Magnate, from the Late Latin magnas, a great man, itself from Latin magnus, designates a noble or other man in a high social position, by birth, wealth or other qualities. In reference to the Middle Ages, the term is used to distinguish higher territorial landowners and warlords such as counts, dukes. In England, the class went through a change in the Middle Ages. It had previously consisted of all tenants-in-chief of the crown, a group of more than a hundred families, the emergence of Parliament led to the establishment of a parliamentary peerage that received personal summons, rarely more than sixty families. A similar class in the Gaelic world were the Flatha, in the Middle Ages a bishop sometimes held territory as a magnate, collecting the revenue of the manors and the associated knights fees. In the Tudor period, after Henry VII defeated Richard III at Bosworth Field, Henry VII would make parliament attaint undesirable nobles and magnates, thereby stripping them of their wealth, protection from torture, and power.
Henry VII used the Court of the Star Chamber to have powerful nobles executed, Henry VIII continued this approach in his reign, he inherited a survivalistic mistrust of nobles from his father. Henry VIII ennobled very few men and the ones he did were all new men, novi homines, greatly indebted to him, the term was specifically applied to the members of the Upper House in the Apostolic Kingdom of Hungary, the Főrendiház or House of Magnates. In the Early and High Middle Ages the highest title was vojvoda, during the Serbian Empire the higher court members held titles such as despot and kesar. During foreign rule, under the Ottoman Empire, Habsburg Monarchy, Republic of Venice, and in the Revolution, in Spain, since the late Middle Ages the highest class of nobility hold the appellation of Grandee of Spain. In Sweden, the wealthiest medieval lords were known as storman, great men, a similar description and meaning as the English term magnate. Aristocracy Szlachta, in Poland Boyar, in Eastern Europe Velikaš, in Serbia and Croatia Magnat This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by OCLC Online Computer Library Center, the subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCats database. OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour and that same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would evolve into WorldCat, the first catalog records were added in 1971. It contains more than 330 million records, representing over 2 billion physical and digital assets in 485 languages and it is the worlds largest bibliographic database. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscribtion OCLC services, in 2006, it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website. In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million identities, predominantly authors, WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model.
That is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently, WorldCat shows that an item is owned by a particular library. WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title, copac Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Library and Archives Canada Research Libraries UK Online Computer Library Center Grossman, Wendy M. Why you cant find a book in your search engine. Official website OCLC - Web scale discovery and delivery of library resources OCLC Bibliographic Formats and Standards WorldCat Identities
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
In Christianity, an archbishop is a bishop of higher rank or office. In some cases, like the Lutheran Church of Sweden, it is the denomination leader title, an archbishop may be granted the title, or ordained as chief pastor of a metropolitan see or another episcopal see to which the title of archbishop is attached. Episcopal sees are generally arranged in groups in which the bishop who is the ordinary of one of them has certain powers and he is known as the metropolitan archbishop of that see. As well as the more numerous metropolitan sees, there are 77 Roman Catholic sees that have archiepiscopal rank. In some cases, such a see is the one in a country, such as Luxembourg or Monaco. In others, the title of archdiocese is for reasons attributed to a see that was once of greater importance. Some of these archdioceses are suffragans of a metropolitan archdiocese, an example is the Archdiocese of Avignon, which is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Marseille, Another such example is the Archdiocese of Trnava, Slovakia.
Others are immediately subject to the Holy See and not to any metropolitan archdiocese and these are usually aggregated to an ecclesiastical province. An example is the Archdiocese of Hobart in Australia, associated with the Metropolitan ecclesiastical province of Melbourne, the ordinary of such an archdiocese is an archbishop, especially in the Anglican Communion, not all archbishops dioceses are called archdioceses. Since then, the title of Coadjutor Archbishop of the see is considered sufficient, the rank of archbishop is conferred on some bishops who are not ordinaries of an archdiocese. They hold the rank not because of the see that they head, the bishop transferred is known as the Archbishop-Bishop of his new see. An example is Gianfranco Gardin, appointed Archbishop-Bishop of Treviso on 21 December 2009, the title borne by the successor of such an archbishop-bishop is merely that of Bishop of the see, unless he is granted the personal title of Archbishop. The distinction between metropolitan sees and non-metropolitan archiepiscopal sees exists for titular sees as well as for residential ones, the Annuario Pontificio marks titular sees of the former class with the abbreviation Metr.
and the others with Arciv. Many of the sees to which nuncios and heads of departments of the Roman Curia who are not cardinals are assigned are not of archiepiscopal rank. In that case the person who is appointed to such a position is given the title of archbishop. They are usually referred to as Archbishop of the see, not as its Archbishop-Bishop, until 1970, such archbishops were transferred to a titular see. There can be several Archbishops Emeriti of the see, the 2008 Annuario Pontificio listed three living Archbishops Emeriti of Taipei. There is no Archbishop Emeritus of a see, an archbishop who holds a titular see keeps it until death or until transferred to another see
Eric IV of Denmark
Eric IV, known as Eric Ploughpenny or Eric Plowpenny, was king of Denmark from 1241 until his death in 1250. He was the son of King Valdemar II by his wife, Berengaria of Portugal, Eric was born in 1216 as the second legitimate son of King Valdemar II by his second wife Berengária of Portugal. In 1218, when his older half-brother Valdemar was crowned king as their fathers co-ruler and designated heir, after the premature death of Valdemar in 1231, Eric in his turn was crowned king at Lund Cathedral 30 May 1232 as his fathers coruler and heir. Subsequently, he ceded the Duchy of Schleswig to his younger brother Abel, when his father died in 1241, he automatically acceded to the throne. His rule was marked by conflicts and civil wars against his brothers. Especially he fought his brother, Duke Abel of Schleswig who seems to have wanted an independent position, Eric fought the Scanian peasants, who rebelled because of his hard taxes, among other things, on ploughs. The number of ploughs a man owned was used as a measure of his wealth and this gave the king the epithet plough-penny, Plovpenning).
Eric had only been king for about a year when he first came into conflict with his brother, Duke Abel of Schleswig, the conflict lasted for two years before the brothers agreed on a truce in 1244 and made plans for a joint crusade to Estonia. At the same time Eric faced trouble from the religious orders who insisted that they were immune from taxes that Eric might assess, Eric wanted the church lands taxed as any other land holder would be. The pope sent a nuncio to negotiate between the king and the bishops at Odense in 1245, excommunication was threatened for anyone, great or small who trespassed upon the ancient rights and privileges of the church. It was a warning to Eric that the church would not tolerate his continued insistence at assessing church property for tax purposes. Infuriated, King Eric directed his rage at Bishop Niels Stigsen of Roskilde who fled Denmark the same year, Eric confiscated the bishoprics properties in Zealand, including the emerging city of Copenhagen, as compensation for his troubles with Abel.
In spite of intervention from Pope Innocent IV who advocated the reinstatement of the bishop and the return of the properties to the diocese, the dispute could not be resolved. Niels Stigsen died in 1249 in the Clairvaux Abbey and the properties were not restored to the diocese until after the death of King Eric in 1250, in the meantime, the conflict between King Eric and his brothers had broken out again in 1246. The conflict started when Eric invaded Holstein in an attempt to restore his fathers control of the county, the following year and the Holsteiners stormed into Jutland and Funen and pillaging as far north as Randers and Odense. Abel was supported by the city of Lübeck, as well as by his brothers Christopher, Lord of Lolland and Falster and Canute. Eric retaliated immediately, reconquering the city of Ribe and occupying Abel’s patrimonial city of Svendborg the same year, in 1247, he captured the castle of Arreskov on Funen, as well as taking Christopher and Canute prisoners. A truce was arranged by Erics sister Sophie of Brandenburg which left Eric in firm control of all of Denmark, in 1249 the peasants in Scania rose in rebellion against the plow tax
Christopher I of Denmark
Christopher I was King of Denmark between 1252 and 1259. He was the son of Valdemar II of Denmark by his wife and he succeeded his brothers Eric IV Plovpenning and Abel of Denmark on the throne. Christopher was elected King upon the death of his older brother Abel in the summer of 1252 and he was crowned at Lund Cathedral on Christmas Day 1252. Christopher began organizing the effort to have his brother Erik IV Plovpenning canonized, if recognized by the pope, the murder would exclude Abels sons from the succession and guarantee Christophers own sons Denmarks crown. This meant that Christopher as a younger son tried to keep the sons of his brothers from ruling Denmark. The king spent most of his reign fighting his many opponents, by allowing Abels son, Valdemar Abelsøn, to be Duke of Schleswig he prevented an all-out civil war, but became the target of intrigue and treachery. Southern Jutland including Schleswig and Holstein were independent from the rule for a time. Christopher gained an enemy in the newly named Archbishop of Lund, Jacob Erlandsen.
Erlandsen asserted his rights often at odds with the king, King Christopher insisted that the church pay taxes like any other land owner. Bishop Jacob refused and went so far as to forbid peasants who lived or worked on church properties to give service to King Christopher. Erlandsen was perhaps the wealthiest man in the kingdom and insisted that the government have no control or hold over the church, its property. He simply excommunicated the king to show that he wasnt about to surrender to the kings will, after an incursion into Halland by Haakon IV of Norway, in 1256, Christopher was reconciled with the kings of Norway and Sweden which had been provoked by Abels interventions. There were peasant uprisings against King Christopher the same year and again in 1258 as a result of Christophers new property tax. Archbishop Jacob refused to recognize Christophers young son, Eric, as Denmarks rightful heir in 1257 and he ordered Bishop Erlandsens own brother to arrest the troublesome archbishop.
Christopher humiliated the proud and powerful Archbishop Jakob by forcing him to wear secular clothing, the archbishop was paraded through the country to Hagenskov near Assens where he was chained and cast into prison. Erlandsen had ordered at a Vejle church council that if he was imprisoned that the bishops were to declare interdict against the whole country, Bishop of Roskilde Peder Bang fled to Rügen and convinced Chief Jarimar II of Rügen to invade Zealand. Christopher tried to have his brother Eric IV canonized, but without Archbishop Jacobs support it came to naught, when Duke Valdemar died, King Christopher tried to prevent Valdemars brother, Eric Abelsøn, from taking the dukes place. Valdemars widow encouraged a few counts of northern Germany to rebel, in the confusion, Christopher fled to Southern Jutland to stay with the Bishop of Ribe
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
Assassination is the murder of a prominent person, often a political leader or ruler, usually for political reasons or payment. The word assassin is believed to derive from the word Hashshashin. It referred to a group of Nizari Shia Persians who worked against various Arab, founded by the Persian Hassan-i Sabbah, the Assassins were active in the fortress of Alamut in Iran from the 8th to the 14th centuries, and controlled the castle of Masyaf in Syria. The group killed members of the Persian, Seljuq, the word for murder in many Romance languages is derived from this same root word. Assassination is one of the oldest tools of power politics and it dates back at least as far as recorded history. The Old Testament story of Judith illustrates how a woman frees the Israelites by tricking and assassinating Holofernes, a warlord of the rival Assyrians, with whom the Israelites were at war. King Joash of Judah was recorded as being assassinated by his own servants, Joab assassinated Absalom, King Davids son, chanakya wrote about assassinations in detail in his political treatise Arthashastra.
His student Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Maurya Empire, made use of assassinations against some of his enemies, other famous victims are Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, and Roman consul Julius Caesar. Emperors of Rome often met their end in this way, as did many of the Muslim Shia Imams hundreds of years later, the practice was well known in ancient China, as in Jing Kes failed assassination of Qin king Ying Zheng in 227 BC. Whilst many assassination were performed by an individual or a small group, the earliest were the sicarii in 6 A. D. who predated the Middle Eastern assassins and Japanese ninjas by centuries. In the Middle Ages, regicide was rare in Western Europe and strangling in the bathtub were the most commonly used procedures. With the Renaissance, tyrannicide—or assassination for personal or political reasons—became more common again in Western Europe and this account is, contentious among historians, it being most commonly asserted that he died of natural causes.
The myth of the Curse of King Zvonimir is based on the legend of his assassination, in 1192, Conrad of Montferrat, the de facto King of Jerusalem, was killed by an assassin. The reigns of King Przemysł II of Poland, William the Silent of the Netherlands, in Russia alone, two emperors, Paul I and his grandson Alexander II, were assassinated within 80 years. In the United Kingdom, only one Prime Minister of the United Kingdom has ever been assassinated—Spencer Perceval on May 11,1812. In the United States, within 100 years, four presidents—Abraham Lincoln, James Garfield, William McKinley, there have been at least 20 known attempts on U. S. presidents lives. Huey Long, a Senator, was assassinated in September of 1935, the Polish Home Army conducted a regular campaign of assassinations against top Nazi German officials in occupied Poland. Adolf Hitler, was almost killed by his own officers, indias Father of the Nation, Mohandas K. Gandhi, was shot to death on January 30,1948, by Nathuram Godse
Absalon or Axel was a Danish archbishop and statesman, who was the Bishop of Roskilde from 1158 to 1192 and Archbishop of Lund from 1178 until his death. He was the foremost politician and churchfather of Denmark in the half of the 12th century. He combined the ideals of Gregorian Reform ideals with loyal support of a strong monarchical power, Absalon was born into the powerful Hvide clan, and owned great land possessions. He endowed several church institutions, most prominently his familys Sorø Abbey and he was granted lands by the crown, and built the first fortification of the city that evolved into modern-day Copenhagen. His titles were passed on to his nephews Anders Sunesen and Peder Sunesen and he died in 1201, and was interred at Sorø Abbey. Absalon was born around 1128 near Sorø, due to a name which is unusual in Denmark, it is speculated that he was christened on the Danish Absalon name day, October 30. He was the son of Asser Rig, a magnate of the Hvide clan from Fjenneslev on Zealand and he was a kinsman of Archbishop Eskil of Lund.
He grew up at the castle of his father, and was brought up alongside his older brother Esbern Snare and the young prince Valdemar, who became King Valdemar I of Denmark. During the civil war following the death of Eric III of Denmark in 1146, Absalon travelled abroad to study theology in Paris, at Paris, he was influenced by the Gregorian Reform ideals of churchly independence from Monarchical rule. He befriended the canon William of Æbelholt at the Abbey of St Genevieve and he was a guest at following Roskilde banquet given in 1157 by Sweyn to his rivals Canute V and Valdemar. Both Absalon and Valdemar narrowly escaped assassination at the hands of Sweyn on this occasion, Absalon probably did not take part in the following battle of Grathe Heath in 1157, in which Sweyn was defeated and slain and led to Valdemar ascending the Danish throne. On Good Friday 1158, bishop Asser of Roskilde died, and Absalon was eventually elected bishop of Roskilde on Zealand with the help of Valdemar, Absalon was a close counsellor of Valdemar, and chief promoter of the Danish crusades against the Wends.
During the Danish civil war, Denmark had been open to coastal raids by the Wends and it was Absalons intention to clear the Baltic Sea of the Wendish pirates who inhabited its southern littoral zone which was called Pomerania. The pirates had raided the Danish coasts during the war of Sweyn III, Canute V. Absalon formed a fleet, built coastal defenses, and led several campaigns against the Wends. He even advocated forgiving the earlier enemies of Valdemar, which helped stabilize Denmark internally, the first expedition against the Wends that was conducted by Absalon in person, set out in 1160. These expeditions were successful, but brought no lasting victories, what started out as mere retribution, eventually evolved into full-fledged campaigns of expansion with religious motives. In 1164 began twenty years of crusades against the Wends, sometimes with the help of German duke Henry the Lion, in 1168 the chief Wendish fortress at Arkona in Rügen, containing the sanctuary of their god Svantevit, was conquered
Eric V of Denmark
Eric V Klipping was King of Denmark and son of Christopher I. Until 1264 he ruled under the auspices of his mother, the competent Queen Dowager Margaret Sambiria, between 1261 and 1262, Eric was a prisoner in Holstein following a military defeat. Afterwards, he was brought up in Brandenburg, the king’s nickname ”Klipping” or ”Glipping” refers to a medieval coin that has become ”clipped” or cut in order to indicate devaluation. A former popular explanation—that Eric blinked more than usual —is now generally rejected, the nickname is an unkind reference to his lack of trustworthiness. He short-changed his people and the monarchy, when his father Christopher was murdered, Prince Eric was too young to rule in his own right. The Danish court appointed his mother, Queen Margaret Sambiria as regent and she was the daughter of Count Sambor II of Pomerania and was a clever and intelligent woman. Taking advantage of the situation Chief Jarimar II of Rügen gathered an army of Wends, Queen Margaret raised an army but was soundly defeated in 1259 near Ringsted.
Jarimar went on to attack and pillage Copenhagen that year and he shipped his army to Skåne to continue his campaign. Unfortunately for him, he encountered the wrath of a farmers wife, the Wends fled back to Rűgen. Believing the Wendish incursion showed the Queen was weak, Duke Valdemar rebelled, the queen was forced to raise another army and march to Jutland to put the duke in his place. She defeated the duke, and while he negotiated a truce with her, the combined forces defeated Queen Margaret at the Battle of Lo Heath. She and her son Eric were captured and she was forced to cede all royal properties in southern Jutland to secure her release. Margaret released Archbishop Erlandsen from prison thinking he would be grateful, in 1263, acting as regent of Denmark, the queen wrote to Pope Urban IV asking him to intervene with Archbishop Erlandsen. After several years of quibbling, the agreed to several items the queen wanted. Urban IV issued a dispensation to alter the terms of the Danish succession that would permit women to inherit the Danish throne.
This would make it possible for one of Erics sisters to become the reigning Queen of Denmark in the event of Eric Vs death because he had no children, although Urban IV gave his consent, it never became an issue. Erics son, Eric Menved eventually succeeded to the Danish throne, as an adult ruler, Eric tried to enforce his power over the church and nobility. In the 1270s, Eric Glipping attacked Småland and his conflict with the church was brought to a satisfying result, with the help of the pope