Samantabhadra (Jain monk)
Samantabhadra was a Digambara acharya who lived about the part of the second century CE He was a proponent of the Jaina doctrine of Anekantavada. The Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra is the most popular work of Samantabhadra. Samantabhadra lived before Pujyapada. Samantabhadra is said to have lived from 150 CE to 250 CE, he was from southern India during the time of Chola dynasty. He was a poet, eulogist and an accomplished linguist, he is credited with spreading Jainism in southern India. Samantabhadra, in his early stage of asceticism, was attacked with a disease known as bhasmaka. As, digambara monks don't eat more than once in a day, he endured great pain, he sought the permission of his preceptor to undertake the vow of Sallekhana. The preceptor asked him to leave monasticism and get the disease cured. After getting cured he became a great Jain Acharya. Samantabhadra affirmed Kundakunda's theory of the two nayas - niścayanaya, he argued however that the mundane view is not false, but is only a relative form of knowledge mediated by language and concepts, while the ultimate view is an immediate form of direct knowledge.
Samantabhadra developed further the Jain theory of syādvāda. Jain texts authored by Acharya Samantabhadra are: Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra - The Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra discusses the conduct of a Śrāvaka in detail. Gandhahastimahabhasya, a monumental commentary on the Tattvartha Sutra; the Gandhahaslimahahhasya, with the exception of its Manglacharana, is extant now. The Manglacharana is known as the'Devagama stotra' or Āpta-mīmāṁsā. Āpta-mīmāṁsā- A treatise of 114 verses, it discusses the Jaina concept of omniscience and the attributes of the Omniscient. Svayambhustotra- An adoration of The Twenty-four Tirthankaras - 143 verses Yuktyanusasana- Sixty-four verses in praise of Tirthankara Vardhamāna Mahāvīra Jinasatakam - Poetical work written in Sanskrit in praise of twenty-four Jinas. Tattvanusasana Vijayadhavala tika Jinasena, in his celebrated work, Ādi purāṇa praises the Samantabhadra as Ghoshal, Saratchandra, Āpta-mīmāṁsā of Āchārya Samantabhadra, ISBN 9788126307241 Jain, Vijay K. Acarya Samantabhadra's Svayambhustotra: Adoration of The Twenty-four Tirthankara, Vikalp Printers, ISBN 978-81-903639-7-6, This article incorporates text from this source, in the public domain.
Jain, Samantabhadrabhāratī, Budhānā, Muzaffarnagar: Achārya Shāntisāgar Chani Smriti Granthmala, ISBN 978-81-90468879 Jain, Champat Rai, The Ratna Karanda Sravakachara, The Central Jaina Publishing House, This article incorporates text from this source, in the public domain. Long, Jeffery D. Jainism: An Introduction, I. B. Tauris, ISBN 978-1-84511-625-5 Shah, Jainism: The World of Conquerors, I, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-1938-1
Bundelkhand is a geographical and cultural region and a mountain range in central India. The hilly region is now divided between the states of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, with the larger portion lying in the latter state. Jhansi is the largest city in Bundelkhand and is a major cultural, educational and economic hub. Other major towns of Bundelkhand are Konch, Chirgaon, Dabra, Panna, Chitrakoot, Tikamgarh, Lalitpur, Damoh, Orai, Mahoba, Banda and Chhatarpur. Among the well-known places of Bundelkhand is Khajuraho, which has numerous 10th-century sculptures devoted to fine living and eroticism; the mines of Panna have been the source of magnificent diamonds. Bundelkhand means "Bundela domain"; the region was earlier known as Jejakabhukti. According to the inscriptions of the Chandela dynasty, this name derived from Jeja, the nickname of their ruler Jayashakti. However, it is possible that this name derives from an earlier name of the region: "Jajhauti" or "Jijhoti". After the Bundelas replaced the Chandelas around 14th century, the region came to be known as Bundelkhand after them.
Bundelkhand lies between the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the Vindhya Range to the south. It is a sloping upland, distinguished by barren hilly terrain with sparse vegetation, although it was forested; the plains of Bundelkhand are intersected by three mountain ranges, the Vindhya and Bander chains, the highest elevation not exceeding 600 meters above sea-level. Beyond these ranges the country is further diversified by isolated hills rising abruptly from a common level, presenting from their steep and nearly inaccessible scarps eligible sites for forts and strongholds of local kings; the general slope of the country is towards the northeast, as indicated by the course of the rivers which traverse or bound the territory, discharge themselves into the Yamuna River. The principal rivers are the Sindh, Shahzad River, Bagahin, Pahuj and Chambal; the Kali Sindh, rising in Malwa, marks the western frontier of Bundelkhand. Parallel to this river, but further east, is the course of the Betwa. Still farther to the east flows the Ken, followed in succession by the Bagahin and Tons.
The Yamuna and the Ken are the only two navigable rivers. Notwithstanding the large number of streams, the depression of their channels and height of their banks render them for the most part unsuitable for the purposes of irrigation, conducted by means of ponds and tanks; these artificial lakes are formed by throwing embankments across the lower extremities of valleys, thus arresting and impounding the waters flowing through them. Drought: - since 2007 Bundelkhand region has been facing severe drought problems. Normal rainy days in Bundelkhand is 52 days but last six years its restricted 24 days. Timing of Monsoon in this area is second week of June but, Year 2008 this season saw rains, but in the second week of June alone the region received around 32 percent of its total rainfall. Farmers were not prepared for sowing. Till July 2008, most of the Bundelkhand region received around 55 percent of its total average rainfall; this change caused widespread losses in livestock and top soil. In Bundelkhand region, average level of rainfall is 800–900 mm. But, during the last six years Bundelkhand received only 400–450 mm annual rainfall.
Agriculture production decreased in this areas. In 2000, this region used to contribute 15 percent of the state’s total food grain production, which has now come down to 7 percent. A once food secure zone has now become a symbol of migration due to climate change. In this area various livelihoods such as fishing, vegetable production and traditional betel leaf farming are facing one of the worst crises ever; the Chandelas Bundelkhand from the 9th to the 13th centuries. They ruled as feudatories of the Pratiharas of Kannauj, but became sovereign rulers; the Chandela king Dhanga left many inscriptions, endowed a large number of Jain and Hindu temples. Dhanga's grandson Vidyadhara expanded the Chandela kingdom to its greatest extent, extending the Chandela dominions to the Chambal river in the northwest and south to the Narmada River; the Afghan king Mahmud of Ghazni attacked the Chandela dominions during Vidydhara's reign, but were repelled by the powerful Chandela Rajputs. The Chandelas built the famous temple-city of Khajuraho between the mid-11th centuries.
During the Chandela period, Bundelkhand was home to a flourishing Jain community and numerous Jain temples were built in that period. In the 12th century, the Chahamana rulers of Ajmer challenged the Chandelas; the Muslim conquests of the early 13th century reduced the Chandela domains, although they survived until the 16th century as minor chieftains. Bundela Rajputs grew to prominence starting in the 16th century. Orchha was founded in the 16th century by the Bundela chief Rudra Pratap Singh, who became the first raja of Orchha. In 1545 Sher Shah Suri, was killed while attempting to capture Kalinjar from the local Chandela king; the region came under nominal Mughal rule from the 16th to 18th centuries, although the hilly, forested terrain of the sparsely populated region made it difficult to control. Akbar's governors at Kalpi maintained a nominal authority over the surrounding district, the Bundela chiefs were in a state of chronic revolt, which culminated in the war of independence under Chhatrasal.
On the outbreak of his rebellion in 1671 he occupied a large province to the south of the Yamu
The Palitana temples of Jainism are located on Shatrunjaya hill by the city of Palitana in Bhavnagar district, India. The city of the same name, known as Padliptapur, has been dubbed "City of Temples". Shatrunjaya means a "place of victory against inner enemies" or "which conquers inner enemies"; this site on Shatrunjaya hill is considered sacred by Svetambara Jains. It is said. There are 863 marble-carved temples on the hills spread in nine clusters, some being vast temple complexes, while most small in size; the main temple is dedicated to the first Tirthankara. The main temple is reached by stepping up 3500 steps. Along with Shikharji in the state of Jharkhand, the two sites are considered the holiest of all pilgrimage places by the Jain community. Jains believe that a visit to this group of temples is essential as a once-in-a-lifetime chance to achieve nirvana or salvation. Of note, Digambara Jains have only one temple here on the hills. Hingraj Ambikadevi is considered as the presiding deity of the hill, a Hindu Goddess worshiped in Baluchistan province of Pakistan, Sindh province and Saurashtra provinces of Gujarat state, near by regions.
On the summit, there is a shrine of a Muslim saint by name Angar Pir, reported to have protected the temples during Muslim invasions in early 14th century. As the temple-city was built to be an abode for the divine, no one is allowed to stay overnight, including the priests. Shatrunjaya means a "place of victory against inner enemies" or "which conquers inner enemies". There are 108 names of Shatrunjaya but only some of them are in common use; the Gulf of Cambay is to the south of the Shatrunjaya Hills, Bhavnagar city is to the north of the hills with the Shetrunji River flowing in between. The temple complex on the hills is located 56 kilometres southwest of Bhavnagar. Palitana, a town in the foothill is 2 kilometres away; the Palitana town is at an altitude of only 66 m. The Palitana Temples are situated at the saddle linking them; the summit is situated at an elevation of 7,288 feet. Reaching it involves climbing over 3,750 stone steps; the temples remain closed for the devotees during the monsoon season.
PathsIt takes two hours to make the 3.5 kilometres climb. There are multiple routes; the shortest one goes around the outer walls of the temples on the hilltop and passes Angar Pir, the shrine of a Muslim saint, reported to have protected the temples during Muslim invasions. A second route goes around the foot of the mountain. Elderly pilgrims who cannot climb the stairs are carried on a doli carried by porters and charged based on the pilgrim's weight. A large number of pilgrims take part in a third route in the month of Phalguna, which passes five sacred temple sites over a distance of 45 kilometres. GroundsFrom the top of Shatrunjaya are views of the Shetrunji river and the rugged, drought-affected landscape; the narrow streets or lanes in the temple complex are similar to the ones found in the medieval cities of Europe. The high walls surrounding the temples give the appearance of a fort. Important features include the Ashok tree, the Chaitra tree, four-faced idol of Mahavir, Hingraj Ambikadevi, Kumarpal and Samprati.
According to the Shatrunjaya Mahatmya, the first Tirthankara Rishabha sanctified the hill where he delivered his first sermon. It was his grandson Pundarika, grandson of Rishabha who attained Nirvana at Shatrunjay, hence the hill was known as "Pundarikgiri". There exists a marble image of Pundaraksvami consecrated in V. S. 1064 by Shersthi Ammeyaka to commemorate the sallekhana of a muni belonging to the Vidhyadhara Kula. Bharata Chakravartin, the father of Pundarik and half-brother of Bahubali came to Shatrunjaya many times, he is credited with building a temple here in honour of his father Rishabha. Legendarily it is associated with many other Tirthankaras.:249The Palitana temples were built over a period of 900 years starting in the 11th century. Kumarpal Solanki, a great Jain patron built the earliest temples, it is said that sculptors' skills and capacity to carve with abrasive cords the intricate designs was paid on the basis of the marble dust that they had collected every evening after their hard labour.
They were destroyed by Turkish Muslims invaders in 1311 AD, when the saint Jinaprabhasuri, 50 years old, presided over the temples. Two years the rebuilding began. While some temple building activity took place under Samara Shah, it was only two centuries that it picked up momentum, when in 1593, Hiravijayasuri organized a major pilgrimage to this location to attend the consecration ceremony of the temple built for Rishabha by Tej Pal Soni, a merchant. Following this, there was proliferation of temples here. Most of the temples which are now present date to the 16th century. In 1656, Shah Jahan's son Murad Baksh granted Palitana villages to the prominent Jain merchant Shantidas Jhaveri, a Svetambara Jain, in 1656, subsequently when all taxes were exempted that the temple town further prospered, it was brought under the control of the Anandji Kalyanji Trust in 1730 to manage not only Palitana temples but many other temples of Svetambara Jains, since the Mughal period. History makes a mention that Lunia Seth Tilokchand, a merchant from Ajmer led a large contingent of pilgrims to
Jain symbols are symbols based on the Jain philosophy. The swastika is an important Jain symbol; the four arms of the swastika symbolize the four states of existence as per Jainism: Heavenly beings Human Benefits Hellish being Tiryancha It represents the perpetual nature of the universe in the material world, where a creature is destined to one of those states based on their karma. In contrast to this circle of rebirth and delusion is the concept of a straight path, constituted by correct faith and conduct, visually symbolized by the three dots above the running cross of swastika, which leads the individual out of the transient imperfect world to a permanent perfect state of enlightenment and perfection; this perfect state of liberation dot at the top of the svastika. It represents the four columns of the Jain Sangha: sadhus, sadhvis and shravikas - monks and female and male laymen, it represents the four characteristics of the soul: infinite knowledge, infinite perception, infinite happiness, infinite energy.
The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes Ahimsa in Jainism. The word in the middle is "ahiṃsā"; the wheel represents the dharmachakra, which stands for the resolve to halt the saṃsāra through the relentless pursuit of Ahimsa. In 1974, on the auspicious 2500th anniversary of the nirvana of the last Jain Tirthankara, the Jain community at large collectively chose one image as an emblem to be the main identifying symbol for Jainism. Since this emblem is used in all of Jain magazines, on wedding cards, on Jain festival cards and in magazines with links to events related to Jain society; the Jain emblem is composed of symbols. The outline of the image represents the universe as described in Jain Agamas, it consists of three Loks. The upper portion indicates heaven, the middle portion indicates the material world and the lower portion indicates hell; the semi-circular topmost portion symbolizes siddhashila, a zone beyond the three realms. All of the siddhas or liberated bodiless souls reside on this forever, liberated from the cycle of life and death.
The three dots on the top under the semi-circle symbolize the Ratnatraya – right belief, right knowledge, right conduct. Every creature in this world can become free from the cycle of death; this gives the message. In the top portion, the swastika symbol is present; the symbol of hand in the lower portion shows fearlessness and symbolizes the feeling of ahimsa towards all the creatures in this world. The circle in the middle of the hand symbolizes saṃsāra and the 24 spokes represent the preachings from the 24 Tirthankaras, which can be used to liberate a soul from the cycle of reincarnation; the meaning of the mantra at the bottom, Parasparopagraho Jivanam, is "All life is bound together by mutual support and interdependence." In short, the Jain emblem represents many important concepts to show the path to enlightenment by following the basic principles of ahimsa, the Ratnatraya and Parasparopagraho Jivanam. It is important that an emblem or symbol is used in the same format to preserve its value and the meaning.
There are many variations of the symbol in use currently. However, they do not show all the fundamental concepts embedded in the current emblem. For example, JAINA in North America uses a modified version of the standard Jain symbol, it replaces the swastika with Om. The Jain flag depicts the panch parmeshtis: Arihantas: enlightened beings Siddhas: liberated souls Acharyas: spiritual leaders Upadhyays: spiritual teachers Sadhus and Sadhvis: spiritual practitioners In Jainism, Om is considered a condensed form of reference to the Pañca-Parameṣṭhi, by their initials A+A+A+U+M; the Dravyasamgraha quotes a Prakrit line: oma ekākṣara pañca-parameṣṭhi-nāmā-dipam tatkathamiti cheta "arihatā asarīrā āyariyā taha uvajjhāyā muṇiyā" AAAUM is one syllable short form of the initials of the five parameshthis: "Arihant, Acharya, Muni". The Om symbol is used in ancient Jain scriptures to represent the five lines of the Navakar mantra, the most important part of the daily prayer in the Jain religion; the Navakar mantra honors the panch parmeshtis.
The Ashtamangala are a set of eight auspicious symbols. There is some variation among different traditions concerning the eight symbols. In the Digambara tradition, the eight symbols are: Parasol Dhvaja Kalasha Fly-whisk Mirror Chair Hand fan VesselIn the Śvētāmbara tradition, the eight symbols are: Swastika Srivatsa Nandavarta Vardhmanaka Bhadrasana Kalasha Darpan Pair of fish Dharmachakra, Kalasha, Ashoka Tree and Nandavart. Jain temple Jansma, Rudi. Shrotri, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-1376-6 Titze, Kurt.
Bhaktamara Stotra is a famous Jain Sanskrit prayer. It was composed by Acharya Manatunga; the name Bhaktamara comes from a combination of two Sanskrit names, "Bhakta" and "Amar". The prayer praises the first Tirthankara of Jainism in this time cycle. There are forty-eight verses in total; the last verse gives the name of the author Manatunga. Bhaktamar verses have been recited as a stotra, sung as a stavan, somewhat interchangeably. Other Jain prayers have taken after these. Bhaktamar stotra word by word meaning in hindi. Https://drive.google.com/folderview?id=1RdKg9zmOevWA40Z7aXK4boUHN2I9GtF4 According to legends, Manatunga Āchārya was chained and imprisoned by the local King Bhoja. Mantunga Āchārya composed this stotra in the prison. With the completion of each verse, a chain broke. Manatunga was free. Legends associate Manatunga with a ruler named Bhoja; however Manatunga lived a few centuries before Raja Bhoja of Dhara. He is identified by some scholars as Kshapanaka, one of the Navaratnas in the court of legendary Vikramaditya.
An unidentified Sanskrit poet Matanga, composer of "Brahaddeshi" on music theory, may have been the same person. Bhaktamara stotra was composed sometime in the Gupta or the post-Gupta period, making Manatunga contemporary with other navaratnas like Kalidasa and Varahamihira. Several spots near Bhopal and Dhar are traditionally associated with Manatunga. Bhaktamara Stotra is believed to be at least a thousand years old, though many believe it to be still older. Bhaktamara Stotra has been passed down from generation to generation, it is an ageless panegyric. The importance and effectiveness is believed to have increased with the passage of time. Bhaktamara Stotra is recited by many with religious regularity; the original Stotra is in Sanskrit and written in Devnagiri script. The Bhaktamar Stotra has 48 stanzas; every stanza has four parts. Every part has 14 letters; the complete panegyric is formed by 26 88 letters. It is said that some specific stanzas are miraculously effective for fulfilment of different purposes.
Bhaktamara stotra is illustrated in paintings. At the Sanghiji temple at Sanganer, there is a panel illustrating each verse; the verses of Bhaktamar are thought to possess magical properties. A mystical diagram, yantra, is associated with each verse. "Sadhak Shivaanand Saraswati" has painted a number of yantras associated with Bhaktamar stotra. There is a temple at Bharuch with a section dedicated to its author Manatunga; the Bhaktamara Stotra is composed in the meter "Vasantatilka". All the fourteen syllables of this meter are divided between short and long syllables i.e. seven laghu and seven gurus and this belongs to sakvari group of meters. It is believed that such an equal division into short and long syllables will help an aspirant attain the state of equanimity the meter itself serving as a catalyst. Jain, Vijay K. Acharya Amritchandra's Purushartha Siddhyupaya, ISBN 9788190363945 Dundas, The Jains, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-26605-X
Madhya Pradesh is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal, the largest city is Indore, with Jabalpur, Gwalior and Sagar being the other major cities. Nicknamed the "Heart of India" due to its geographical location, Madhya Pradesh is the second largest Indian state by area and the fifth largest state by population with over 75 million residents, it borders the states of Uttar Pradesh to the northeast, Chhattisgarh to the southeast, Maharashtra to the south, Gujarat to the west, Rajasthan to the northwest. Its total area is 308,252 km2. Before 2000, when Chhattisgarh was a part of Madhya Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh was the largest state in India and the distance between the two furthest points inside the state and Konta, was 1500 km. Konta is presently in Sukma district of Chhattisgarh state; the area covered by the present-day Madhya Pradesh includes the area of the ancient Avanti Mahajanapada, whose capital Ujjain arose as a major city during the second wave of Indian urbanisation in the sixth century BCE.
Subsequently, the region was ruled by the major dynasties of India. By the early 18th century, the region was divided into several small kingdoms which were captured by the British and incorporated into Central Provinces and Berar and the Central India Agency. After India's independence, Madhya Pradesh state was created with Nagpur as its capital: this state included the southern parts of the present-day Madhya Pradesh and northeastern portion of today's Maharashtra. In 1956, this state was reorganised and its parts were combined with the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh and Bhopal to form the new Madhya Pradesh state, the Marathi-speaking Vidarbha region was removed and merged with the Bombay State; this state was the largest in India by area until 2000, when its southeastern Chhattisgarh region was made as a separate state. Rich in mineral resources, MP has the largest reserves of copper in India. More than 30% of its area is under forest cover, its tourism industry has seen considerable growth, with the state topping the National Tourism Awards in 2010–11.
In recent years, the state's GDP growth has been above the national average. Isolated remains of Homo erectus found in Hathnora in the Narmada Valley indicate that Madhya Pradesh might have been inhabited in the Middle Pleistocene era. Painted pottery dated to the mesolithic period has been found in the Bhimbetka rock shelters. Chalcolithic sites belonging to Kayatha culture and Malwa culture have been discovered in the western part of the state; the city of Ujjain arose as a major centre in the region, during the second wave of Indian urbanisation in the sixth century BCE. It served as the capital of the Avanti kingdom Tejas. Other kingdoms mentioned in ancient epics—Malava, Karusha and Nishada—have been identified with parts of Madhya Pradesh. Chandragupta Maurya united northern India around 320 BCE, establishing the tejas Mauryan Empire, which included all of modern-day Madhya Pradesh. Ashoka the greatest of Mauryan rulers brought the region under firmer control. After the decline of the Maurya empire, the region was contested among the Sakas, the Kushanas, the Satavahanas, several local dynasties during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE.
Heliodorus, the Greek Ambassador to the court of the Shunga king Bhagabhadra erected the Heliodorus pillar near Vidisha. Ujjain emerged as the predominant commercial centre of western India from the first century BCE, located on the trade routes between the Ganges plain and India's Arabian Sea ports; the Satavahana dynasty of the northern Deccan and the Saka dynasty of the Western Satraps fought for the control of Madhya Pradesh during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE. The Satavahana king Gautamiputra Satakarni inflicted a crushing defeat upon the Saka rulers and conquered parts of Malwa and Gujarat in the 2nd century CE. Subsequently, the region came under the control of the Gupta empire in the 4th and 5th centuries, their southern neighbours, the Vakataka's; the rock-cut temples at Bagh Caves in the Kukshi tehsil of the Dhar district attest to the presence of the Gupta dynasty in the region, supported by the testimony of a Badwani inscription dated to the year of 487 CE. The attacks of the Hephthalites or White Huns brought about the collapse of the Gupta empire, which broke up into smaller states.
The king Yasodharman of Malwa defeated the Huns in 528. Harsha ruled the northern parts of the state. Malwa was ruled by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty from the late 8th century to the 10th century; when the south Indian Emperor Govinda III of the Rashtrakuta dynasty annexed Malwa, he set up the family of one of his subordinates there, who took the name of Paramara. The Medieval period saw the rise of the Rajput clans, including the Paramaras of Malwa and the Chandelas of Bundelkhand; the Chandellas built the majestic Hindu-Jain temples at Khajuraho, which represent the culmination of Hindu temple architecture in Central India. The Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty held sway in northern and western Madhya Pradesh at this time, it left some monuments of architectural value in Gwalior. Southern parts of Madhya Pradesh like Malwa were several times invaded by the south Indian Western Chalukya Empire which imposed its rule on the Paramara kingdom of Malwa; the Paramara king Bhoja was a renowned polymath.
The small Gond kingdoms emerged in the Mahakoshal regions of the state. Northern Madhya Pradesh was conquered by the Turkic Delhi Sultanate in the 13th century. After the collapse of the Delhi Sultanate at the end of the 14th century, independent regional kingdoms re-emerged, including the Tomara kingdom of Gwalior and the Muslim
Mahavira known as Vardhamāna, was the twenty-fourth tirthankara who revived Jainism. In the Jain tradition, it is believed that Mahavira was born in the early part of the 6th century BC into a royal Kshatriya family in present-day Bihar, India, he abandoned all worldly possessions at the age of 30 and left home in pursuit of spiritual awakening, becoming an ascetic. Mahavira practiced intense meditation and severe austerities for 12 years, after which he is believed to have attained Kevala Jnana, he preached for 30 years and is believed by Jains to have attained moksha in the 6th century BC, although the year varies by sect. Scholars such as Karl Potter consider his biography uncertain. Mahavira attained nirvana at the age of 72, his body was cremated. After attaining Kevala Jnana, Mahavira taught that observance of the vows of ahimsa, asteya and aparigraha is necessary for spiritual liberation, he taught the principles of Anekantavada: nayavada. Mahavira's teachings were compiled by Indrabhuti Gautama as the Jain Agamas.
The texts, transmitted orally by Jain monks, are believed to have been lost by about the 1st century. The surviving versions of the Agamas taught by Mahavira are some of Jainism's foundation texts. Mahavira is depicted in a sitting or standing meditative posture, with the symbol of a lion beneath him, his earliest iconography is from archaeological sites in the North Indian city of Mathura, is dated from the 1st century BC to the 2nd century AD. His birth is celebrated as Mahavir Jayanti, his nirvana is observed by Jains as Diwali. Surviving early Jain and Buddhist literature uses several names for Mahavira, including Nayaputta, Samana, Niggantha and Bhagavan. In early Buddhist suttas, he is referred to as Veyavi, he is known as Sramana in the Kalpa Sūtra, "devoid of love and hate". According to Jain texts, Mahavira's childhood name was Vardhamāna because of the kingdom's prosperity at the time of his birth. According to the Kalpasutras, he was called Mahavira by the gods in the Kalpa Sūtra because he remained steadfast in the midst of dangers, fears and calamities.
He is known as a tirthankara. Although it is universally accepted by scholars of Jainism that Mahavira lived in ancient India, the details of his life and the year of his birth are subjects of debate. According to the Digambara Uttarapurana text, Mahavira was born in Kundpur in the Kingdom of the Videhas. Although it is thought to be the town of Basu Kund, about 60 kilometres north of Patna, his birthplace remains a subject of dispute. Mahavira renounced his material wealth and left home when he was twenty-eight, by some accounts, lived an ascetic life for twelve years and preached Jainism for thirty years. Where he preached has been a subject of disagreement between the two major traditions of Jainism: the Śvētāmbaras and the Digambaras; the Śvētāmbara tradition believes that Mahavira was born in 599 BC and died in 527 BC, the Digambara tradition believes that he died in 510 BC. The controversy arises from efforts to date the Buddha. All Indologists and historians, says Paul Dundas and others, date Mahavira's birth at about 497 BC and his death at about 425 BC.
However, the Vira Nirvana Samvat era began in 527 BC and is a firmly-established part of Jain tradition. The 12th-century Jain scholar Hemachandra placed Mahavira in the 5th century BC. Kailash Jain writes that Hemachandra performed an incorrect analysis, which along has been a source of confusion and controversy about Mahavira's nirvana. According to Jain, the traditional date of 527 BC is accurate; the place of his nirvana, Pavapuri in present-day Bihar, is a pilgrimage site for Jains. According to Jain cosmology, 24 Tirthankaras have appeared on earth. A Tirthankara signifies the founding of a tirtha, a passage across the sea of birth-and-death cycles. A member of the Kashyapa gotra, Mahavira was born into the royal kshatriya family of King Siddhartha and Queen Trishala of the Ikshvaku dynasty; this is the dynasty in which Hindu epics place Rama and the Ramayana, Buddhist texts place the Buddha, the Jains attribute another twenty-one of their twenty-four tirthankaras. According to Digambara Jains, Mahavira was born in 540 BC.
His birthday falls on the thirteenth day of the rising moon in the month of Chaitra in the Vira Nirvana Samvat calendar era. It falls in March or April of the Gregorian calendar, is celebrated by Jains as Mahavir Jayanti. Kundagrama is traditionally believed to be near Vaishali, an ancient town on the Indo-Gangetic Plain, its location in present-day Bihar is unclear because of migrations from ancient Bihar for economic and political reasons. According to the "Universal History" in Jain my