The flag of Jainism has five colours: red, white and black. These five colours represent the Pañca-Parameṣṭhi, it represents the five main vows, which are small as well as great. These five colours represent the "Pañca-Parameṣṭhi" and the five vows, small as well as great: White - represents the arihants, souls who have conquered all passions and have attained omniscience and eternal bliss through self-realization, it denotes peace or ahimsa. Red - represents souls that have attained salvation and truth, it denotes truthfulness. Yellow - represents the acharya the Masters of Adepts; the colour stands for non-stealing. Green - represents those who teach scriptures to monks, it signifies chastity. Dark blue or black - represents monks and nuns, it signifies non-possession. It is believed that the complexion of all the 24 Tirthankaras was of one of these 5 colours. For instance and Pushpadanta were white and Neminatha were blue or dark colour and Vasupujya were red, Mallinatha and Pārśva were green, while the remaining were golden or yellowish.
The swastika in the centre of the flag represents the four states of existence of soul. The four stages may be: heaven-beings or deities human beings animal/birds/insects/plants hell beingsIt represents that the soul can embody any of these forms, owing to karma, which may escalate it to higher-level forms such as heavenly beings, or degrade it to lower-level forms such as lesser animals or hell beings; the purpose of soul is to liberate itself from these four stages and be arihants or Siddha eventually. The three dots above the swastika represent the Ratnatraya of Jainism: Samyak Darshana - "Right Faith" or "Right Vision" Samyak Gyana - "Right Knowledge" Samyak Charita - "Right Conduct"These are part of the Jainist paradigm by which jīva seek to rid themselves of karma and the cycle of rebirth, saṃsāra, which it develops; the curve above the three dots denotes Siddhashila, a place in the highest realms of Universe, composed of pure energy. It is above earth, or heaven, it is the place where souls that have attained salvation, for instance and Siddhas reside eternally with supreme bliss.
Respect for Jain Flag is respect for Pañca-Parameṣṭhi. According to Jainism, respect for Pañca-Parameṣṭhi abiding the Ratnatraya destroys the sorrow of the four states of existence and guides one to the sweet home of infinite bliss. Jain symbols Jain rituals
Shikharji, Giridih district, India, is located on Parasnath hill, the highest mountain in the state of Jharkhand. It is the most important Jain Tirtha for the Jains, believed to be the place where twenty of the twenty-four Jain tirthankaras along with many other monks attained Moksha, according to Nirvana Kanda and other texts.. Its distance to cover is 23 kms by walk and takes to climb up and down the hill. If a short route is taken it takes approx 12 hours to complete.. Shikharji means the "venerable peak"; the site is called Sammed Śikhar or Sammet Shikhar "peak of concentration." Because it is a place where twenty of twenty-four Tirthankaras attained Moksha through meditation. The word "Parasnath" is derived from Parshvanatha, the twenty-third Jain tirthankara, one of those, believed to have attained Moksha at the site. Shikarji is located in an inland part of rural east India, it lies on NH-2, the Delhi-Kolkata highway in a section called the Grand Trunk road. Shikharji rises to 4,429 feet making it the highest mountain in Jharkhand state.
The earliest reference to Shikharji as a tirth is found in the Jñātṛdhārmakātha, one of the twelve core texts of Jainism. Shikharji is mentioned in the Pārśvanāthacarita, a twelfth century biography of Pārśva; the popularity of Shikharji as a site of pilgrimage followed that of Vulture Peak, where it is believed the Buddhist Sariputta attained enlightenment. Jharkhand acquired Shikharji under the Bihar Land Reforms Act. Use of Shikharji as a tourist destination impacts on the religious beliefs of the Jain; the pilgrimage to Shikharji is a round trip of 27 km through the Madhuban forest. The section from Gandharva Nala stream to the summit is the most sacred to Jains; the pilgrimage is made on foot or by a litter or doli carried by a doliwallah along a concrete paved track. Along the track are shrines to each of the twenty four tirthankaras and vendors of tea, water and snacks. There is an option for parikrama of a pilgrimage of 54 kilometres; the parikrama path is walking only. The temple at Shikharji is a new construction with some parts dating to the eighteenth century.
However, the idol itself is old. Sanskrit inscriptions at the foot of the image date to 1678. At the base of Shikharji is a temple to Bhomiyaji. On the walls of the Jain temple at the village of Madhuban, there is a mural painting depicting all the temples on Parasnath Hill. Temples along the track include: In Jainism, the building of replica temples is seen as auspicious and worthwhile. On August 13, 2012, the world's first to-scale complete replication of Shikharji was opened in Siddhachalam in New Jersey over 120 acres of hilly terrain. Called Shikharji at Siddhachalam, it has become an important place of pilgrimage for the Jain diaspora. There is a small scale replica of Shikharji at Mehrauli; the nearest railway station named "Parasnath Station" is situated in Isri Bazar, Jharkhand. Its around 25 km from Madhuban, at the base of Shikharji. Parasnath station is situated on Grand Chord, part of Howrah-Gaya-Delhi line and Howrah-Allahabad-Mumbai line. Many long distance trains have halts at Parasnath Station.
Daily connectivities to Mumbai, Jaipur, Kolkata, Allahbad, Jammutawi, Kalka etc. are available. 12301-12302 Howrah Rajdhani Express via Gaya Junction has a halt on Parasnath station which run 6 days in a week. By Airway. Durgapur has direct flights from Kolkata and Delhi "Save Shikharji" is a protest movement by Jain sects who are against the state's development plans for Shikharji. Jain community members have opposed the plans of the state government to improve the infrastructure in the hill to boost tourism as alleged attempts to commercialize the Shikharji hill; this movement is headed by Yugbhushan Surishwarji, demands Shikharji Hill to be declared as a place of worship by Government of Jharkhand. List of Jain temples Tirth Pat Nirvana Kanda Tourist Places in Giridih Parasnath Hills travel guide from Wikivoyage
Dravya is a term used to refer to a substance. According to the Jain philosophy, the universe is made up of six eternal substances: sentient beings or souls, non-sentient substance or matter, principle of motion, the principle of rest and time; the latter five are united as the ajiva. As per the Sanskrit etymology, dravya means substances or entity, but it may mean real or fundamental categories. Jain philosophers distinguish a substance from a body, or thing, by declaring the former as a simple element or reality while the latter as a compound of one or more substances or atoms, they claim that there can be a partial or total destruction of a body or thing, but no substance can be destroyed. According to Jain philosophy, this universe consists of infinite jivas or souls that are uncreated and always existing. There are two main categories of souls: un-liberated mundane embodied souls that are still subject to transmigration and rebirths in this samsara due to karmic bondage and the liberated souls that are free from birth and death.
All souls are found in bondage with karma since beginning-less time. A soul has to make efforts to eradicate the karmas attain its pure form. 10th-century Jain monk Nemichandra describes the soul in Dravyasamgraha:The sentient substance is characterized by the function of understanding, is incorporeal, performs actions, is co-extensive with its own body. It is the enjoyer, located in the world of rebirth emancipated has the intrinsic movement upwards; the qualities of the soul are upyoga. Though the soul experiences both birth and death, it is neither destroyed nor created. Decay and origin refer to the disappearing of one state and appearing of another state and these are the modes of the soul, thus Jiva with its attributes and modes, roaming in samsara, may lose its particular form and assume a new one. Again this form may be lost and the original acquired. Matter is classified as solid, gaseous, fine Karmic materials and extra-fine matter i.e. ultimate particles. Paramāṇu or ultimate particle is the basic building block of all matter.
It possesses at all times four qualities, namely, a color, a taste, a smell, a certain kind of palpability. One of the qualities of the paramāṇu and pudgala is that of indestructibility, it combines and changes its modes but its basic qualities remain the same. It cannot be created nor destroyed and the total amount of matter in the universe remains the same. Dharma means the principles of Motion. Dharma and Adharma are by themselves not motion or rest but mediate motion and rest in other bodies. Without Dharma motion is not possible; the medium of motion helps matter and the sentient that are prone to motion to move, like water fish. However, it does not set in motion those. Without adharma and stability is not possible in the universe; the principle of rest helps matter and the sentient that are liable to stay without moving, like the shade helps travellers. It does not stabilize those that move. According to Champat Rai Jain:The necessity of Adharma as the accompanying cause of rest, that is, of cessation of motion will be perceived by any one who will put to himself the question, how jīvas and bodies of matter support themselves when coming to rest from a state of motion.
Gravitation will not do, for, concerned with the determination of the direction which a moving body may take... Space is a substance that accommodates the living souls, the matter, the principle of motion, the principle of rest and time, it is all-pervading and made of infinite space-points. Kāla is said to be the cause of continuity and succession. Champat Rai Jain in his book "The Key of Knowledge wrote:... As a substance which assists other things in performing their ‘temporal’ gyrations, Time can be conceived only in the form of whirling posts; that these whirling posts, as we have called the units of Time, cannot, in any manner, be conceived as parts of the substances that revolve around them, is obvious from the fact that they are necessary for the continuance of all other substances, including souls and atoms of matter which are simple ultimate units, cannot be imagined as carrying a pin each to revolve upon. Time must, therefore, be considered as a separate substance which assists other substances and things in their movements of continuity.
Jaina philosophers call the substance of Time as Niścay Time to distinguish it from vyavhāra Time, a measure of duration- hours and the like. Out of the six dravyas, five except time have been described as astikayas, that is, extensions or conglomerates. Since like conglomerates, they have numerous space points, they are described as astikaya. There are innumerable space points in the sentient substance and in the media of motion and rest, infinite ones in space. Time has only one. Hence the corresponding conglomerates or extensions are called—jivastikaya, dharmastikaya and akastikaya. Together they are called the five astikayas; these substances have some common gunas such as: Astitva: indestructibility.
Karma in Jainism
Karma is the basic principle within an overarching psycho-cosmology in Jainism. Human moral actions form the basis of the transmigration of the soul; the soul is constrained to a cycle of rebirth, trapped within the temporal world, until it achieves liberation. Liberation is achieved by following a path of purification. Jains believe that karma is a physical substance, everywhere in the universe. Karma particles are attracted to the soul by the actions of that soul. Karma particles are attracted when we do, think, or say things, when we kill something, when we lie, when we steal and so on. Karma not only encompasses the causality of transmigration, but is conceived of as an subtle matter, which infiltrates the soul—obscuring its natural and pure qualities. Karma is thought of as a kind of pollution. Based on its karma, a soul undergoes transmigration and reincarnates in various states of existence—like heavens or hells, or as humans or animals. Jains cite inequalities and pain as evidence for the existence of karma.
Various types of karma are classified according to their effects on the potency of the soul. The Jain theory seeks to explain the karmic process by specifying the various causes of karmic influx and bondage, placing equal emphasis on deeds themselves, the intentions behind those deeds; the Jain karmic theory attaches great responsibility to individual actions, eliminates any reliance on some supposed existence of divine grace or retribution. The Jain doctrine holds that it is possible for us to both modify our karma, to obtain release from it, through the austerities and purity of conduct. According to Jains, all souls are intrinsically pure in their inherent and ideal state, possessing the qualities of infinite knowledge, infinite perception, infinite bliss and infinite energy. However, in contemporary experience, these qualities are found to be defiled and obstructed, on account of the association of these souls with karma; the soul has been associated with karma in this way throughout an eternity of beginning-less time.
This bondage of the soul is explained in the Jain texts by analogy with gold ore, which—in its natural state—is always found unrefined of admixture with impurities. The ideally pure state of the soul has always been overlaid with the impurities of karma; this analogy with gold ore is taken one step further: the purification of the soul can be achieved if the proper methods of refining are applied. Over the centuries, Jain monks have developed a large and sophisticated corpus of literature describing the nature of the soul, various aspects of the working of karma, the ways and means of attaining mokṣa. Jainism speaks of karmic "dirt", as karma is thought to be manifest as subtle and sensually imperceptible particles pervading the entire universe, they are so small that one space-point—the smallest possible extent of space—contains an infinite number of karmic particles. It is these karmic particles that affect its natural potency; this material karma is called dravya karma. The relationship between the material and psychic karma is that of effect.
The material karma gives rise to the feelings and emotions in worldly souls, which—in turn—give rise to psychic karma, causing emotional modifications within the soul. These emotions, yet again, result in bondage of fresh material karma. Jains hold that the karmic matter is an agent that enables the consciousness to act within the material context of this universe, they are the material carrier of a soul's desire to physically experience this world. When attracted to the consciousness, they are stored in an interactive karmic field called kārmaṇa śarīra, which emanates from the soul. Thus, karma is a subtle matter surrounding the consciousness of a soul; when these two components—consciousness and ripened karma—interact, the soul experiences life as known in the present material universe. According to Indologist Robert J. Zydenbos, karma is a system of natural laws, where actions that carry moral significance are considered to cause certain consequences in the same way as physical actions; when one holds an apple and lets it go, the apple will fall.
There is no judge, no moral judgment involved, since this is a mechanical consequence of the physical action. In the same manner, consequences occur when one utters a lie, steals something, commits senseless violence or leads a life of debauchery. Rather than assume that these consequences—the moral rewards and retributions—are a work of some divine judge, Jains believe that there is an innate moral order in the cosmos, self-regulating through the workings of the law of karma. Morality and ethics are important in Jainism not because of a God, but because a life led in agreement with moral and ethical principles is considered beneficial: it leads to a decrease—and to the total loss of—karma, which in turn leads to everlasting happiness; the Jain conception of karma takes away the responsibility for salvation from God and bestows it on man himself. In the words of the Jain scholar, J. L. Jaini: Jainism, more than any other creed, gives absolute religious independence and freedom to man. Nothing can the fruits thereof.
Once done, they must fructify. As my independence is great, so my responsibility is co-extensive with it. I can live. No God, his Prophet or his deputy or beloved can interf
A Jain temple is the place of worship for Jains, the followers of Jainism.. Derasar is a word used for a Jain temple in Gujarat and southern Rajasthan. Basadi is a Jain temple in Karnataka; the word is used in South India. Its historical use in North India is preserved in the names of the Vimala Vasahi and Luna Vasahi temples of Mount Abu; the Sanskrit word is vasati, it implies an institution including residences of scholars attached to the shrine. Jain temples are built with various architectural designs. Jain temples in North India are different from the Jain temples in South India, which in turn are quite different from Jain temples in West India. There are two type of Jain temples: Ghar Jain temple. All shikar-bandhi Jain temples have many marble pillars which are carved beautifully with Demi god posture. There is always a main deity known as mulnayak in each derasar; the main part of Jain temple is called "Gambhara" in. One is not supposed to enter the Gambhara without wearing puja clothes. A Jain temple, older than 100 years and is known as a pilgrimage center is termed a Tirtha.
The main deity of a Jain temple is known as a mula nayak. A Manastambha is a pillar, constructed in front of Jain temples, it has four'Moortis' i.e. stone figures of the main god of that temple. One facing each direction: North, East and West. There are some guidelines to follow when one is visiting a Jain temple: Before entering the temple, one should bathe and wear fresh washed clothes or some special puja clothes - while wearing these one must neither have eaten anything nor visited the washroom. However, drinking of water is permitted. One should not take any footwear inside the temple. Leather items like a belt, purse etc. are not allowed inside the temple premises. One should not be chewing any edibles, no edibles should be stuck in the mouth. One should try to keep as silent as possible inside temple. Mobile phones should not be used in the temple. One should keep. Prevailing traditional customs should be followed regarding worshipping at the temple and touching an idol, they can vary depending on the specific sect.
2 idols stolen from Basadi Jain basadi to be renovated Basadi at Moodabidri Mysore basadi History Jaim basadi An ancient site connected with Jainism Touch of wonder to pilgrimage The Jain Legacy In Karnataka Karnataka’s hotbed of Jain religion Derasar and Dargah coexist in Gandhi's Gujarat Jaina Architecture in India, Comprehensive study of Jain architecture with high quality photos. Photos of Mulnayak in Jain Temples List of jain temples and tirths in India
Mahaveer Janma Kalyanak, is one of the most important religious festivals for Jains. It celebrates the birth of Mahaveer, the twenty-fourth and last Tirthankara of Avasarpiṇī; as per the Gregorian calendar, the holiday occurs either in April. Most modern historians consider Kundagram as Mahaveer's birthplace. According to Jain texts, Mahaveer was born on the thirteenth day of the bright half of the moon in the month of Chaitra in the year 599 BCE. Mahaveer was born in a democratic kingdom, where the king was chosen by votes. Vaishali was its capital. Mahaveer was named'Vardhamana', which means "One who grows", because of the increased prosperity in the kingdom at the time of his birth. In Vasokund, Mahaveer is much revered by the villagers. A place called Ahalya bhumi has not been ploughed for hundreds of years by the family that owns it, as it is considered to be the birthplace of Mahaveer. Mahaveer was born into Ikshvaku dynasty as the son of King Siddhartha of Kundagrama and Queen Trishala. During her pregnancy, Trishala was believed to have had a number of auspicious dreams, all signifying the coming of a great soul.
Digambara sect of Jainism holds that the mother saw sixteen dreams which were interpreted by the King Siddhartha. According to the Svetambara sect, the total number of auspicious dreams is fourteen, it is said that when Queen Trishala gave birth to Mahaveer, the head of heavenly beings performed a ritual called abhisheka on Sumeru Parvat, this being the second of five auspicious events, said to occur in the life of all Tirthankaras. The idol of Mahaveer is carried out in a procession called rath yatra. On the way stavans are recited. Statues of Mahaveer are given a ceremonial anointment called the abhisheka. During the day, most members of the Jain community engage in some sort of charitable act, prayers and vratas. Many devotees visit temples dedicated to Mahaveer to offer prayers. Lectures by monks and nuns are held in temples to preach the path of virtue. Donations are collected in order to promote charitable missions like saving cows from slaughter or helping to feed poor people. Ancient Jain temples across India see an high volume of practitioners come to pay their respects and join in the celebrations.
Ahimsa rallies preaching the Mahaveer's message of Ahiṃsā are taken out on this day. Jain, Kailash Chand, Lord Mahāvīra and His Times, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0805-8 Jain, Uttarapurāṇa of Āchārya Guṇabhadra, Bhartiya Jnanpith, ISBN 978-81-263-1738-7 Jalaj, Dr. Jaykumar, The Basic Thought of Bhagavan Mahavir, Mumbai: Hindi Granth Karyalay, ISBN 978-81-88769-41-4 History of Jainism Lord Mahavira Sayings The Significance of Mahavir Jayanti
In Jainism, a tirthankara is a saviour and spiritual teacher of the dharma. The word tirthankara signifies the founder of a tirtha, a fordable passage across the sea of interminable births and deaths, the saṃsāra. According to Jains, a tirthankara is a rare individual who has conquered the saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth, on their own, made a path for others to follow. After understanding the true nature of the Self or soul, the Tīrthaṅkara attains Kevala Jnana, the first Tirthankara refounds Jainism. Tirthankara provides a bridge for others to follow the new teacher from saṃsāra to moksha; the tirthankara Māllīnātha is believed to be a woman named Malli bai by Svetambara Jains while the Digambara sect believes all 24 tirthankara to be men including Māllīnātha. Digambara tradition believes a woman can reach to the 16th heaven and can attain liberation only being reborn as a man. In Jain cosmology, the wheel of time is divided in two halves, Utsarpiṇī or ascending time cycle and avasarpiṇī, the descending time cycle.
In each half of the cosmic time cycle twenty-four tirthankaras grace this part of the universe. There have been an infinite number of tirthankaras in the past time periods; the first tirthankara in this present time cycle was Rishabhanatha, credited for formulating and organising humans to live in a society harmoniously. The 24th and last tirthankara of present half-cycle was Mahavira. History records the existence of Mahavira and his predecessor, the twenty-third tirthankara. A tirthankara organises the sangha, a fourfold order of male and female monastics, srāvakas and śrāvikās; the tirthankara's teachings form the basis for the Jain canons. The inner knowledge of tirthankara is believed to be perfect and identical in every respect and their teachings do not contradict one another. However, the degree of elaboration varies according to the spiritual advancement and purity of the society during their period of leadership; the higher the spiritual advancement and purity of mind of the society, the lower the elaboration required.
While tirthankaras are documented and revered by Jains, their grace is said to be available to all living beings, regardless of religious orientation. Tīrthaṅkaras are arihants. An Arihant is called Jina, one who has conquered inner enemies such as anger, attachment and greed, they dwell within the realm of their Soul, are free of kashayas, inner passions, personal desires. As a result of this, unlimited siddhis, or spiritual powers, are available to them – which they use for the spiritual elevation of living beings. Through darśana, divine vision, deshna, divine speech, they help others in attaining kevalajñana, moksha to anyone seeking it sincerely; the word tirthankara signifies the founder of a tirtha which means a fordable passage across the sea of interminable births and deaths. Tirthankaras are variously called "Teaching Gods", "Ford-Makers", "Crossing Makers" and "Makers of the River-Crossing. Jain texts propound that a special type of karma, the tīrthaṅkara nama-karma, raises a soul to the supreme status of a Tīrthaṅkara.
Tattvartha Sutra, a major Jain text, list down sixteen observances which lead to the bandha of this karma: Purity of right faith Reverence Observance of vows and supplementary vows without transgressions Ceaseless pursuit of knowledge Perpetual fear of the cycle of existence Giving gifts Practising austerities according to one's capacity Removal of obstacles that threaten the equanimity of ascetics Serving the meritorious by warding off evil or suffering Devotion to omniscient lords, chief preceptors and the scriptures Practice of the six essential daily duties Propagation of the teachings of the omniscient Fervent affection for one's brethren following the same path. Five auspicious events called, Pañca kalyāṇaka marks the life of every tirthankara: Gārbha kalyāṇaka: When ātman of a tirthankara comes into his mother's womb. Janma kalyāṇaka: Birth of a tirthankara. Indra performs a ceremonial bath on tirthankara on Mount Meru. Tapa kalyāṇaka: When a tirthankara renounces all worldly possessions and become an ascetic.
Jñāna kalyāṇaka: The event when a tirthankara attains kevalajñāna. A samavasarana is erected from where he restores sangha after that. Nirvāṇa kalyāṇaka: When a tirthankara leaves his mortal body, it is known as nirvana, it is followed by moksha. Their souls dwells in Siddhashila after that. After attaining kevalajñāna, a tirthankara preaches the path to liberation in the samavasarana. According to Jain texts, the heavenly pavilion is erected by devas where devas and animals assemble to hear the tirthankara. A tirthankara's speech is heard by all animals in their own language, it is believed. Jainism postulates that time has no end, it moves like the wheel of a cart. The wheel of time is divided in two halves, Utsarpiṇī and Avasarpiṇī. 24 tirthankaras are born in each half of this cycle. In Jain tradition the tirthankaras were royal in their final lives, Jain texts record details of their previous lives, their clan and families are among those recorded in early, or legendary, Hindu history. Jain canons state that Rishabhanatha, the fir