A brothel or bordello is a place where people engage in sexual activity with prostitutes. Technically, any premises where prostitution takes place qualifies as a brothel. However, for legal or cultural reasons, establishments describe themselves as massage parlors, strip clubs, body rub parlours, studios, or by some other description. Sex work in a brothel is considered safer than street prostitution. Around the world, attitudes towards prostitution and how and if it should be regulated vary and have varied over time. Part of the discussion impacts on whether the operation of brothels should be legal, if so, to what sort of regulations they should be subjected. On 2 December 1949, the United Nations General Assembly approved the Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others; the Convention by December 2013 had been ratified by 82 states. The Convention seeks to combat prostitution, which it regards as "incompatible with the dignity and worth of the human person."
Parties to the Convention agreed to abolish regulation of individual prostitutes, to ban brothels and procuring. Some countries not parties to the Convention ban prostitution or the operation of brothels. Various United Nations commissions, have differing positions on the issue. For example, in 2012, a Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS convened by Ban Ki-moon and backed by United Nations Development Programme and UNAIDS, recommended decriminalization of brothels and procuring. In the European Union, there is no consensus on the issue. Netherlands and Germany have the most liberal policies; the European Women's Lobby condemns prostitution as "an intolerable form of male violence" and supports the "Swedish model". In February 2014, the members of the European Parliament voted in a non-binding resolution, in favor of the "Swedish Model" of criminalizing the buying, but not the selling of sex. Prostitution and the operation of brothels is illegal in many countries, though known illegal brothels may be tolerated or laws not enforced.
Such situations exist in many parts of the world, but the region most associated with these policies is Asia. When brothels are illegal they may operate in the guise of a legitimate business, such as massage parlors, saunas or spas. In other places, prostitution itself may be legal, but many activities which surround it are illegal making it difficult for people to engage in prostitution without breaking any law; this is the situation, for example, in the United Kingdom and France. In a few countries and operating a brothel is legal and regulated; the degree of regulation varies by country. Most of these countries allow brothels, at least in theory, as they are considered to be less problematic than street prostitution. In parts of Australia, for example, brothels are legal and regulated. Regulation includes planning controls and licensing and registration requirements, there may be other restrictions. However, the existence of licensed brothels does not stop illegal brothels from operating. According to a report in the Australian Daily Telegraph, illegal brothels in Sydney in 2009 outnumbered licensed operations by four to one.
The introduction of legal brothels in Queensland was to help improve safety of sex workers and the community at large and reduce crime. This is believed to have been successful in many ways in Queensland with The Viper Room being one of the most well known, clean and most regard brothels in Brisbane and Queensland; the Netherlands has one of the most liberal prostitution policies in the world, attracts sex tourists from many other countries. Amsterdam is a destination for sex tourism. Germany has liberal prostitution laws; the largest brothel in Europe is the Pascha in Cologne. Although the Dumas Hotel in Butte, Montana operated from 1890 until 1982, brothels are illegal throughout the United States, except in rural Nevada. All forms of prostitution are illegal in Clark County, which contains the Las Vegas–Paradise metropolitan area; the earliest recorded mention of prostitution as an occupation appears in Sumerian records from ca. 2400 BCE, describes a temple-bordello operated by Sumerian priests in the city of Uruk.
The ` kakum' or temple was housed three grades of women. The first group performed only in the temple sex-rites. In years, sacred prostitution and similar classifications of females were known to have existed in Greece, India and Japan. State brothels/bordellos with regulated prices existed in ancient Athens, created by the legendary lawmaker Solon; these brothels catered for a predominantly male clientele, wit
Josep Joan Bigas i Luna, known artistically as Bigas Luna, was a Spanish film director and artist. His films are characterised by a strong emphasis on the erotic related to food, something for which he admitted a strong passion, his work explores and parodies clichés of Spanish identity, but he had an international career and has made films in the Spanish, Italian and English languages. Luna was born on March 1946 in Barcelona, he began his professional career working in interior and industrial design, creating the Estudio Gris with Carlos Riart in 1969. His designs during the 1960s showed a great interest in conceptual art and the emerging visual technologies, he won the Gold Delta Award ADI/FAD 1970. He moved into movie making in the 1970s. In 1976 he shot his first feature film, achieving notoriety in 1978 with the sexually explicit Bilbao, selected for the Cannes Film Festival. In 1986 he retired to Tarragona in order to devote his time to painting, while raising his three daughters, he and his wife Celia ran an organic farm which produced wine and other organic products.
Luna enjoyed the life of a bon vivant. In 1990 the producer Andrés Vicente Gómez persuaded him to return to cinema and entrusted to him the direction of Las edades de Lulú, an erotic drama about a young woman exploring extreme sexual practices; this was a commercial success. Without abandoning his dedication to painting and photography, reflected in numerous exhibitions, he began the well-known "Iberian Trilogy" with Jamón Jamón, Huevos de Oro and La teta y la luna; these films "explored the darkest depths of eroticism and stereotypical Spanish machismo." Jamón Jamón, which launched the careers of both Javier Bardem and the 16-year-old Penélope Cruz was a major international success and won the Silver Lion at Venice in 1992. Cruz returned in Volavérunt, a film about the relationship between Francisco Goya and the Duchess of Alba. Subsequently, with the short film for the internet Collar de Moscas, he revived his interest in avant-garde experimentation and audiovisual formats and at the same time he discovered a vocation for the investigation of digital cinema after the creation of the Taller Bigas Luna project with Catalina Pons in 1999.
The experience in the Taller introduced them to the world of new technologies and in 2002 they promoted PLATAFORM BL, dedicated to the creation and promotion of innovative projects and new talents. Bigas Luna's varied career as a filmmaker and designer made him a singular and interdisciplinary artist. An example of, his project called "Microcosmos", an evolution of the earlier Cares de l'Ànima, exhibited in the Galería Metropolitana de Barcelona in 1990, it can now be found on a web site, where the visitor can modify and select the works and become, in this way, the creator. Bigas Luna directed and produced a large-scale multimedia installation for the Spain Pavilion at Shanghai Expo 2010, named Origins, as the first part of the Pavilion's trilogy on exhibition; the installation fused live Flamenco dance and videos on more than 20 projectors. From 2008 to 2012, Bigas took on the art direction of the oldest musical café in Europe, El Plata, in Zaragoza. There, he created a cabaret show classified as "Cabaret Ibérico" based on parodies, the old burlesque, etc. accompanied by the typical dishes from Spain, such as paella, ham or Spanish omelette.
Luna died of leukemia on 5 April 2013, while working on the film adaptation of Manuel de Pedrolo's novel Mecanoscrit del segon origen. Tatuaje, director Historias impúdicas, director Bilbao, director Caniche, director Reborn, director Lola, director Anguish and director Las edades de Lulú, director Jamón, jamón, director Huevos de oro, director La teta y la luna, director Lumière et compagnie, director Bámbola, director La Femme de chambre du Titanic, director Volavérunt, director Son de mar, director Yo soy la Juani, director Di Di Hollywood, director Bigas Luna on IMDb Microcosmos Hanna - Film music Yo soy la Juani El Plata Cabaret
The Ages of Lulu
The Ages of Lulu is a 1990 Spanish erotic drama film written and directed by Bigas Luna and starring Francesca Neri, Óscar Ladoire, María Barranco and Javier Bardem. It is based on the homonymous novel by Almudena Grandes; the film is about the title character's life and sexual awakening in Madrid, which leads to her involvement in dangerous sexual experimentation. The fifteen-year-old Lulú is seduced by Pablo, her brother Marcelo's best friend, who leaves to work in the United States. Lulú is sustained for years by the belief; when he returns he proposes to her and they are married. Pablo and Lulú have a passionate relationship. On one nocturnal expedition they join up with a transgender prostitute called Ely who becomes their friend; the couple have Ines. Pablo convinces Lulú to participate blindfolded in a threesome. However, her own desire to play dangerous sex games now comes to consume her. After becoming aroused watching a gay porn movie, she seeks out gay men and pays them to join in orgies, or watch them having sex.
Unable to pay enough to satisfy her desires, she meets a pimp called Remy who runs a secret S&M club. Ely tries to warn Lulú that Remy is dangerous. Remy tells Lulú to go to a club, where she is tied up by Jimmy, a gay man she had paid for sex, she is forced to endure violent sex while gagged and bound. Ely tells Pablo, she goes to the club to rescue her, but is attacked by Jimmy and killed when her head hits a metal bar. Pablo calls the police, who arrest the others. Lulú and Pablo are reunited. Francesca Neri as Lulú Óscar Ladoire as Pablo María Barranco as Ely Javier Bardem as Jimmy Fernando Guillén Cuervo as Marcelo Rosana Pastor as Chelo Juan Graell as Remy Rodrigo Valverde as Pablito Pilar Bardem as Encarna Marta May as Lulú's mother Gloria Rodriquez as Cristina Ángel Jovè as Alicantino Ainara Pérez as Lulú as a child Juan Sala as Lulú's father Pepa Serrano as Flamenca The film is an adaptation of the international best-selling novel with the same name written by Almudena Grandes. Ángela Molina, cast in the lead role, withdrew when she learned how explicit the sex scenes were to be.
Javier Bardem has a uncredited role as a corrupt gay man, one of his first roles on screen. Neri is dubbed into Spanish by another actress; the film was cut in the UK by two minutes and 55 seconds by the BBFC. These cuts include an S&M orgy at a gay club being shortened, a man sexually touching Lulu and a sex scene. In addition to these cuts an opening scene in which Lulu is baptised as a baby was cut as the child's genitalia is exposed to camera; the 2002 UK DVD required 1:15 cuts for baptism scene. The Ages of Lulu was listed on Film4's 50 Sexiest Film Moments. María Barranco won the Goya Award as Best Supporting Actress for her role as a transsexual prostitute; the Ages of Lulu was released on DVD by Umbrella Entertainment in December 2011. The DVD is compatible with region code 4; the Ages of Lulu on IMDb
Little Fugitive (1953 film)
Little Fugitive is an American film written and directed by Raymond Abrashkin, Morris Engel and Ruth Orkin that tells the story of a child alone in Coney Island. The film stars Richard Brewster as his brother Lennie. Little Fugitive influenced the French New Wave and is considered by modern-day critics to be a landmark film because of its naturalistic style and groundbreaking use of nonprofessional actors in lead roles, it was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Writing, Motion Picture Story and screened at Venice film festival where it was awarded the silver lion. In 1997, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant", it was the best known of Engel's three feature films. It was followed by Lovers and Lollipops in 1956 and Weddings and Babies, filmed in 1957 and released in 1960. All three films were similar stylistically and were filmed with hand-held 35 mm. cameras. The cameras used in the first two movies did not record sound, dialogue was dubbed subsequent to filming.
Weddings and Babies was the first fiction feature filmed with a portable camera that allowed synchronized sound. Joey Norton, seven years old, lives with his older brother Lennie in a lower-middle-class neighborhood of Brooklyn. Joey is too small to be taken by Lennie and Lennie's friends. One day, while their mother is away visiting her sick mother and his friends play a joke on Joey, they stage an incident using catsup and a toy gun, so that Joey thinks he has shot and killed his brother. Joey, told the police will catch and imprison him, runs to the nearest elevated train station and flees to Coney Island, he seems to forget his predicament and spends the day wandering around the arcades, pony rides, beach—a little boy's paradise. He gets money for snacks by cashing in deposit bottles and spends the night sleeping under the boardwalk. Meanwhile, Lennie is frantically trying to find him. Joey loves horses, he begins hanging around a pony ride; the proprietor of the ride becomes suspicious. He tricks Joey into giving him his address.
He alerts Lennie. Lennie comes to Coney Island, after a frantic search, finds little Joey, their mother returns. She is unaware of what happened, pleased that her two sons behaved so well during her absence, says they will have a treat that weekend: a trip to Coney Island! Richie Andrusco as Joey Norton Richard Brewster as Lennie Norton Winifred Cushing as Mother Jay Williams as Jay the Pony Ride Man Will Lee as Photographer Charlie Moss as Harry Tommy DeCanio as Charley The lead character of Joey was played by Richie Andrusco, a nonprofessional actor who never appeared in any other film; the other actors in the film were largely nonprofessionals. Actor Will Lee made a cameo appearance as a Coney Island photographer. Writer/director Raymond Abrashkin and actor Jay Williams co-wrote the "Danny Dunn" series of juvenile science fiction novels; the movie was filmed on location at Coney Island and Brooklyn, United States, using a unique, concealed strap-on camera, which made it possible for Engel to work without a tripod and large crew.
It allowed him to have thousands of beach-going New Yorkers as extras without their knowing it. The device could be seen as a prototype for the Steadicam and was designed by him and the inventor Charlie Woodruff, a friend and fellow combat photographer he met during World War II, whom Engel called a ""mechanical and engineering genius." This innovation proved to be "the heart and soul of why Little Fugitive was possible." Over the years, filmmakers such as Stanley Kubrick and Jean-Luc Godard were eager to borrow this unique camera. The film was greeted by critical acclaim at the time, was a major influence on the French New Wave. François Truffaut was inspired by Little Fugitive's spontaneous production style when he created The 400 Blows, saying long afterwards: "Our New Wave would never have come into being if it hadn't been for the young American Morris Engel, who showed us the way to independent production with fine movie."Modern critics have praised the film. Critic Dennis Schwartz wrote "A remarkable indy classic, made on a shoestring budget by a group of still photographers.
It's an affecting lyrical comedy-drama that captures the flavor of urban childhood innocence of the 1950s. It's written and directed by the team of Morris Engel and Ray Ashley and Ruth Orkin... The dialogue was sparse, the story was unambitious, the film lacked drama, the children were ordinary and their problem was only a minor one this beautifully realized film caught the world through the innocent eyes of a curious and scared child and left an impression, hard to shake, it was uplifting to watch because the effort was so genuine."When the film was screened in New York in 2005, film critic Joshua Land wrote "Little Fugitive shines as a beautifully shot document of a bygone Brooklyn—any drama here resides in the grainy black-and-white cinematography, with its careful attention to the changes in light brought on by the inexorably advancing sun... Filled with'Aw, fellas!' period ambience and the mythic imagery of cowboys and horses and baseball, it's a key proto-vérité slice of urban America."Rotten Tomatoes reported that 93% of critics gave the film a positive review, based on 15 reviews.
Wins Venice Film Festival: Silver Lion, Ray Ashley, Morris Engel, Ruth Orkin. Italian National Syndicate of Film Journalists: Silver Ribbon, Best Foreign Film, Ray Ashley, Morris Engel, Ruth Orkin. Nominations Venice
Venice Film Festival
The Venice Film Festival or Venice International Film Festival is the oldest film festival in the world and one of the "Big Three" film festivals, alongside the Cannes Film Festival and Berlin International Film Festival. The Big Three are internationally acclaimed for giving creators the artistic freedom to express themselves through film. Founded in Venice, Italy, in August 1932, the festival is part of the Venice Biennale, an exhibition of Italian art founded by the Venice City Council on 19 April 1893; the range of work at the Venice Biennale now covers Italian and international art, dance, music and cinema. These works are experienced at separate exhibitions: the International Art Exhibition, the International Festival of Contemporary Music, the International Theatre Festival, the International Architecture Exhibition, the International Festival of Contemporary Dance, the International Kids' Carnival, the annual Venice Film Festival, arguably the best-known of all the events; the festival is held in late August or early September on the island of the Lido in the Venice Lagoon.
Screenings take place in the historic Palazzo del Cinema on the Lungomare Marconi. The festival continues to be one of the world's most fastest-growing; the 76th Venice International Film Festival is scheduled for 28 August to 7 September 2019. During the 1930s, the government and Italian citizens were interested in film. Of the money Italians spent on cultural or sporting events, most of it went for movies; the majority of films screened in Italy were American, which led to government involvement in the film industry and the yearning to celebrate Italian culture in general. With this in mind, the Venice International Film Festival was created by Giuseppe Volpi, Luciano de Feo, Antonio Maraini in 1932. Volpi, a statesman, wealthy businessman, avid fascist, Benito Mussolini's minister of finance, was appointed president of the Venice Biennale the same year. Maraini served as the festival's secretary general, de Feo headed its executive committee. On the night of 6 August 1932, the festival opened with a screening of the American film Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde on the terrace of the Excelsior Palace Hotel.
A total of nine countries participated in the festival. No awards were given at the first festival, but an audience referendum was held to determine which films and performances were most praiseworthy; the French film À Nous la Liberté was voted the Film Più Divertente. The Sin of Madelon Claudet was chosen the Film Più Commovente and its star, Helen Hayes, the best actress. Most Original Film was given to Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, its leading man, Fredric March, was voted best actor. Despite the success of the first festival, it did not return in 1933. In 1934, the festival was declared to be an annual event, participation grew from nine countries to seventeen; that year the festival gave its first official awards, namely the Mussolini Cup for Best Italian Film, the Mussolini Cup for Best Foreign Film, the Corporations Ministry Cup. Seventeen awards were given: fourteen to films and three to individuals. Five films received; the third installment of the festival in 1935 was headed by its first artistic director, Ottavio Croze, who maintained this position until World War II.
The following year, a jury was added to the festival's governing body. The majority of funds for the festival came from the Ministry of Popular Culture, with other portions from the Biennale and the city of Venice; the year 1936 marked another important development in the festival. A law crafted by the Ministry of Popular Culture made the festival an autonomous entity, separate from the main Venice Biennale; this allowed additional fascist organizations, such as the Department of Cinema and the Fascist National Federation of Entertainment Industries, to take control of the festival. The fifth year of the festival saw the establishment of its permanent home. Designed and completed in 1937, the Palazzo del Cinema was built on the Lido; the Palazzo has since been the site for every Venice Film Festival, with the exception of the three years from 1940 to 1942, when the festival was moved away from Venice for fear of bombing. However, Venice received no damage during that time; the 1940s represent one of the most difficult moments for the festival itself.
Nazi propaganda movie Heimkehr was presented in 1941 winning an award from the Italian Ministry of Popular Culture. With the advent of the conflict the situation degenerated to such a point that the editions of 1940, 1941 and 1942, subsequently are considered as if they did not happen because they were carried out in places far away from Lido. Additionally, the festival was renamed the Italian-German Film Festival in 1940; the festival carried this title until 1942. The festival resumed full speed after the war. For the first time, the 1946 edition was held in the month of September, in accordance to an agreement with the newly-born Cannes Film Festival, which had just held its first review in the spring of that year. With the return of normalcy, Venice once again became a great icon of the film world. In 1947 the festival was held in the courtyard of the Doge's Palace, a most magnificent backdrop for hosting a record 90 thousand participants; the 1947 festival is considered one of the most successful editions in the history of the festival.
In 1963 the winds of change blow during Luigi C
The Tit and the Moon
The Tit and the Moon is a 1994 Spanish/French film, directed by Bigas Luna. It entered the competition at the 51st Venice International Film Festival; the film is about a nine-year-old boy's obsession with women's breasts. Tete becomes jealous of his baby brother, breast fed by their mother. Tete goes on a personal mission to find the perfect pair of lactating breasts to feed on. Estrellita, a beautiful French dancer arrives in the answer to Tete's prayers. For Tete, Estrellita is the attention of many adult men's affections including her husband Maurice, an older man working as the other half of her travelling act, attractive Flamenco-singing teenager Miguel. With this amount of competition will Tete fulfil his wish? Biel Durán as Tete Mathilda May as Estrellita Gérard Darmon as Maurice Miguel Poveda as Miquel Abel Folk as Father Laura Mañá as Mare Genís Sánchez as Stallone Xavier Massé as El Abuelo Victoria Lepori as La de las tetas Xus Estruch as La madre de Stallone Jane Harvey as La Caballé Vanessa Isbert as Novia de Stallone Jordi Busquets as Cap Colla Salvador Anglada as Casteller Javier Bardem The Tit and the Moon on IMDb The Tit and the Moon at Rotten TomatoesReviewsReview of the UK Region 0 DVD at DVD Times
In a modern sense, comedy refers to any discourse or work intended to be humorous or amusing by inducing laughter in theatre, film, stand-up comedy, or any other medium of entertainment. The origins of the term are found in Ancient Greece. In the Athenian democracy, the public opinion of voters was influenced by the political satire performed by the comic poets at the theaters; the theatrical genre of Greek comedy can be described as a dramatic performance which pits two groups or societies against each other in an amusing agon or conflict. Northrop Frye depicted these two opposing sides as a "Society of Youth" and a "Society of the Old." A revised view characterizes the essential agon of comedy as a struggle between a powerless youth and the societal conventions that pose obstacles to his hopes. In this struggle, the youth is understood to be constrained by his lack of social authority, is left with little choice but to take recourse in ruses which engender dramatic irony which provokes laughter.
Satire and political satire use comedy to portray persons or social institutions as ridiculous or corrupt, thus alienating their audience from the object of their humor. Parody subverts popular genres and forms, critiquing those forms without condemning them. Other forms of comedy include screwball comedy, which derives its humor from bizarre, surprising situations or characters, black comedy, characterized by a form of humor that includes darker aspects of human behavior or human nature. Scatological humor, sexual humor, race humor create comedy by violating social conventions or taboos in comic ways. A comedy of manners takes as its subject a particular part of society and uses humor to parody or satirize the behavior and mannerisms of its members. Romantic comedy is a popular genre that depicts burgeoning romance in humorous terms and focuses on the foibles of those who are falling in love; the word "comedy" is derived from the Classical Greek κωμῳδία kōmōidía, a compound either of κῶμος kômos or κώμη kṓmē and ᾠδή ōidḗ.
The adjective "comic", which means that which relates to comedy is, in modern usage confined to the sense of "laughter-provoking". Of this, the word came into modern usage through the Latin comoedia and Italian commedia and has, over time, passed through various shades of meaning; the Greeks and Romans confined their use of the word "comedy" to descriptions of stage-plays with happy endings. Aristotle defined comedy as an imitation of men worse than the average. However, the characters portrayed in comedies were not worse than average in every way, only insofar as they are Ridiculous, a species of the Ugly; the Ridiculous may be defined as a deformity not productive of pain or harm to others. In the Middle Ages, the term expanded to include narrative poems with happy endings, it is in this sense that Dante used the term in the title of La Commedia. As time progressed, the word came more and more to be associated with any sort of performance intended to cause laughter. During the Middle Ages, the term "comedy" became synonymous with satire, with humour in general.
Aristotle's Poetics was translated into Arabic in the medieval Islamic world, where it was elaborated upon by Arabic writers and Islamic philosophers, such as Abu Bischr, his pupils Al-Farabi and Averroes. They disassociated comedy from Greek dramatic representation and instead identified it with Arabic poetic themes and forms, such as hija, they viewed comedy as the "art of reprehension", made no reference to light and cheerful events, or to the troubling beginnings and happy endings associated with classical Greek comedy. After the Latin translations of the 12th century, the term "comedy" gained a more general meaning in medieval literature. In the late 20th century, many scholars preferred to use the term laughter to refer to the whole gamut of the comic, in order to avoid the use of ambiguous and problematically defined genres such as the grotesque and satire. Starting from 425 BCE, Aristophanes, a comic playwright and satirical author of the Ancient Greek Theater, wrote 40 comedies, 11 of which survive.
Aristophanes developed his type of comedy from the earlier satyr plays, which were highly obscene. The only surviving examples of the satyr plays are by Euripides, which are much examples and not representative of the genre. In ancient Greece, comedy originated in bawdy and ribald songs or recitations apropos of phallic processions and fertility festivals or gatherings. Around 335 BCE, Aristotle, in his work Poetics, stated that comedy originated in phallic processions and the light treatment of the otherwise base and ugly, he adds that the origins of comedy are obscure because it was not treated from its inception. However, comedy had its own Muse: Thalia. Aristotle taught that comedy was positive for society, since it brings forth happiness, which for Aristotle was the ideal state, the final goal in any activity. For Aristotle, a comedy did not need to involve sexual humor. A comedy is about the fortunate rise of a sympathetic character. Aristotle divides comedy into three categories or subgenres: farce, romantic comedy, satire.
On the contrary, Plato taught. He believed that it produces an emotion that overrides ra