The Indian elephant is one of three extant recognized subspecies of the Asian elephant and native to mainland Asia. Since 1986, the Asian elephant has been listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List as the wild population has declined by at least 50% since the 1930s to 1940s, i.e. three elephant generations. The Asian elephant is threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation. In general, Asian elephants are smaller than African elephants and have the highest body point on the head; the tip of their trunk has one finger-like process. Their back is level. Indian elephants reach a shoulder height of between 2 and 3.5 m, weigh between 2,000 and 5,000 kg, have 19 pairs of ribs. Their skin colour is lighter than of maximus with smaller patches of depigmentation, but darker than of sumatranus. Females are smaller than males, have short or no tusks; the largest Indian elephant was 3.43 m high at the shoulder. In 1985, two large elephant bulls were spotted for the first time in Bardia National Park, named Raja Gaj and Kanchha.
They roamed the park area together and visited female herds. Raja Gaj had a massive body weight, his forehead and domes were more prominent than in other Asian bull elephants. His appearance has been compared to that of a Stegodon and mammoth due to his high bi-domed shaped head. Indian elephants have smaller ears, but broader skulls and larger trunks than African elephants. Toes are broad. Unlike their African cousins, their abdomen is proportionate with their body weight but the African elephant has a large abdomen as compared to the skulls; the Indian elephant is native to mainland Asia: India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Malay Peninsula, China and Vietnam. It is regionally extinct in Pakistan, it inhabits grasslands, dry deciduous, moist deciduous and semi-evergreen forests. In the early 1990s, the estimated wild populations included: 27,785–31,368 in India, where populations are restricted to four general areas:in the Northwest — at the foot of the Himalayas in Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh, ranging from Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary to the Yamuna River.
In 2002, estimates ranged from 106 to 172 resident and migratory elephants, with most of them in Bardia National Park. There are a total of 138 state elephant corridors, 28 interstate corridors and 17 international state corridors where Indian elephant populations are found; the table below enlists the corridors. Elephants consume up to 150 kg of plant matter per day, they are generalist feeders, both grazers and browsers. In a study area of 1,130 km2 in southern India, elephants were recorded to feed on 112 different plant species, most of the order Malvales, the legume, palm and true grass families, they graze on the tall grasses. When the new flush appears in April, they remove the tender blades in small clumps; when grasses are higher than 0.5 m, they uproot entire clumps, dust them skilfully and consume the fresh leave tops, but discard the roots. When grasses are mature in autumn, they clean and consume the succulent basal portions with the roots, discard the fibrous blades. From the bamboos, they eat seedlings and lateral shoots.
During the dry season from January to April, they browse on both leaves and twigs preferring the fresh foliage, consume thorn bearing shoots of acacia species without any obvious discomfort. They feed on the bark of white thorn and other flowering plants, consume the fruits of wood apple, tamarind and date palm. In Nepal's Bardia National Park, elephants consume large amounts of the floodplain grass during the m
Kaziranga National Park
Kaziranga National Park is a national park in the Golaghat and Nagaon districts of the state of Assam, India. The sanctuary, which hosts two-thirds of the world's great one-horned rhinoceroses, is a World Heritage Site. According to the census held in March 2018, jointly conducted by the Forest Department of the Government of Assam and some recognized wildlife NGOs, the rhino population in Kaziranga National Park is 2,413, it comprises 1,641 adult rhinos. In 2015, the rhino population stood at 2401. Kaziranga is home to the highest density of tigers among protected areas in the world, was declared a Tiger Reserve in 2006; the park is home to large breeding populations of elephants, wild water buffalo, swamp deer. Kaziranga is recognized as an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International for conservation of avifaunal species; when compared with other protected areas in India, Kaziranga has achieved notable success in wildlife conservation. Located on the edge of the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot, the park combines high species diversity and visibility.
Kaziranga is a vast expanse of tall elephant grass and dense tropical moist broadleaf forests, criss-crossed by four major rivers, including the Brahmaputra, the park includes numerous small bodies of water. Kaziranga has been the theme of several books and documentaries; the park celebrated its centennial in 2005 after its establishment in 1905 as a reserve forest. The history of Kaziranga as a protected area can be traced back to 1904, when Mary Curzon, Baroness Curzon of Kedleston, the wife of the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon of Kedleston, visited the area. After failing to see a single rhinoceros, for which the area was renowned, she persuaded her husband to take urgent measures to protect the dwindling species which he did by initiating planning for their protection. On 1 June 1905, the Kaziranga Proposed Reserve Forest was created with an area of 232 km2. Over the next three years, the park area was extended by 152 km2, to the banks of the Brahmaputra River. In 1908, Kaziranga was designated a "Reserve Forest".
In 1916, it was redesignated the "Kaziranga Game Sanctuary" and remained so till 1938, when hunting was prohibited and visitors were permitted to enter the park. The Kaziranga Game Sanctuary was renamed the "Kaziranga Wildlife Sanctuary" in 1950 by P. D. Stracey, the forest conservationist, in order to rid the name of hunting connotations. In 1954, the government of Assam passed the Assam Bill, which imposed heavy penalties for rhinoceros poaching. Fourteen years in 1968, the state government passed the Assam National Park Act of 1968, declaring Kaziranga a designated national park; the 430 km2 park was given official status by the central government on 11 February 1974. In 1985, Kaziranga was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO for its unique natural environment. Kaziranga has been the target of several man-made calamities in recent decades. Floods caused by the overflow of the river Brahmaputra, leading to significant losses of animal life. Encroachment by people along the periphery has led to a diminished forest cover and a loss of habitat.
An ongoing separatist movement in Assam led by the United Liberation Front of Assam has crippled the economy of the region, but Kaziranga has remained unaffected by the movement. Although the etymology of the name Kaziranga is not certain, there exist a number of possible explanations derived from local legends and records. According to one legend, a girl named Rawnga, from a nearby village, a youth named Kazi, from Karbi Anglong, fell in love; this match was not acceptable to their families, the couple disappeared into the forest, never to be seen again, the forest was named after them. According to another legend, Srimanta Sankardeva, the sixteenth century Vaisnava saint-scholar, once blessed a childless couple and Rangai, asked them to dig a big pond in the region so that their name would live on. Testimony to the long history of the name can be found in some records, which state that once, while the Ahom king Pratap Singha was passing by the region during the seventeenth century, he was impressed by the taste of fish, on asking was told it came from Kaziranga.
Kaziranga could mean the "Land of red goats", as the word Kazi in the Karbi language means "goat", Rangai means "red". Some historians believe, that the name Kaziranga was derived from the Karbi word Kajir-a-rong, which means "the village of Kajir". Among the Karbis, Kajir is a common name for a girl child, it was believed that a woman named Kajir once ruled over the area. Fragments of monoliths associated with Karbi rule found scattered in the area seem to bear testimony to this assertion. Kaziranga is located between latitudes 26°30' N and 26°45' N, longitudes 93°08' E to 93°36' E within two districts in the Indian state of Assam—the Kaliabor subdivision of Nagaon district and the Bokakhat subdivision of Golaghat district; the park is 40 km in length from east to west, 13 km in breadth from north to south. Kaziranga covers an area of 378 km2, with 51.14 km2 lost to erosion in recent years. A total addition of 429 km2 along the present boundary of the park has been made and designated with separate national park status to provide ex
The Chilapata Forest is a dense forest near Jaldapara National Park in Dooars, Alipurduar district, West Bengal, India. It is about 20 km from Alipurduar, just a few minutes away from Hasimara town; until the area was known for dacoity, but it is now safe for tourists. The forest forms an elephant corridor between Jaldapara National Park and the Buxa Tiger Reserve, is rich in wildlife. New species continue to be found; the forest used to be home to large Rhinoceros populations. In hunting expeditions in 1892-1904, in and around Chilapata Forest, the Maharajah of Cooch Behar recorded killing one rhino, injury of one, sighting of over 14. Rhinos now are rare. Leopards are still common, it is hoped that eco-tourism will provide a new source of income for the indigenous Rabha people, who now depend on the forest for firewood. West Bengal State Forest Development Agency runs an eco-tourism resort at Kodalbasti, providing basic accommodation. One of the main attractions is the ruined "Nalraja Garh", or fort of the Nal kings, built in the Gupta period in the fifth century C.
E. the Golden Age of India. Although poorly maintained, the site has considerable archaeological interest. Other activities include Tonga rides through Mathura tea garden, boating on the Bania river and angling on the confluence of the Kalchini and Buri Basra
The gaur called the Indian bison, is the largest extant bovine. This species is native to Southeast Asia, it has been listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List since 1986. Population decline in parts of its range is to be more than 70% during the last three generations. However, population trends are stable in well-protected areas, are rebuilding in a few areas, neglected; the gaur is the tallest of wild cattle species. The Malayan gaur is called seladang, the Burmese gaur is called pyoung ပြောင်; the domesticated form of the gaur is called mithun. The gaur is a strong and massively built species with a high convex ridge on the forehead between the horns, which protrudes anteriorly, causing a deep hollow in the profile of the upper part of the head. There is a prominent ridge on the back; the ears are large. The adult male is dark brown, approaching black in old individuals; the upper part of the head, from above the eyes to the nape of the neck, is ashy grey, or dirty white. The muzzle is pale coloured, the lower part of the legs are pure white or tan.
The cows and young bulls are paler, in some instances have a rufous tinge, most marked in groups inhabiting dry and open areas. The tail is shorter than in the typical oxen, reaching only to the hocks, they have a distinct ridge running from the shoulders to the middle of the back. This ridge is caused by the great length of the spinous processes of the vertebrae of the fore-part of the trunk as compared with those of the loins; the hair is short and glossy. The gaur has a head-and-body length of 250 to 330 cm with a 70 to 105 cm long tail, is 142 to 220 cm high at the shoulder, averaging about 168 cm in females and 188 cm in males. At the top of its muscular hump just behind its shoulder, an average adult male is just under 200 cm tall and the male's girth at its midsection averages about 277 cm. Males are heavier than females. Body mass can range from 440 to 1,000 kg in adult females and 588 to 1,500 kg in adult males. In general measurements are derived from gaurs surveyed in India. Indian gaur males averaged about 840 kg and females weigh a median of 700 kg.
Body masses elsewhere suggest. For example, males from China can weigh 1,200 kg or more; the Seladang, or Malayasian subspecies, appears to be larger on average than the nominate race from India, but sample sizes as known are small. According to some sources, seladang bulls weigh on average 1,000 to 1,300 kg, which if accurate indicates these animals are on average more than 20% more massive than the gaurs of India. Gaurs do not have a distinct dewlap on the chest. Both sexes carry horns, curving upwards. Between the horns is a high convex ridge on the forehead. At their bases they present an elliptical cross-section, a characteristic, more marked in bulls than in cows; the horns are decidedly flattened at the base and curved throughout their length, are bent inward and backward at their tips. The colour of the horns is some shade of pale green or yellow throughout the greater part of their length, but the tips are black; the horns, of medium size by large bovid standards, grow to a length of 60 to 115 cm.
The cow is lighter in make and in colour than the bull. The horns are more slender and upright, with more inward curvature, the frontal ridge is scarcely perceptible. In young animals the horns are polished. In old bulls they are dented at the base. Gaurs are among the largest living land animals. Only elephants, the hippopotamus and the giraffe grow heavier. Two species that co-exist with the gaur are heavier: the Asian elephant and Indian rhinoceros. By most standards of measurements, gaur is the largest wild bovid alive today. However, the shorter-legged, bulkier wild water buffalo is similar in average body mass, if not maximum weight. Gaur occurred throughout mainland South and Southeast Asia, including Vietnam, Laos, Peninsular Malaysia, India, Bhutan and Nepal. Today, the range of the species is fragmented, it is regionally extinct in Sri Lanka. Gaur are confined to evergreen forests or semi-evergreen and moist deciduous forests, but occur in deciduous forest areas at the periphery of their range.
Gaur habitat is characterized by large undisturbed forest tracts, hilly terrain below an altitude of 1,500 to 1,800 m, availability of water, an abundance of forage in the form of grasses, bamboo and trees. Their apparent preference for hilly terrain may be due to the earlier conversion of most of the plains and other low-lying areas to croplands and pastures, they occur from sea level to an altitude of at least 2,800 m. Low-lying areas seem to comprise optimal habitat. In Vietnam, several areas in Đắk Lắk Province were known to contain gaur in 1997. Several herds persist in adjacent state forest enterprises; the current status of
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, one of the seven union territories of India comprising 572 islands of which 37 are inhabited, are a group of islands at the juncture of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea. The territory is about 150 km north of Aceh in Indonesia and separated from Thailand and Myanmar by the Andaman Sea, it comprises two island groups, the Andaman Islands and the Nicobar Islands, separated by the 150 km wide Ten Degree Channel, with the Andamans to the north of this latitude, the Nicobars to the south. The Andaman Sea lies to the Bay of Bengal to the west; the territory's capital is the city of Port Blair. The total land area of these islands is 8,249 km2; the capital of Nicobar Islands is Car Nicobar. The islands host the Andaman and Nicobar Command, the only tri-service geographical command of the Indian Armed Forces; the Andaman Islands are home to an uncontacted people. The Sentinelese are the only people known to not have reached further than a Paleolithic level of technology.
In December 2018, Prime Minister Narendra Modi, on a two-day visit to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, renamed three of the islands as a tribute to Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose. The Ross Island was renamed as Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Dweep; the PM made this announcement during a speech at the Netaji Stadium, marking the 75th anniversary of the hoisting of the Indian flag by Bose there. The earliest archaeological evidence documents some 2,200 years; however and cultural studies suggest that the indigenous Andamanese people may have been isolated from other populations during the Middle Paleolithic, which ended 30,000 years ago. Since that time, the Andamanese have diversified into linguistically and culturally distinct, territorial groups; the Nicobar Islands appear to have been populated by people of various backgrounds. By the time of European contact, the indigenous inhabitants had coalesced into the Nicobarese people, speaking a Mon-Khmer language. Both are unrelated to the Andamanese, but being related to the Austroasiatic languages in mainland Southeast Asia.
Rajendra Chola I, used the Andaman and Nicobar Islands as a strategic naval base to launch an expedition against the Sriwijaya Empire. The Cholas called the island Ma-Nakkavaram, found in the Thanjavur inscription of 1050 AD. European traveller Marco Polo referred to this island as'Necuverann' and a corrupted form of the Tamil name Nakkavaram would have led to the modern name Nicobar during the British colonial period; the history of organised European colonisation on the islands began when settlers from the Danish East India Company arrived in the Nicobar Islands on 12 December 1755. On 1 January 1756, the Nicobar Islands were made a Danish colony, first named New Denmark, Frederick's Islands. During 1754–1756 they were administrated from Tranquebar; the islands were abandoned due to outbreaks of malaria between 14 April 1759 and 19 August 1768, from 1787 to 1807/05, 1814 to 1831, 1830 to 1834 and from 1848 for good. From 1 June 1778 to 1784, Austria mistakenly assumed that Denmark had abandoned its claims to the Nicobar Islands and attempted to establish a colony on them, renaming them Theresia Islands.
In 1789 the British set up a naval base and penal colony on Chatham Island next to Great Andaman, where now lies the town of Port Blair. Two years the colony was moved to Port Cornwallis on Great Andaman, but it was abandoned in 1796 due to disease. Denmark's presence in the territory ended formally on 16 October 1868 when it sold the rights to the Nicobar Islands to Britain, which made them part of British India in 1869. In 1858 the British again established a colony at Port Blair; the primary purpose was to set up a penal colony for criminal convicts from the Indian subcontinent. The colony came to include the infamous Cellular Jail. In 1872 the Andaman and Nicobar islands were united under a single chief commissioner at Port Blair. During World War II, the islands were under Japanese control, only nominally under the authority of the Arzi Hukumate Azad Hind of Subhash Chandra Bose. Bose visited the islands during the war, renamed them as "Shaheed-dweep" and "Swaraj-dweep". General Loganathan, of the Indian National Army was made the Governor of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
On 22 February 1944 he along with four INA officers -- Sub. Lt. Md. Iqbal, Lt. Suba Singh and stenographer Srinivasan—arrived at Lambaline Airport in Port Blair. On 21 March 1944 the Headquarters of the Civil Administration was established near the Gurudwara at Aberdeen Bazaar. On 2 October 1944, Col. Loganathan handed over the charge to Maj. Alvi and left Port Blair, never to return. Japanese Vice Admiral Hara Teizo, Major-General Tamenori Sato surrendered the islands to Brigadier J A Salomons, commander of 116th Indian Infantry Brigade, Chief Administrator Mr Noel K Patterson, Indian Civil Service, on 7 October 1945, in a ceremony performed on the Gymkhana Ground, Port Blair. During the independence of both India and Burma, the departing British announced their intention to resettle all Anglo-Indians and Anglo-Burmese on these islands to form their own nation, although this never materialised, it became part of India in 1950 and was declared as a union territory of the nation in 1956. India has been developing defence facilities on the islands since the 1
The monitor lizards are large lizards in the genus Varanus. They are native to Africa and Oceania, but are now found in the Americas as an invasive species. A total of 79 species are recognized. Monitor lizards have long necks, powerful tails and claws, well-developed limbs; the adult length of extant species ranges from 20 cm in some species, to over 3 m in the case of the Komodo dragon, though the extinct varanid known as megalania may have been capable of reaching lengths of more than 7 m. Most monitor species are terrestrial, but arboreal and semiaquatic monitors are known. While most monitor lizards are carnivorous, eating eggs, smaller reptiles, fish and small mammals, some eat fruit and vegetation, depending on where they live; the various species cover a vast area, occurring through Africa, the Indian Subcontinent, to China, Ryukyu Islands in southern Japan, down Southeast Asia to Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, New Guinea and islands of the Indian Ocean, the South China Sea. The West Nile monitor is now found in Singapore.
Monitor lizards are entirely carnivorous, consuming prey as varied as insects, arachnids, mollusks, amphibians, reptiles and mammals. Most species feed on invertebrates as juveniles and shift to feeding on vertebrates as adults. Deer make up about 50% of the diet of adults of the largest species, Varanus komodoensis. In contrast, three arboreal species from the Philippines, Varanus bitatawa, Varanus mabitang, Varanus olivaceus, are fruit eaters. Although solitary, groups as large as 25 individual monitor lizards are common in ecosystems that have limited water resources; the genus Varanus is considered unique among animals in that its members are morphologically conservative and yet show a range in size, equivalent to a mouse and an elephant. Finer morphological features such as the shape of the skull and limbs do vary though, are related to the ecology of each species. Monitor lizards maintain large territories and employ active pursuit hunting techniques that are reminiscent of similar sized mammals.
The active nature of monitor lizards has led to numerous studies on the metabolic capacities of these lizards. The general consensus is that monitor lizards have the highest standard metabolic rates of all extant reptiles. Monitor lizards have a high aerobic scope, afforded, in part, by their heart anatomy. Whereas most reptiles are considered to have three chambered hearts, the hearts of monitor lizards — as with those of boas and pythons — have a well developed ventricular septum that separates the pulmonary and systemic sides of the circulatory system during systole; this allows monitor lizards to create mammalian-equivalent pressure differentials between the pulmonary and systemic circuits, which in turn ensures that oxygenated blood is distributed to the body without flooding the lungs with high pressure blood. Anatomical and molecular studies indicate that all varanids are venomous. Monitor lizards are oviparous, laying from 7 to 37 eggs, which they cover with soil or protect in a hollow tree stump.
Some monitor lizards, including the Komodo dragon, are capable of parthenogenesis. The family Varanidae originated in Asia at least 65 million years ago, although some estimates are as early as the late Mesozoic. Monitor lizards expanded their geographic range into Africa between 49 and 33 million years ago via Iran, to Australia and the Indonesian archipelago between 39 and 26 million years ago. Varanids last shared a common ancestor with their closest living relatives, earless "monitors", during the Late Cretaceous. During the Late Cretaceous era, monitor lizards or their close relatives are believed to have evolved into amphibious and fully marine forms, the mosasaurs, some of which reached lengths of 12 m or more. Snakes were believed to be more related to monitor lizards than any other type of extant reptile. Like snakes, monitor lizards have forked tongues. During the Pleistocene epoch, giant monitor lizards lived in Southeast Asia and Australasia, the best known fossil being the megalania.
This species is an iconic member of the Pleistocene megafauna of Australia, thought to have survived up until around 50,000 years ago. The generic name Varanus is derived from the Arabic word waral/waran ورن/ورل, from a common Semitic root ouran, waran, or waral, meaning "dragon" or "lizard beast". In English, they are known as "monitors" or "monitor lizards"; the earlier term "monitory lizard" became rare by about 1920. The name may have been suggested by the occasional habit of varanids to stand on their two hind legs and to appear to "monitor", or from their supposed habit of "warning persons of the approach of venomous animals". In Austronesia, where varanids are common, they are known under a large number of local names, they are known as biawak, binjawak or minjawak, or variations thereof. Other names include hokai, bwo or puo, galuf or kaluf, batua or butaan, hora or ghora and guibang. In South Asia, they are known as hangkok in Meitei, udumbu in Tamil and Malayalam, goih in Maithili, ghorpad घोरपड in Marathi, uda in Kannada, in Sinhalese as kabaragoya
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund