Gottfried Keller was a Swiss poet and writer of German literature. Best known for his novel Green Henry, he one of the most popular narrators of literary realism in the late 19th century. His father was a lathe-worker from Glattfelden, his mothers name was Scheuchzer. After his fathers death, Kellers family lived in constant poverty, Keller gave a good rendering of his experiences in this period in his long novel, Der grüne Heinrich. With some changes, a treatment of her relations to him may be found in his short story, Kellers first true passion was painting. Expelled in a political mix-up from the Industrieschule in Zurich, he became an apprentice in 1834 to the landscape painter Steiger, in 1840, he went to Munich to study art for a time at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Keller returned to Zurich in 1842 and, although possessing artistic talent and he published his first poems, Gedichte, in 1846. From 1848 to 1850 he studied at the University of Heidelberg, there he came under the influence of the philosopher Feuerbach, and extended his radicalism to matters of religion.
From 1850 to 1856, he worked in Berlin and it was in Berlin that he turned definitely away from other pursuits and took up literature as a career. In this period, Keller published the semi-autobiographical novel Der grüne Heinrich and it is the most personal of all his works. Under the influence of Jean-Jacques Rousseaus doctrine of a return to nature and it expanded as its composition progressed into a huge work drawing on Kellers youth and career as a painter up to 1842. Its reception by the world was cool, but the second version of 1879 is a rounded. He published his first collection of stories, Die Leute von Seldwyla. Keller returned again to Zurich and became the First Official Secretary of the Canton of Zurich in 1861. The routine duties of this position were a sort of fixed point about which his activities could revolve. In 1872, Keller published Seven Legends, which dealt with the early Christian era, noteworthy are his Collected Poetry, and the novel Martin Salander. With her remaining substantial asset – Villa Belvoir including swing and marketable securities totaling nominally 4 million Swiss Francs – Lydia Escher established the foundations base.
According to the will of Lydia Escher, the foundation was established on 6 June 1890, the foundation should promote the independent work of women, at least in the field of the applied of Arts, according to the original intention of the founder
Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie
Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie is one of the most important and most comprehensive biographical reference works in the German language. It was published by the Historical Commission of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences between 1875 and 1912 in 56 volumes, printed in Leipzig by Duncker & Humblot. The ADB contains biographies of about 26,500 people who died before 1900 and lived in the German language Sprachraum of their time and its successor, the Neue Deutsche Biographie, was started in 1953 and is planned to be ready in 2017. Reinert, Schrott, Ebneth, Rehbein, from Biographies to Data Curation - The Making of www. deutsche-biographie. de, in, BD2015. Biographical Data in a Digital World, Proceedings of the First Conference on Biographical Data in a Digital World 2015. Amsterdam, The Netherlands, April 9,2015, ed. by, serge ter Braake, Antske Fokkens, Ronald Sluijter, Thierry Declerck, Eveline Wandl-Vogt, CEUR Workshop Proceedings Vol-1399. Ebneth, Neue Deutsche Biographie, Historische Kommission bei der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie - full-text articles at German Wikisource, German Biography - complete full-text articles and further information
Lanzelet is a medieval romance written by Ulrich von Zatzikhoven after 1194. It is the first treatment of the Lancelot tradition in German, the poem consists of about 9,400 lines arranged in 4-stressed Middle High German couplets. It survives complete in two manuscripts and in form in three others. The author is identified with a Swiss cleric named in a document from 1214. If this is true, the adultury facet would have been added either by Chrétien in Knight of the Cart or the source provided him by his patron, Marie de Champagne. Though Lanzelet has never received the attention garnered by the romances of Hartmann von Aue, Gottfried von Strassburg, or Wolfram von Eschenbach, it was not forgotten by subsequent German authors. Heinrich von dem Türlin included elements of Lanzelet into his Grail romance Diu Crône, the text starts off with a prologue. King Ban, Lanzelet’s father, reigns as a tyrant over Genewis and he treats the noblemen in the hierarchy as he would the common people, and his vassals cannot accept this.
They rise against King Ban, destroying the kingdom and killing everyone in the castle and they nonetheless allow Elaine, King Bans wife, to live as she is known for her kindness. She escapes, while the queen of the sea-fairies, the Lady of the Lake, there, he learns how to use weapons just as well as he learns music and song. Lanzelet yearns to know his own name but the fairy refuses to reveal it to him until he has defeated her worst enemy, Iweret. On his journey, Lanzelet meets a dwarf, who whips him, and a knight named Johfrit de Liez, in verses 667 to 1356, Lanzelet meets two knights named Kuraus and Orphilet, they enter the house of a woodsman named Galagandreiz. The following night, Lanzelet sleeps with Galandreizs daughter, upon finding her in Lanzelet’s bed becomes enraged. He and Lanzelet engage in an ending in Galandreizs death. Lanzelet marries the daughter and becomes a lord. In verses 1357 to 2249 Lanzelet embarks on the adventure of Lord Linier of Limors, Lanzelet is thrown in the dungeon before he is brought out onto the battlefield, where he is confronted with a giant and finally Linier, whom he kills.
He marries Liniers niece, without having divorced his previous wife and he repeats this same pattern with his other wives. In the verses leading up to 3474, he fights Walwein, a knight of the Round Table, and wins the tournament in Djofle, but refuses King Arthurs invitation to the court
University of Zurich
The University of Zurich, located in the city of Zürich, is the largest university in Switzerland, with over 26,000 students. It was founded in 1833 from the colleges of theology, medicine. Currently, the university has seven faculties, Human Medicine, Economic Sciences, Law and Natural Sciences, the university offers the widest range of subjects and courses of any Swiss higher education institution. It was the first university in Europe to be founded by the rather than a monarch or church. Eventually, the authorities offered Strauss a pension before he had a chance to start his duties, the university allowed women to attend philosophy lectures from 1847, and admitted the first female doctoral student in 1866. The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine was added in 1901, the second-oldest such faculty in the world, in 1914, the university moved to new premises designed by the architect Karl Moser on Rämistrasse 71. The university is scattered all over the city of Zurich, members of the university can use several libraries, including the ETH-library, and the Zurich Central Library, with over 5 million volumes.
In 1962, the faculty of science proposed to establish the Irchelpark campus on the Strickhofareal, the first stage the construction of the university buildings was begun in 1973, and the campus was inaugurated in 1979. The construction of the stage lasted from 1978 to 1983. The campus houses the anthropological museum Anthropologisches Museum, and the cantonal Staatsarchiv Zürich, the Institute and Museum for the History of Medicine is part of the university. The University of Zurich as a whole ranks in the top ten of Europe, notably in the fields of bioscience and finance, there is a close-knit collaboration between the University of Zurich and the ETH. Their faculty of medicine is six years. Shanghai Jiao Tong University Ranking 54th globally and 15th in Europe, THES – QS World University Rankings 61st globally and 14th in Europe. QS World University Rankings 2014 57th globally, professional Ranking of World Universities 32nd globally and 10th in Europe. University Ranking by Academic Performance 2010 52nd globally and 1st in Switzerland, according to Handelsblatt, the Department of Economics was ranked first in the German-speaking area and in 2009 the faculty of Business Administration was ranked third in the German-speaking area.
Bachelor courses are taught in Swiss Standard German, but use of English is increasing in many faculties, the only bachelors program taught entirely in English is the English Language and Literature program. All Master courses at the Faculty of Science are held in English, in some highly competitive and international programs, such as the Master of Science in Quantitative Finance, all lectures are held in English. Associated with the university are 12 Nobel Prize recipients, primarily in Physics, corpus Córporum, digital library created and maintained by the University’s Institute for Greek and Latin Philology
Solothurn is a town, a municipality, and the capital of the canton of Solothurn in Switzerland. It is located in the north-west of Switzerland on the banks of the Aare, the town is the only municipality of the district of the same name. The town got its name from Salodurum, a Roman-era settlement, from 1530 to 1792 it was the seat of the French ambassador to Switzerland. The pedestrian-free old town was built between 1530 and 1792 and shows an impressive array of Baroque architecture, combining Italian Grandezza, French style, the town has 18 structures listed as heritage sites. Agricultural, once the dominant sector of employment, has become almost non-existent, most people today are employed in manufacturing and education. The official language of Solothurn is German, but the spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. The oldest finds from Solothurn probably date from the Paleolithic era, the remains of a Mesolithic camp were discovered in 1986 during renovations of the former Kino Elite building.
From the Neolithic and Iron Age, only a few scattered items have been discovered, the Roman settlement at Solothurn was probably built around AD 15-25 as a road station and bridge head on the road from Aventicum to Augusta Raurica or Vindonissa. A small vicus or settlement quickly developed around the castrum, Solothurn is first mentioned in 219 as vico salod on the so-called Eponastein. The name may indicate either that a Celtic settlement existed on the site before or just be a testimony to the mixed Gallo-Roman culture in the north-west provinces of the Roman Empire and it came to be known as Salodurum. Its strategical importance lay in the position at the approach to the Rhine from southeast, in the 2nd-3rd Century AD, the vicus expanded rapidly to fill almost all of what is now the old town of Solothurn, including a portion of todays suburb south of the Aare. The Roman bridge was probably somewhat above the current Wengibrücke, the Roman era river bed was 40–80 meters north of the present Aare.
The main street of the Vicus was well below the present main street, in addition to the normal government of the settlement, there were two mayors, and a six-member college, which was entrusted with supporting the imperial cult. Salodurum was home to a detachment of the XXII Legion. According to inscriptions, there was a temple of Jupiter, a temple of Apollo Augustus and an altar to the goddess of horses Epona, the locations of those three temples is not known. There was bath house on the street and a pottery district in the northwest of the town which have been documented archaeologically. A cemetery with urns and cremation burials on the end of the Vicus was discovered in 1762-63 during the demolition of the old church of St. Ursus. In addition, two Roman tombs were discovered in the same area, around 325-350, the unfortified settlement along the road was transformed into a fortified camp or castrum, which covered only half of the former settlement area
The term feuilleton was invented by Julien Louis Geoffroy and Bertin the Elder, editors of the French Journal des débats in 1800. The feuilleton may be described as a talk of the town, in English newspapers, the term feuilleton instead came to refer to an installment of a serial story printed in one part of a newspaper. The genre of the feuilleton in its French sense was eventually included in English newspapers, in contemporary French, feuilleton has taken on the meaning soap opera. German and Polish newspapers still use the term for their literary, a supplement called Feuilleton appeared for the first time of 28 January 1800 in the Journal des Debats magazine. The word feuilleton meant a leaf, or, in this sense, soon the supplement became the regular column devoted to entertainment and cultural issues. It is important to note that the English term column means both a part of a paper and the kind of press genre. The original feuilletons were not usually printed on a sheet, but merely separated from the political part of the newspaper by a line.
The slot was therefore nicknamed, throughout the 19th century in France, in 1836 the Paris newspaper La Presse first began to circulate a separate sheet from the paper entitled Feuilleton in which cultural items were included. This French development of the idea was subsequently taken up by the Director of Die Presse of Vienna. At the turn of 19th and 20th century the connection between the name feuilleton and the specific place in the magazine became weaker. From that point the term feuilleton has been associated only with the properties of the publication. The changes in the functioning of the term feuilleton did not have influence on the traditional features of the genre. Prominent exterior features are a way for readers to identify the feuilleton as a particular genre. The French form remains popular in Continental Europe, as witness the works of many popular Czech authors, such as Jan Neruda, Karel Čapek. Besides France, Russia in particular cultivated the feuilleton genre since the 19th century, such a definition and use of a column still function in German and French press terminology.
In Yiddish a feuilleton was generally humorous and informal in tone, two famous writers of Yiddish feuilletons were Sholem Aleichem and the Tunkeler, Yosef Tunkel. The characteristic of a column is the lack of the group of fixed features in strong structural relation, thematic domain of a feuilleton column tends to be always up-to-date, focusing specifically on cultural and moral issues. An accented and active role by the columnist as the subject of the narration is very important characteristic of this genre
Heidelberg University is a public research university in Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Founded in 1386 on instruction of Pope Urban VI, Heidelberg is Germanys oldest university and it was the third university established in the Holy Roman Empire. Heidelberg has been an institution since 1899. The university consists of twelve faculties and offers programmes at undergraduate, graduate. The language of instruction is usually German, while a number of graduate degrees are offered in English. Associated with 31 Nobel Prize laureates, the university places an emphasis on research, modern scientific psychiatry, psychopharmacology, psychiatric genetics, environmental physics, and modern sociology were introduced as scientific disciplines by Heidelberg faculty. Approximately 1,000 doctorates are completed every year, with more than one third of the students coming from abroad. International students from some 130 countries account for more than 20 percent of the student body. The universitys noted alumni include eleven domestic and foreign Heads of State or Heads of Government, the Great Schism of 1378 made it possible for Heidelberg, a relatively small city and capital of the Electorate of the Palatinate, to gain its own university.
The Great Schism was initiated by the election of two popes after the death of Pope Gregory XI in the same year, one successor resided in Avignon and the other in Rome. Rupert I recognized the opportunity and initiated talks with the Curia, as specified in the papal charter, the university was modelled after University of Paris and included four faculties, theology and medicine. On 18 October 1386 a special Pontifical High Mass in the Heiliggeistkirche was the ceremony that established the university, on 19 October 1386 the first lecture was held, making Heidelberg the oldest university in Germany. In November 1386, Marsilius of Inghen was elected first rector of the university, the rector seal motto was semper apertus—i. e. The book of learning is always open, the university grew quickly and in March 1390,185 students were enrolled at the university. This resulted in establishing a reputation for the university and its professors. Due to the influence of Marsilius, the university initially taught the nominalism or via moderna, the transition from scholastic to humanistic culture was effected by the chancellor and bishop Johann von Dalberg in the late 15th century.
Humanism was represented at Heidelberg University particularly by the founder of the older German Humanistic School Rudolph Agricola, Conrad Celtes, Jakob Wimpfeling, and Johann Reuchlin. Æneas Silvius Piccolomini was chancellor of the university in his capacity of provost of Worms, in 1482, Pope Sixtus IV permitted laymen and married men to be appointed professors in the ordinary of medicine through a papal dispensation
Schleitheim is a municipality in the canton of Schaffhausen in Switzerland. It is known as the location where the seven articles of the Schleitheim Confession were written by Michael Sattler in 1527, Schleitheim has an area, as of 2006, of 21.5 km2. Of this area,58. 6% is used for agricultural purposes, of the rest of the land,6. 2% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. The blazon of the coat of arms is Gules, an ox head sable lined white. Schleitheim has a population of 1,663, of which 12. 0% are foreign nationals. Of the foreign population,45. 3% are from Germany,10. 3% are from Italy, 2% are from Croatia,25. 6% are from Serbia,1. 5% are from Macedonia, and 15. 3% are from another country. Over the last 10 years the population has decreased at a rate of -4. 4%, most of the population speaks German, with Albanian being second most common and Italian being third. The age distribution of the population is children and teenagers make up 21. 5% of the population, while adults make up 55. 6%, in the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP which received 50. 9% of the vote.
The next two most popular parties were the FDP, and the SP, in Schleitheim about 74. 9% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. As of 2000,13. 3% of the population belonged to the Roman Catholic Church and 69. 4% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church, the historical population is given in the following table, Schleitheim has an unemployment rate, as of 2007, of 0. 88%. As of 2005, there were 117 people employed in the economic sector. 221 people are employed in the sector and there are 20 businesses in this sector. 373 people are employed in the sector, with 65 businesses in this sector. As of 2008 the mid year average unemployment rate was 1. 1%, there were 85 non-agrarian businesses in the municipality and 44. 1% of the population was involved in the secondary sector of the economy while 55. 9% were involved in the third. At the same time,69. 5% of the population was employed full-time. There were 630 residents of the municipality who were employed in some capacity, as of 2000 there were 395 residents who worked in the municipality, while 394 residents worked outside Schleitheim and 188 people commuted into the municipality for work.
As of 2008, there are 7 restaurants, and 2 hotels with 28 beds, the hospitality industry in Schleitheim employs 23 people. A border crossing into Germany is located at the village of Oberwiesen, the town over the border is Stühlingen in Baden-Württemberg state