod Turner negotiated the publishing agreement with David Whitney for Symantec's second product, which Turner named NoteIt. It was evident to Turner that NoteIt would confuse the dealer channel if it was launched under the Symantec name, because Symantec had built up interest by that stage in Q&A, because the low price for the utility would not be attractive to the dealer channel until demand had been built up. Turner felt. Turner and Gordon E. Eubanks, Jr. chairman of Symantec Corporation, agreed to form a new division of Symantec, Eubanks delegated the choice of name to Turner. Turner chose the name Turner Hall Publishing, to be a new division of Symantec devoted to publishing third-party software and ha
To counterfeit means to imitate something authentic, with the intent to steal, destroy, or replace the original, for use in illegal transactions, or otherwise to deceive individuals into believing that the fake is of equal or greater value than the real thing. Counterfeit products are unauthorized replicas of the real product. Counterfeit products are produced with the intent to take advantage of the superior value of the imitated product; the word counterfeit describes both the forgeries of currency and documents, as well as the imitations of items such as clothing, shoes, pharmaceuticals and automobile parts, electronics, works of art and movies. Counterfeit products tend to have fake company logos and brands, have a reputation for being lower quality and may include toxic elements such as lead; this has resulted in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people, due to automobile and aviation accidents, poisoning, or ceasing to take essential compounds. The counterfeiting of money is attacked aggressively by governments worldwide.
Paper money is the most popular product counterfeited. Counterfeit money is currency, produced without the legal sanction of the state or government and in deliberate violation of that country's laws; the United States Secret Service known for its guarding-of-officials task, was organized to combat the counterfeiting of American money. Counterfeit government bonds are public debt instruments that are produced without legal sanction, with the intention of "cashing them in" for authentic currency or using them as collateral to secure legitimate loans or lines of credit. Forgery is the process of adapting documents with the intention to deceive, it is a form of fraud, is a key technique in the execution of identity theft. Uttering and publishing is a term in United States law for the forgery of non-official documents, such as a trucking company's time and weight logs. Questioned document examination is a scientific process for investigating many aspects of various documents, is used to examine the provenance and verity of a suspected forgery.
Security printing is a printing industry specialty, focused on creating legal documents which are difficult to forge. The spread of counterfeit goods has become global in recent years and the range of goods subject to infringement has increased significantly. Apparel and accessories accounted for over 50 percent of the counterfeit goods seized by U. S Customs and Border Control. According to the study of Counterfeiting Intelligence Bureau of the International Chamber of Commerce, counterfeit goods make up 5 to 7% of World Trade. A report by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development indicates that up to US$200 Billion of international trade could have been in counterfeit and illegally copied goods in 2005. In November 2009, the OECD updated these estimates, concluding that the share of counterfeit and illegitimate goods in world trade had increased from 1.85% in 2000 to 1.95% in 2007. That represents an increase to US$250 billion worldwide. In a detailed breakdown of the counterfeit goods industry, the total loss faced by countries around the world is $600 billion, with the United States facing the most economic impact.
When calculating counterfeit products, current estimates place the global losses at $400 billion. On November 29, 2010, the Department of Homeland Security seized and shut down 82 websites as part of a U. S. crackdown of websites that sell counterfeit goods, was timed to coincide with "Cyber Monday," the start of the holiday online shopping season. Some see the rise in counterfeiting of goods as being related to globalisation; as more and more companies, in an effort to increase profits, move manufacturing to the cheaper labour markets of the third world, areas with weaker labour laws or environmental regulations, they give the means of production to foreign workers. These new managers of production have little or no loyalty to the original corporation, they see that profits are being made by the global brand for doing little and see the possibilities of removing the middle men and marketing directly to the consumer. This can result in counterfeit products being indistinguishable from original products, as they are being produced in the same company, in damage to the parent corporation due to copyright infringement.
Certain consumer goods very expensive or desirable brands or those that are easy to reproduce cheaply, have become frequent and common targets of counterfeiting. The counterfeiters either attempt to deceive the consumer into thinking they are purchasing a legitimate item, or convince the consumer that they could deceive others with the imitation. An item which makes no attempt to deceive, such as a copy of a DVD with missing or different cover art or a book without a cover, is called a "bootleg" or a "pirated copy" instead. Counterfeiting has been issued to "cash in" on the growing record collecting market. One major example is bootleggers have cloned copies of Elvis Presley's early singles for Sun Records since original copies starting changing hands amongst music fans for hundreds of US$; some who produce these do so with the wrong material. For example the song "Heartbreak Hotel", never released on Sun, as by the time Elvis' first heard it, prior to recording
Scareware is a form of malware which uses social engineering to cause shock, anxiety, or the perception of a threat in order to manipulate users into buying unwanted software. Scareware is part of a class of malicious software that includes rogue security software and other scam software that tricks users into believing their computer is infected with a virus suggests that they download and pay for fake antivirus software to remove it; the virus is fictional and the software is non-functional or malware itself. According to the Anti-Phishing Working Group, the number of scareware packages in circulation rose from 2,850 to 9,287 in the second half of 2008. In the first half of 2009, the APWG identified a 585% increase in scareware programs; the "scareware" label can apply to any application or virus which pranks users with intent to cause anxiety or panic. Internet security writers use the term "scareware" to describe software products that produce frivolous and alarming warnings or threat notices, most for fictitious or useless commercial firewall and registry cleaner software.
This class of program tries to increase its perceived value by bombarding the user with constant warning messages that do not increase its effectiveness in any way. Software is packaged with a look and feel that mimics legitimate security software in order to deceive consumers; some websites display pop-up advertisement windows or banners with text such as: "Your computer may be infected with harmful spyware programs. Immediate removal may be required. To scan, click'Yes' below." These websites can go as far as saying that marriage would be at risk. Products using advertisements such as these are considered scareware. Serious scareware applications qualify as rogue software; some scareware is not affiliated with any other installed programs. A user can encounter a pop-up on a website indicating. In some scenarios, it is possible to become infected with scareware if the user attempts to cancel the notification; these popups are designed to look like they come from the user's operating system when they are a webpage.
A 2010 study by Google found 11,000 domains hosting fake anti-virus software, accounting for 50% of all malware delivered via internet advertising. Starting on March 29, 2011, more than 1.5 million web sites around the world have been infected by the LizaMoon SQL injection attack spread by scareware. Research by Google discovered that scareware was using some of its servers to check for internet connectivity; the data suggested. The company has placed a warning in the search results of users whose computers appear to be infected. Another example of scareware is Smart Fortress; this site scares people into thinking they have lots of viruses on their computer and asks them to buy the professional service. Some forms of spyware qualify as scareware because they change the user's desktop background, install icons in the computer's notification area, claiming that some kind of spyware has infected the user's computer and that the scareware application will help to remove the infection. In some cases, scareware trojans have replaced the desktop of the victim with large, yellow text reading "Warning!
You have spyware!" or a box containing similar text, have forced the screensaver to change to "bugs" crawling across the screen. Winwebsec is the term used to address the malware that attacks the users of Windows operating system and produces fake claims similar to that of genuine anti-malware software. SpySheriff exemplifies spyware and scareware: it purports to remove spyware, but is a piece of spyware itself accompanying SmitFraud infections. Other antispyware scareware may be promoted using a phishing scam. Another approach is to trick users into uninstalling legitimate antivirus software, such as Microsoft Security Essentials, or disabling their firewall. Since antivirus programs include protection against being tampered with or disabled by other software, scareware may use social engineering to convince the user to disable programs which would otherwise prevent the malware from working. In 2005, Microsoft and Washington state sued Secure Computer for $1 million over charges of using scareware pop-ups.
Washington's attorney general has brought lawsuits against Securelink Networks, High Falls Media, the makers of Quick Shield. In October 2008, Microsoft and the Washington attorney general filed a lawsuit against two Texas firms, Branch Software and Alpha Red, producers of the Registry Cleaner XP scareware; the lawsuit alleges that the company sent incessant pop-ups resembling system warnings to consumers' personal computers stating "CRITICAL ERROR MESSAGE! - REGISTRY DAMAGED AND CORRUPTED", before instructing users to visit a web site to download Registry Cleaner XP at a cost of $39.95. On December 2, 2008, the U. S. Federal Trade Commission filed a Complaint in federal court against Inc.. ByteHosting Internet Services, LLC, as well as individuals Sam Jain, Daniel Sundin, James Reno, Marc D’Souza, Kristy Ross; the Complaint listed Maurice D’Souza as a Relief Defendant, alleged that he held proceeds of wrongful conduct but not accusing him of violating any law. The FTC alleged that the other Defendants violated the FTC Act by deceptively marketing software, including WinFixer, WinAntivirus, DriveCleaner, ErrorSafe, XP Antivirus.
According to the complaint, the Defendants falsely represented that scans of a consumer's computer showed that it had been compromised or infected and offered to sell software to fix the alleged problems. Another type of scareware i
Instant messaging technology is a type of online chat that offers real-time text transmission over the Internet. A LAN messenger operates in a similar way over a local area network. Short messages are transmitted between two parties, when each user chooses to complete a thought and select "send"; some IM applications can use push technology to provide real-time text, which transmits messages character by character, as they are composed. More advanced instant messaging can add file transfer, clickable hyperlinks, Voice over IP, or video chat. Non-IM types of chat include multicast transmission referred to as "chat rooms", where participants might be anonymous or might be known to each other. Instant messaging systems tend to facilitate connections between specified known users. Depending on the IM protocol, the technical architecture can be client-server. By 2010, instant messaging over the Web was in sharp decline, in favor of messaging features on social networks; the most popular IM platforms, such as AIM, closed in 2017, Windows Live Messenger was merged into Skype.
Today, most instant messaging takes place on messaging apps which by 2014 had more users than social networks. Instant messaging is a set of communication technologies used for text-based communication between two or more participants over the Internet or other types of networks. IM–chat happens in real-time. Of importance is that online chat and instant messaging differ from other technologies such as email due to the perceived quasi-synchrony of the communications by the users; some systems permit messages to be sent to users not then'logged on', thus removing some differences between IM and email. IM allows effective and efficient communication, allowing immediate receipt of acknowledgment or reply; however IM is not supported by transaction control. In many cases, instant messaging includes added features which can make it more popular. For example, users may see each other via webcams, or talk directly for free over the Internet using a microphone and headphones or loudspeakers. Many applications allow file transfers, although they are limited in the permissible file-size.
It is possible to save a text conversation for reference. Instant messages are logged in a local message history, making it similar to the persistent nature of emails. Though the term dates from the 1990s, instant messaging predates the Internet, first appearing on multi-user operating systems like Compatible Time-Sharing System and Multiplexed Information and Computing Service in the mid-1960s; some of these systems were used as notification systems for services like printing, but were used to facilitate communication with other users logged into the same machine. As networks developed, the protocols spread with the networks; some of these used a peer-to-peer protocol. The Zephyr Notification Service was invented at MIT's Project Athena in the 1980s to allow service providers to locate and send messages to users. Parallel to instant messaging were early online chat facilities, the earliest of, Talkomatic on the PLATO system, which allowed 5 people to chat on a 512x512 plasma display. During the bulletin board system phenomenon that peaked during the 1980s, some systems incorporated chat features which were similar to instant messaging.
The first such general-availability commercial online chat service was the CompuServe CB Simulator in 1980, created by CompuServe executive Alexander "Sandy" Trevor in Columbus, Ohio. Early instant messaging programs were real-time text, where characters appeared as they were typed; this includes the Unix "talk" command line program, popular in the 1980s and early 1990s. Some BBS chat programs used a similar interface. Modern implementations of real-time text exist in instant messengers, such as AOL's Real-Time IM as an optional feature. In the latter half of the 1980s and into the early 1990s, the Quantum Link online service for Commodore 64 computers offered user-to-user messages between concurrently connected customers, which they called "On-Line Messages", "FlashMail." (Quantum Link became America Online and made AOL Instant Messenger. While the Quantum Link client software ran on a Commodore 64, using only the Commodore's PETSCII text-graphics, the screen was visually divided into sections and OLMs would appear as a yellow bar saying "Message From:" and the name of the sender along with the message across the top of whatever the user was doing, presented a list of options for responding.
As such, it could be considered a type of graphical user interface, albeit much more primitive than the Unix and Macintosh based GUI IM software. OLMs were what Q-Link called "Plus Services" meaning they charged an extra per-minute fee on top of the monthly Q-Link access costs. Modern, Internet-wide, GUI-based messaging clients as they are known today, began to take off in the mid-1990s with PowWow, ICQ, AOL Instant Messenger. Similar functionalit
An arrest warrant is a warrant issued by a judge or magistrate on behalf of the state, which authorizes the arrest and detention of an individual, or the search and seizure of an individual's property. Arrest warrants are issued by a justice of the peace under the Criminal Code. Once the warrant has been issued, section 29 of the Code requires that the arresting officer must give notice to the accused of the existence of the warrant, the reason for it, produce it if requested, if it is feasible to do so. Czech courts may issue an arrest warrant when it is not achievable to summon or bring in for questioning a charged person and at the same time there is a reason for detention; the arrest warrant includes: identification of the charged person brief description of the act, for which the person is charged designation of section of criminal code, under which the person is charged precise description of reasons for the issuance of the arrest warrantThe arrest is conducted by the police. Following the arrest, the police must within 24 hours either hand the arrested person over to the nearest court or release the person.
The court must interview the arrested person, who has the right to have an attorney present, unless the attorney is not within reach. The court has 24 hours from the moment of receiving the person from the police to either order remand or to release him. Reaching the maximum time is always reason for immediate release. Detaining a person is only allowed under certain conditions defined by the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany. In article 104, the fundamental law determines that only a Haftrichter may order confinement that exceeds 48 hours; the former is called vorläufige Festnahme, the latter is named Haftbefehl. Arrest warrants serve the enforcement of the proper expiry for instance in the Code of Criminal Procedure, but in the civil procedure law and in the administrative law and the special administrative procedures after the Tax Code, the Finance Court order or the social court law. Article 2 Every person shall have the right to free development of his personality insofar as he does not violate the rights of others or offend against the constitutional order or the moral law.
Every person shall have the right to life and physical integrity. Freedom of the person shall be inviolable; these rights may be interfered with only pursuant to a law. The procedure for issuing arrest warrants differs in each of the three legal jurisdictions. In England & Wales, arrest warrants can be issued for both witnesses. Arrest warrants for suspects can be issued by a justice of the peace under section 1 of the Magistrates' Courts Act 1980 if information is laid before them that a person has committed or is suspected of having committed an offence; such arrest warrants can only be issued for someone over 18 if at least one of the following is true: The offence the warrant relates to is an indictable offence, or is punishable with imprisonment. The person's address is not sufficiently established to serve a summons there. Arrest warrants for witnesses can be issued if: A justice of the peace is satisfied on oath that:Any person in England or Wales is to be able to give material evidence, or produce any document or thing to be material evidence, at the summary trial of an information by a magistrates' court, It is in the interests of justice to issue a summons under this subsection to secure the attendance of that person to give evidence or produce the document or thing, It is probable that a summons would not procure the attendance of the person in question.
Or if:A person has failed to attend court in response to a summons, The court is satisfied by evidence on oath that he is to be able to give material evidence or produce any document or thing to be material evidence in the proceedings, It is proved on oath, or in such other manner as may be prescribed, that he has been duly served with the summons, that a reasonable sum has been paid or tendered to him for costs and expenses, It appears to the court that there is no just excuse for the failure. In Scotland, a Warrant to Apprehend may be issued. In Northern Ireland arrest warrants are issued by a magistrate. For the police to make a lawful arrest, the arresting officer must have either probable cause to arrest, or a valid arrest warrant. A valid arrest warrant must be issued by a neutral judge or magistrate, who has determined there is probable cause for an arrest, based upon sworn testimony or an affidavit in support of the petition for a warrant; the arrest warrant must identify the person to be arrested.
If a law enforcement affiant provides false information or shows reckless disregard for the truth when providing an affidavit or testimony in support of an arrest warrant, that may constitute grounds to invalidate the warrant. These minimum requirements stem from the language contained in the Fourth Amendment. Federal statute and most jurisdictions mandate the issuance of an arrest warrant for the arrest of individuals for most misdemeanors that were not committed within the view of a police officer. However, as long as police have the necessary probable cause, a warrant is not needed to arrest someone suspected of a felony in a public place. In a non-emergency situation, an arrest of an individual in their home requires an arrest warrant. Probable cause can be based on either direct observation by t
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a