Americans are nationals and citizens of the United States of America. Although nationals and citizens make up the majority of Americans, some dual citizens and permanent residents may claim American nationality; the United States is home to people of many different ethnic origins. As a result, American culture and law does not equate nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and permanent allegiance. English-speakers, speakers of many other languages use the term "American" to mean people of the United States; the word "American" can refer to people from the Americas in general. The majority of Americans or their ancestors immigrated to America or are descended from people who were brought as slaves within the past five centuries, with the exception of the Native American population and people from Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the Philippine Islands, who became American through expansion of the country in the 19th century, additionally America expanded into American Samoa, the U. S. Virgin Islands and Northern Mariana Islands in the 20th century.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of the United States held in common by most Americans can be referred to as mainstream American culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of Northern and Western European colonists and immigrants. It includes influences of African-American culture. Westward expansion integrated the Creoles and Cajuns of Louisiana and the Hispanos of the Southwest and brought close contact with the culture of Mexico. Large-scale immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from Southern and Eastern Europe introduced a variety of elements. Immigration from Asia and Latin America has had impact. A cultural melting pot, or pluralistic salad bowl, describes the way in which generations of Americans have celebrated and exchanged distinctive cultural characteristics. In addition to the United States and people of American descent can be found internationally; as many as seven million Americans are estimated to be living abroad, make up the American diaspora.
The United States of America is a diverse country and ethnically. Six races are recognized by the U. S. Census Bureau for statistical purposes: White, American Indian and Alaska Native, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, people of two or more races. "Some other race" is an option in the census and other surveys. The United States Census Bureau classifies Americans as "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino", which identifies Hispanic and Latino Americans as a racially diverse ethnicity that comprises the largest minority group in the nation. People of European descent, or White Americans, constitute the majority of the 308 million people living in the United States, with 72.4% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. They are considered people who trace their ancestry to the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, North Africa. Of those reporting to be White American, 7,487,133 reported to be Multiracial. Additionally, there are Latinos.
Non-Hispanic Whites are the majority in 46 states. There are four minority-majority states: California, New Mexico, Hawaii. In addition, the District of Columbia has a non-white majority; the state with the highest percentage of non-Hispanic White Americans is Maine. The largest continental ancestral group of Americans are that of Europeans who have origins in any of the original peoples of Europe; this includes people via African, North American, Central American or South American and Oceanian nations that have a large European descended population. The Spanish were some of the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the United States in 1565. Martín de Argüelles born 1566, San Agustín, La Florida a part of New Spain, was the first person of European descent born in what is now the United States. Twenty-one years Virginia Dare born 1587 Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina, was the first child born in the original Thirteen Colonies to English parents. In the 2017 American Community Survey, German Americans, Irish Americans, English Americans and Italian Americans were the four largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States forming 35.1% of the total population.
However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as they tend to self-report and identify as "Americans" due to the length of time they have inhabited America. This is over-represented in the Upland South, a region, settled by the British. Overall, as the largest group, European Americans have the lowest poverty rate and the second highest educational attainment levels, median household income, median personal income of any racial demographic in the nation. According to the American Jewish Archives and the Arab American National Museum, some of the first Middle Easterners and North Africans arrived in the Americas between the late 15th and mid-16th centuries. Many were fleeing ethnic or ethnoreligious persecution during the Spanish Inquisition, a few were taken to the Americas as slaves. In 2014, The United States Census Bureau began finalizing the ethnic classification of MENA populations. According to the Arab American Institute, Arab
Andy Samberg is an American actor, writer and musician. He is a member of the comedy music group The Lonely Island and was a cast member on Saturday Night Live, where he and his fellow group members have been credited with popularizing the SNL Digital Shorts. Samberg has starred in several films, including Hot Rod, I Love You, That's My Boy and Jesse Forever, Hotel Transylvania, Hotel Transylvania 2, Hotel Transylvania 3: Summer Vacation, Popstar: Never Stop Never Stopping, Storks. Since 2013, he has starred as Jake Peralta in the Fox police sitcom Brooklyn Nine-Nine, for which he was awarded a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Television Series Musical or Comedy in 2014 and the series was picked up by NBC in 2018 for its sixth season and beyond after Fox decided to cancel the show. Samberg was born in Berkeley, California on August 18, 1978, his mother, Marjorie Isabel "Margi", is an elementary school teacher, his father, Joe, is a photographer. He has two sisters and Darrow. Samberg was raised in a Jewish family, describes himself as "not religious."
In a 2019 episode of Finding Your Roots, hosted by Henry Louis Gates Jr. Samberg discovered that his mother Marjorie, adopted, is the biological daughter of a Sicilian father who immigrated in 1925, a German-Jewish refugee mother, who had come to the U. S. in 1938. Samberg's adoptive grandfather was industrial psychologist and philanthropist Alfred J. Marrow, through whom he is a third cousin to U. S. Senator Tammy Baldwin. Samberg attended elementary school with his future Brooklyn Nine Nine co-star Chelsea Peretti, he discovered Saturday Night Live as a child while sneaking past his parents to watch professional wrestling on television. He was obsessed with the show and his devotion to comedy was frustrating to teachers who felt he was distracted from his schoolwork. Samberg graduated from Berkeley High School in 1996, where he became interested in creative writing and has stated that writing classes "were the ones that put all effort into... that's what cared about and that's what ended up doing".
He attended college at University of California, Santa Cruz for two years before transferring to New York University's Tisch School of the Arts, where he graduated in 2000. Writer Murray Miller was his roommate. Samberg majored in experimental film, he became an online star and made his own comedy videos with his two friends Akiva Schaffer and Jorma Taccone. When YouTube was created in 2005, the streaming of their videos became much more widespread. Samberg became a featured player on Saturday Night Live in part because of the work he had done on his sketch comedy website TheLonelyIsland.com, which helped them land an agent and get hired at Saturday Night Live. Prior to joining its cast, Samberg was a member of the comedy troupe The Lonely Island, along with Taccone and Schaffer; the trio began writing for Saturday Night Live in 2005 and released their debut album, Incredibad, in 2009. Samberg appeared in numerous theatrical films, music videos and hosted special events, including the 2009 MTV Movie Awards.
In 2012, Samberg delivered the Class Day speech at Harvard University, starred with Adam Sandler in That's My Boy and Hotel Transylvania as the main character, Jonathan, a role he reprised for its sequels Hotel Transylvania 2 and Hotel Transylvania 3: Summer Vacation. In September 2012, Samberg played Cuckoo in the BAFTA nominated BBC Three series Cuckoo, in 2013 landed the role of Detective Jake Peralta in NBC's police sitcom Brooklyn Nine-Nine which first aired on September 17 of the same year and led to Samberg winning the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Television Series Musical or Comedy in 2014 for his role as Peralta. Samberg hosted the 67th Primetime Emmy Awards on September 20, 2015, he co-hosted the 76th Golden Globe Awards with Sandra Oh on January 6, 2019. Samberg starred in Sleater-Kinney's "No Cities to Love" video along with other celebrities such as Fred Armisen, Ellen Page, Norman Reedus. On May 16, 2016, Samberg and the Lonely Island performed their 2009 hit "I'm on a Boat" with classroom instruments on The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon.
In September 2005, Samberg joined Saturday Night Live as a featured player along with Schaffer and Taccone as the show's writing staff. Though his live sketch roles were limited in his first year, he appeared in many prerecorded sketches including commercial parodies and various other filmed segments. On December 17, 2005, he and Chris Parnell starred in the Digital Short show "Lazy Sunday", a hip hop song performed by two Manhattanites on a quest to see the film The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe; the short became an Internet phenomenon and garnered Samberg significant media and public attention, as did "Dick in a Box", a duet with Justin Timberlake that won a Creative Arts Emmy for Outstanding Original Music and Lyrics. The video for his comedy troupe's collaboration with T-Pain, "I'm on a Boat", had over 56 million views on YouTube, after debuting on February 7, 2009; the song was nominated for a Grammy Award. Another digital short, "Motherlover" featuring Timberlake, was released on May 10, 2009, to commemorate Mother's Day, is a sequel of "Dick in a Box".
Outside of his prerecorded segments, he participated in recurring live segments, such as his Blizzard Man sketch. On June 1, 2012, Samberg's spokesperson announced, he returned to the show as the host on the Season 39 finale in 2014 and in the 40th anniversary special's Digital Short. Samberg once described himself as a "superfa
United States Federal Witness Protection Program
The United States Federal Witness Protection Program known as the Witness Security Program or WITSEC, is a witness protection program administered by the United States Department of Justice and operated by the United States Marshals Service, designed to protect threatened witnesses before and after a trial. A few territories, including California, Illinois, New York and Washington D. C. have their own witness protection programs for crimes not covered by the federal program. The state-run programs provide less extensive protections than the federal program; the WITSEC program was formally established under Title V of the Organized Crime Control Act of 1970, which in turn sets out the manner in which the United States Attorney General may provide for the relocation and protection of a witness or potential witness of the federal or state government in an official proceeding concerning organized crime or other serious offenses. See 18 U. S. C. A 3521, et. seq. The federal government gives grants to the states to enable them to provide similar services.
WITSEC was created as the Federal Witness Protection Program in the mid-1960s by Gerald Shur, when he was Attorney in Charge of the Intelligence and Special Services Unit of the Organized Crime and Racketeering Section of the United States Department of Justice. Most witnesses are protected by the United States Marshals Service, while protection of incarcerated witnesses is the duty of the Federal Bureau of Prisons. Former decorated federal law enforcement officer John Thomas Ambrose was convicted of leaking information about a federal witness in the Witness Protection Program, Chicago Outfit hitman Nicholas Calabrese, to other members of Chicago organized crime; as of 2013, 8,500 witnesses and 9900 family members have been protected by the U. S. Marshals Service since 1971. According to Gerald Shur, the person who created the federal program, about 95% of witnesses in the program are "criminals", they may be intentional criminals, or people who are doing business with criminals, such as one engineer who bought off a mayor "because that's how you do business in the city.
In his mind, he wasn't doing anything criminal". A witness who agrees to testify for the prosecution is eligible to join the program, voluntary. Witnesses are permitted to leave the program and return to their original identities at any time, although this is always discouraged by administrators. In both criminal and civil matters involving protected witnesses, the U. S. Marshals cooperate with local law enforcement and court authorities to bring witnesses to justice or to have them fulfill their legal responsibilities. Less than 17 percent of protected witnesses who have committed a crime will be caught committing another crime, compared to the 41 percent of parolees who return to crime. Witness Security Programme Witness immunity Witness tampering Pete Earley and Gerald Shur. WITSEC: Inside the Federal Witness Protection Program. Bantam Books, Hardcover February 2002, ISBN 0-553-80145-7, Paperback April 2003, ISBN 0-553-58243-7 King, John W; the Breeding of Contempt: Account of the Largest Mass Murder in Washington, D.
C. History and first African-American family in the Witness Protection Program, Xlibris Publishing 2003 ISBN 978-1401079031 Gregg and Gina Hill, On the Run: A Mafia Childhood, Warner Books, October 14, 2004, hardcover, 256 pages, ISBN 0-446-52770-X How Stuff Works, US Marshals Witness Protection Program, HowStuffWorks FBI newsletter description
Michael Herbert Schur is an American television producer and actor, best known for his work on the NBC comedy series The Office and Recreation, which he co-created along with Greg Daniels, as well as The Good Place, which he created. He co-created the Fox/NBC comedy series Brooklyn Nine-Nine and is a producer on the Netflix series Master of None; as an actor, Schur made multiple appearances on The Office as Mose Schrute, the cousin of Dwight Schrute. Schur has found success by breaking the mold of formulaic television writing through witty comedies that include large, diverse casts that lead to break-out stars, his shows feature optimistic characters who are relatable in comical situations finding lasting love, feature strong friendships, through plots that showcase "good-hearted humanistic warmth." Schur has been nominated for 14 Primetime Emmy Awards, winning two for his work on Saturday Night Live and The Office. Michael Schur was born in Ann Arbor, Michigan to Warren M. Schur and Anne Herbert, was raised in West Hartford, Connecticut.
He first became interested in comedy when he was 11 years old, when he read Without Feathers, a 1975 collection of humorous essays by Woody Allen. Schur said he found the book on his father's bookshelf and stayed up reading it until 4 a.m. Schur attended William H. Hall High School in West Hartford, Connecticut. Schur graduated Phi Beta Kappa with an B. A. from Harvard University in 1997, where he was a president of the Harvard Lampoon. His ancestry is Jewish. Starting in 1998, Schur was a writer on NBC's Saturday Night Live, Schur became the producer of Weekend Update in 2001. In 2002, he won his first Primetime Emmy Award as part of SNL's writing team. Schur left Saturday Night Live in 2004. Soon after, he became producer and writer for The Office on NBC, for which he wrote ten episodes and won the 2006 Emmy Award for Outstanding Comedy Series. Schur appeared on The Office as Dwight's cousin Mose in the episodes "Initiation", in which Dwight takes Ryan to his beet farm, "Money", in which Jim and Pam spend a night at the farm, "The Deposition", "Koi Pond", "Counseling".
He co-wrote The Office: The Accountants webisodes with Paul Lieberstein. In 2005, Schur wrote two of its thirteen episodes. Schur wrote for "Fire Joe Morgan", a sports journalism blog, under the pseudonym "Ken Tremendous". Schur resurrected the pen name on March 31, 2011, when he began writing for SB Nation's Baseball Nation site. Ken Tremendous is Schur's Twitter username. In April 2008, Schur and Greg Daniels started working on a pilot for Parks and Recreation as a proposed spin-off of The Office. Over time, Schur realized Parks and Recreation would work better if they made it separate from The Office. While Parks and Recreation received negative reviews in its first season, it received critical acclaim in the second, much like The Office. Schur collaborated with The Decemberists on their music video for "Calamity Song" from the album The King Is Dead; this video is based upon Eschaton, a mock-nuclear war game played on tennis courts that David Foster Wallace created in his 1996 novel Infinite Jest.
Schur wrote his undergraduate senior thesis on the novel, he owns the film rights to it. With Daniel J. Goor, Schur created the cop comedy Brooklyn Nine-Nine, which premiered in fall 2013 on Fox; the show was moved to NBC in its sixth season. On September 19, 2016, the Schur-created sitcom The Good Place began airing on NBC; the supernatural series concerning philosophy and being a good person, starring Kristen Bell and Ted Danson, has become a surprise critical and commercial success. In 2016, Schur and Rashida Jones co-wrote the teleplay of "Nosedive", an episode of the television anthology series Black Mirror, from a story by Charlie Brooker. Schur is married to Jennifer Philbin, a writer on The O. C. and is the daughter of television star Regis Philbin. Their first child, son William Xavier Schur, was born on February 18, 2008, his middle name, Xavier, is in honor of Regis's confirmation name. On July 14, 2010, Philbin gave birth to Ivy Elizabeth Schur, in California. Michael Schur on IMDb Fire Joe Morgan Interview with Michael Schur Where are they now?
Interview About His Public Schooling
Bar and Bat Mitzvah
Bar Mitzvah is a Jewish coming of age ritual for boys. Bat Mitzvah is a Jewish coming of age ritual for girls; the plural is B'nai Mitzvah for boys, B'not Mitzvah for girls. According to Jewish law, when Jewish boys become 13 years old, they become accountable for their actions and become a bar mitzvah. A girl becomes a bat mitzvah at the age of 12 according to Orthodox and Conservative Jews, at the age of 13 according to Reform Jews. Prior to reaching bar mitzvah age, the child's parents hold the responsibility for the child's actions. After this age, the boys and girls bear their own responsibility for Jewish ritual law and ethics, are able to participate in all areas of Jewish community life. Traditionally, the father of the bar mitzvah gives thanks to God that he is no longer punished for the child's sins. In addition to being considered accountable for their actions from a religious perspective, a thirteen-year-old male may be counted towards a prayer quorum and may lead prayer and other religious services in the family and the community.
Bar mitzvah is mentioned in the Talmud. In some classic sources the age of 13 appears for instance as the age from which males must fast on the Day of Atonement, while females fast from the age of 12; the age of b'nai mitzvah coincides with physical puberty. The bar or bat mitzvah ceremony is held on the first Shabbat after a boy's thirteenth and a girl's twelfth birthday. Bar is a Jewish Babylonian Aramaic word meaning "son", while bat means "daughter" in Hebrew, mitzvah means "commandment" or "law", thus bar mitzvah and bat mitzvah translate to "son of commandment" and "daughter of commandment". However, in rabbinical usage, the word bar means "under the category of" or "subject to". Bar mitzvah therefore translates to "an, subject to the law". Although the term is used to refer to the ritual itself, in fact the phrase refers to the person; the modern method of celebrating becoming a bar mitzvah did not exist in the time of the Hebrew Bible, Mishnah or Talmud. Early rabbinic sources specify 13 as the age.
However, the celebration of this occasion is not mentioned until the Middle Ages. The Bible does not explicitly specify the age thirteen. Passages in the books of Exodus and Numbers note the age of majority for army service as twenty. Machzor Vitri notes that Genesis 34:25 refers to Levi as a "man", when a calculation from other verses suggests that Levi was aged thirteen at the time; the age of thirteen is mentioned in the Mishnah as the time one is obligated to observe the Torah's commandments: "At five years old one should study the Scriptures, at ten years for the Mishnah, at 13 for the commandments..."Elsewhere, the Mishna lists the ages at which a vow is considered automatically valid. Other sources list thirteen as the age of majority with respect to following the commandments of the Torah, including: "Why is the evil inclination personified as the great king? Because it is thirteen years older than the good inclination." That is to say, one's good inclination begins to act upon reaching the age of majority.
According to Pirke Rabbi Eli'ezer 26, Abraham rejected the idolatry of his father and became a worshiper of God when he was thirteen years old. The term "bar mitzvah" appears first in the Talmud, meaning "one, subject to the law", though it does not refer to age; the term "bar mitzvah", in reference to age, cannot be traced earlier than the 14th century, the older rabbinical term being "gadol" or "bar'onshin". Many sources indicate; some late midrashic sources, some medieval sources, refer to a synagogue ceremony performed upon the boy's reaching age thirteen: Simon Tzemach Duran quotes a Midrash interpreting the Hebrew word zo in Isaiah 43:21 as referring by its numerical value to those that have reached the age of 13. This seems to imply that, at the time of the composition of the Midrash the bar mitzvah publicly pronounced a benediction on the occasion of his entrance upon maturity; the Midrash Hashkem: "The heathen when he begets a son consecrates him to idolatrous practises. Masseket Soferim makes matters more explicit: "In Jerusalem they are accustomed to initiate their children to fast on the Day of Atonement, a year or two before their maturity.
Whosoever is of superiority in the town is expected to pray for him as he bows down to him to receive his blessing." Genesis Rabbah, commenting upon Genesis 25:27, says: "Up to thirteen years Esau and Jacob went together to the primary school and back home.
Brooklyn Nine-Nine is an American police television sitcom that premiered on Fox on September 17, 2013. Created by Dan Goor and Michael Schur, the series revolves around Jake Peralta, an immature but talented NYPD detective in Brooklyn's 99th Precinct, who comes into conflict with his new commanding officer, the serious and stern Captain Raymond Holt; the ensemble and supporting cast feature Stephanie Beatriz as Rosa Diaz, Terry Crews as Terry Jeffords, Melissa Fumero as Amy Santiago, Joe Lo Truglio as Charles Boyle, Chelsea Peretti as Gina Linetti, Dirk Blocker as Michael Hitchcock, Joel McKinnon Miller as Norm Scully. Produced as a single-camera comedy, Fox ordered thirteen episodes for its first season expanding it to 22 episodes; the series has been praised for its cast Samberg and Braugher. It has won two Creative Arts Emmy Awards, two Golden Globe Awards: one for Best Television Series – Musical or Comedy and one for Samberg for Best Actor – Television Series Musical or Comedy. Braugher has been nominated for three consecutive Primetime Emmy Awards for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series.
The series has received particular praise for its portrayal of serious issues with a blend of humor. On May 10, 2018, Fox canceled the series after five seasons; the following day, NBC picked up the series for a sixth season of thirteen episodes. The sixth season began on NBC on January 10, 2019. On February 27, 2019, NBC renewed the series for a seventh season. Set in the fictional 99th Precinct of the New York City Police Department in Brooklyn, Brooklyn Nine-Nine follows a team of detectives headed by the overly serious, newly-appointed Captain Raymond Holt; the detectives include Jake Peralta, who tops the squad in collars despite his relaxed, carefree attitude, much to the annoyance of his more stern and by-the-book partner, Amy Santiago. The hard-working but timid Charles Boyle is partnered with the stoic and sometimes aggressive Rosa Diaz. Detectives Michael Hitchcock and Norm Scully seem incompetent but have solved more cases than the others due to numerous years on the job; the detectives report to Sergeant Terry Jeffords, a gentle giant and devoted family man, afraid to go back to active police work for fear of dying in the line of duty and leaving his children fatherless.
Rounding out the precinct is sarcastic civilian administrator Gina Linetti, who dislikes her job, prefers to enjoy her social life, believes that dancing is her life goal. Andy Samberg as Jake Peralta Stephanie Beatriz as Rosa Diaz Terry Crews as Terry Jeffords Melissa Fumero as Amy Santiago Joe Lo Truglio as Charles Boyle Chelsea Peretti as Gina Linetti Andre Braugher as Captain Raymond Holt Dirk Blocker as Michael Hitchcock Joel McKinnon Miller as Norm Scully Michael Schur and Dan Goor, who had known each other since their time as students at Harvard and had collaborated on Parks and Recreation, liked the idea of setting a comedy in a police station, a setting which they felt was insufficiently used for television comedies since Barney Miller, they pitched the idea to NBCUniversal. NBC passed, the duo sold the show to Fox. On May 8, 2013, Fox placed a thirteen-episode order for the single-camera ensemble comedy. On October 18, 2013, the series was picked up for a full season of 22 episodes, was chosen to air with New Girl in a "special one-hour comedy event" as the Super Bowl XLVIII lead-out programs.
The exterior view of the fictional 99th Precinct building, complete with numerous NYPD vehicles parked in front of it, is the actual 78th Precinct building at the corner of Sixth Avenue and Bergen Street, one block south of the Barclays Center and one block east of the Bergen Street station on the New York City Subway's 2, 3, 4 routes. On May 10, 2018, Fox canceled the series after five seasons. Shortly afterwards, there were announcements that negotiations had begun with Hulu, TBS, NBC and Netflix for the possibility of reviving the show for a sixth season; the next day, TVLine reported Hulu had passed on the series. Shortly after, Goor announced. In a statement, NBC Entertainment chairman Robert Greenblatt expressed regret for passing on the series to Fox and was "thrilled" at its addition to NBC. A few days it was announced that the series would premiere mid-season in the 2018–19 television season. In September 2018, NBC ordered an additional five episodes for season 6, bringing the order to 18.
The sixth season began on NBC on January 10, 2019. On February 27, 2019, NBC renewed the series for a seventh season. Rotten Tomatoes gave Season 1 a score of 89% based on 55 reviews; the consensus is: "Led by the effective pairing of Andy Samberg and Andre Braugher, Brooklyn Nine-Nine is a charming, intelligently written take on the cop show format." For Season 2, it received a score of 100% based on 17 reviews. That season's consensus is: "Brooklyn Nine-Nine's winning cast, appealing characters and wacky gags make it good comfort food." Metacritic gives the first season of the show a weighted average rating of 70/100 based on 33 reviews, indicating "generally favorable reviews". The Huffington Post posted a list of "9 Reasons You Need To Start Watching Brooklyn Nine-Nine", while Paste magazine celebrated "The 10 Best Moments from Brooklyn Nine-Nine's First Season" in 2014. Brooklyn Nine-Nine has received praise for its forthright portrayal of LGBTQ
Taylor Alison Swift is an American singer-songwriter. As one of the world's leading contemporary recording artists, she is known for narrative songs about her personal life, which has received widespread media coverage. Born and raised in Pennsylvania, Swift moved to Nashville, Tennessee, at the age of 14 to pursue a career in country music, she signed with the label Big Machine Records and became the youngest artist signed by the Sony/ATV Music publishing house. Her 2006 self-titled debut album peaked at number five on the Billboard 200 and spent the most weeks on the chart in the 2000s; the album's third single, "Our Song", made her the youngest person to single-handedly write and perform a number-one song on the Hot Country Songs chart. Swift's second album, was released in 2008. Buoyed by the success of pop crossover singles "Love Story" and "You Belong with Me", Fearless became the best-selling album of 2009 in the US; the album won four Grammy Awards, with Swift becoming the youngest Album of the Year winner.
Swift was the sole writer of Speak Now. It debuted at number one in the United States and the single "Mean" won two Grammy Awards, her fourth album, yielded the successful singles "We Are Never Ever Getting Back Together" and "I Knew You Were Trouble". For her fifth album, the pop-focused 1989, she received three Grammys, became the first woman and fifth act overall to win Album of the Year twice, its singles "Shake It Off", "Blank Space", "Bad Blood" reached number one in the US, Canada. Swift's sixth album and its lead single "Look What You Made Me Do" topped the UK and US charts. Swift is one of the best-selling music artists of all time, having sold more than 50 million albums—including 27.8 million in the US—and 150 million single downloads. As a songwriter, she has received awards from the Nashville Songwriters Association and the Songwriters Hall of Fame, was included in Rolling Stone's 100 Greatest Songwriters of All Time in 2015, she is the recipient of 10 Grammys, one Emmy, 23 Billboard Music Awards, 12 Country Music Association Awards, she holds six Guinness World Records.
She has appeared in Time's 100 most influential people in the world and Forbes' lists of top-earning women in music, 100 most powerful women, Celebrity 100. Her inclusion in the third of these made her the youngest woman on the list, she ranked first in Celebrity 100. Taylor Alison Swift was born on December 1989, in Reading, Pennsylvania, her father, Scott Kingsley Swift, was a stockbroker for Merrill Lynch, her mother, Andrea Gardner Swift, was a homemaker who had worked as a mutual fund marketing executive. Swift was named after the American singer-songwriter James Taylor, she has a younger brother named Austin, an actor. Swift spent the early years of her life on a Christmas tree farm which her father purchased from one of his clients, she attended preschool and kindergarten at the Alvernia Montessori School, run by Franciscan nuns, before transferring to The Wyndcroft School. The family moved to a rented house in the suburban town of Wyomissing, where she attended Wyomissing Area Junior/Senior High School.
At the age of nine, Swift became interested in musical theater and performed in four Berks Youth Theatre Academy productions. She traveled to New York City for vocal and acting lessons. Swift shifted her focus toward country music inspired by Shania Twain's songs, which made her "want to just run around the block four times and daydream about everything", she spent her weekends performing at local events. After watching a documentary about Faith Hill, Swift felt sure that she needed to go to Nashville, Tennessee, to pursue a music career. At the age of eleven, she traveled with her mother to visit Nashville record labels and submitted a demo tape of Dolly Parton and Dixie Chicks karaoke covers. However, she was rejected. So, I kept thinking to myself, I need to figure out a way to be different"; when Swift was about 12 years old, computer repairman and local musician Ronnie Cremer taught her how to play guitar and helped with her first efforts as a songwriter, leading to her writing "Lucky You".
In 2003, Swift and her parents started working with New York-based music manager Dan Dymtrow. With his help, Swift modelled for Abercrombie & Fitch as part of their "Rising Stars" campaign, had an original song included on a Maybelline compilation CD, attended meetings with major record labels. After performing original songs at an RCA Records showcase, Swift was given an artist development deal and began making frequent trips to Nashville with her mother. To help Swift break into country music, her father transferred to the Nashville office of Merrill Lynch when she was 14, the family relocated to a lakefront house in Hendersonville, Tennessee. Swift attended Hendersonville High School, but after two years transferred to the Aaron Academy, which through homeschooling could accommodate her touring schedule, she graduated a year early. In Nashville, Swift worked with experienced Music Row songwriters such as Troy Verges, Brett Beavers, Brett James, Mac McAnally, The Warren Brothers, she formed a lasting working relationship with Liz Rose.
They began meeting for two-hour writing sessions every Tuesday afternoon after school. Rose thought that the sessions were "some of the easiest I've done. I was just her editor. She'd write about, she had such a clear vision of. And sh