Jamaica at the 2012 Summer Olympics
Jamaica competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, from 27 July to 12 August 2012. This was Jamaica's most successful performance in the Summer Olympics. Jamaica's participation in London marked its sixteenth appearance as an independent nation, although it had competed in four other games as a British colony, as part of the West Indies Federation. Usain Bolt became the nation's greatest highlight of these games, having won three of Jamaica's four gold medals at London, breaking an Olympic and world record in two of the three events in which he participated; because of his repeated successes for the most medals and records, Bolt became Jamaica's first male flag bearer at the opening ceremony since 1984. Jamaica's participation in these Olympic games marked its sixteenth appearance as an independent nation since 1964, although it had competed in four Olympic games under two different colonies. Although the Jamaican athletes had won at every Olympic games since its debut, the nation's delegation to the London Olympics proved to be its most successful performance at any other Olympic games.
It was represented by 50 athletes, competing only in 4 sports, which covered the same team size with the previous games. Despite the nation failed to target the number of gold medals from the previous games, Jamaica has created its historical record by winning the most Olympic medals in the overall standings. At these Olympic games, 18 athletes were awarded medals for their performance in events. Four of those athletes received three of them were Olympic champions from Beijing. Being the greatest highlight in the track and field, Usain Bolt defended his Olympic titles in London, after winning three gold medals in the same events he participated, he was able to break another Olympic record by the fastest time in the men's 100 metres, the world record, together with his team, in the men's 4 × 100 metres relay. Although he failed to break another record in the men's 200 metres, Bolt became the first athlete in Olympic history to defend his title in that event, winning the gold medal. Two of his compatriots, Yohan Blake and Warren Weir had to settle for the silver and the bronze medal, respectively.
This was the second time that all Jamaican athletes guaranteed the medal standings in a single event, the first in the women's 100 metres sprint at the Beijing games in 2008. Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce defended her Olympic title by winning the gold medal in the women's 100 metres, ahead of her compatriot Veronica Campbell-Brown, American sprinter Carmelita Jeter. Among the 50 athletes competing in these Olympic games, three of them were from equestrian and taekwondo. Samantha Albert, the nation's only equestrian rider, was the oldest of the team, at age 41. Swimmer Alia Atkinson, competing in the freestyle and breaststroke events, became the first to reach into the final after winning the swim-off showdown over Canada's Tera van Bailen in the women's 100 m breaststroke, but she narrowly missed the nation's first medal in swimming by finishing abruptly in fourth place. Jamaica marked its debut in taekwondo, competed by Kenneth Edwards in the men's super heavyweight division. * - Heats only. Field events Swimmers have so far achieved qualifying standards in the following events: WomenLegend = WSO Win swim-off.
Cycling at the 1984 Summer Olympics
The cycling competition at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles consisted of three road cycling events and five track cycling events. For the first time, women's cycling events were included in the Olympic program. Newly introduced in these Games was the men's points race event. 359 cyclists from 54 nations competed. Cycling at the Friendship Games
Merlene Joyce Ottey OD is a Jamaican former track and field sprinter. She began her career representing Jamaica, before representing Slovenia from 2002 to 2012, she is ranked fourth on the all-time list over 60 metres, seventh on the all-time list over 100 metres and fourth on the all-time list over 200 metres. She is the current world indoor record holder for 200 metres with 21.87 seconds, set in 1993. Ottey had the longest career as a top level international sprinter appearing at the Pan Am games in 1979 as a 19 year old fresh from U20 and Junior competitions, concluding her career at age 52 when she anchored the Slovene 4 × 100 m relay team at the 2012 European Championships. A nine-time Olympic medalist, she holds the record for the most Olympic appearances of any track and field athlete. Although gold medal success at the Olympics eluded Ottey, she was able to bring home three silvers and six bronze medals, she won 14 World Championship medals, still holds the record for most medals in individual events with 10.
Her career achievements and longevity led to her being called the "Queen of the Track". Her proclivity for earning bronze medals in major championships earned her the title of "Bronze Queen" in track circles. Ottey was married to the American high jumper and 400 m hurdler Nat Page and was known as Merlene Ottey-Page during the mid-eighties. Merlene Ottey was born to Hubert and Joan Ottey in Cold Spring, Jamaica, she was introduced to the sport by her mother, who bought her a manual on field. In her early school years in the 1970s, Ottey attended Gurneys Mount and Pondside Schools before graduating from Ruseas and Vere Technical high schools. There she competed barefoot in local races. Ottey's inspiration came from listening to the track and field broadcast from the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, where Donald Quarrie ran in the sprint finals, her athletics career took off when she moved to the US and attended the University of Nebraska in 1979, where she joined the track team. She represented Jamaica in the 1979 Pan American Games.
She graduated from university with a Bachelor of Arts Degree and married fellow athlete Nathaniel Page in 1984 and used the name Merlene Ottey-Page. The couple divorced. In the 1980 Moscow games, Ottey became the first female English-speaking Caribbean athlete to win an Olympic medal. Back in Jamaica, she was awarded an Officer of the Order of Nation, the Order of Distinction for'services in the field of sport'. In the 1982 Commonwealth Games, Ottey won a gold medal in the 200 m and silver medal in the 100 m. Nearly a decade in the 1990 Commonwealth Games, she won gold in both events. Ottey was named Ambassador of Jamaica after her gold medal win in the 1993 world championships, she has been named Jamaican Sportswoman of the year 13 times between 1979 and 1995. Throughout her career, she has won nine Olympic medals, which ties with Allyson Felix for the most by any woman in track and field history; these include six bronze medals. She has never won an Olympic gold medal, but lost by five thousandths of a second to Gail Devers in the 100 m Final at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta when they both recorded the same time of 10.94 seconds.
This was not her closest finish to Devers – she recorded a time of 10.812 seconds to Devers' 10.811 seconds in the 1993 World Championships in Stuttgart – still the closest finish at an international athletics meet. Her seven Olympic appearances from 1980 to 2004 are the most by any Field athlete; the next highest is six, by javelin thrower and heptathlete Tessa Sanderson, discus thrower Lia Manoliu, middle-distance runners Maria Mutola and João N'Tyamba. She held the record for most World Championship medals, winning 14 between 1983 and 1997, until Allyson Felix took her total from 13 to 16 in 2017. Ottey still holds the record for most World Championship medals in individual events, with 10. 13 of her medals at the Olympics and World Championships were bronze, earning her the nickname "the Bronze Queen" in racing circles. Ottey was appointed an Ambassador at Large by the Jamaican government in 1993. In 1999, during a meet in Lucerne, Switzerland, a urine sample submitted had returned positive for the banned anabolic steroid nandrolone.
Her'B' sample contained higher than normal levels of the substance. Ottey was subsequently banned by the IAAF from competing in the World Championships in Seville, Spain. Ottey fought to clear her name, asserting that charge was a "terrible mistake", that she was innocent of knowingly taking steroids. In the summer of 2000, Ottey was cleared of all charges by the Jamaica Amateur Athletic Association, the IAAF lifted its two-year ban, after the CAS dismissed the case; the Court of Arbitration for Sport dismissed the case because the retesting order by the CAS was not completed in the time frame allotted. In Jamaica, at the National Senior Trials before selection for the Olympics, Ottey placed a disappointing fourth. According to the rules of the Jamaica Amateur Athletics Association, only athletes who had finished in the top three at the trials were eligible to run at the Olympics. Ottey asked that she be substituted for another team member, a courtesy, extended to others in the past; the JAAA's decision to replace Peta-Gaye Dowdie with Ottey caused widespread controversy.
Dowdie's team members and many Jamaicans believed. She was construed as an aging icon trying to retain power by usurping the place of a younger and worthy athlete. Jamaican 400 m Olympian and championship medallist Gregory Haughton lead the
1984 Summer Olympics
The 1984 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XXIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event, held from July 28 to August 12, 1984, in Los Angeles, United States. This was the second time that Los Angeles had hosted the Games, the first being in 1932. California was the home state of the incumbent U. S. President Ronald Reagan, who opened the Games; the logo for the 1984 Games, branded "Stars in Motion", featured red and blue stars arranged horizontally and struck through with alternating streaks. The official mascot of the Games was Sam the Olympic Eagle; these were the first Summer Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Juan Antonio Samaranch. The 1984 Games were boycotted by a total of fourteen Eastern Bloc countries, including the Soviet Union and East Germany, in response to the American-led boycott of the previous 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow in protest of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Iran and Libya chose to boycott the Games for unrelated reasons. Despite the field being depleted in certain sports due to the boycott, 140 National Olympic Committees took part, a record at the time.
The 1984 Summer Olympics are considered to be the most financially successful modern Olympics and serve as an example of how to run the model Olympic Games. As a result of low construction costs, coupled with a reliance on private corporate funding, the 1984 Olympic Games generated a profit of more than $250 million. On July 18, 2009, a 25th anniversary celebration was held in the main Olympic Stadium; the celebration included a speech by the former president of the Los Angeles Olympic Organizing Committee, Peter Ueberroth, a re-creation of the lighting of the cauldron. Los Angeles will host the Summer Olympics for the third time in 2028. After the murder of Israeli athletes by Palestinian terrorists in Munich and the significant financial debts of Montreal, few cities by the late 1970s were willing to bid for the Summer Olympics. Only two cities made serious bids for the 1984 Summer Games, but before the final selection of a "winning" city in 1978, the bid from Tehran was withdrawn as a result of Iran's policy changes following the Iranian Revolution and a change in the country's ruling system.
Hence, the selection process for the 1984 Summer Olympics consisted of a single finalized bid from Los Angeles, which the International Olympic Committee accepted. The selection was made at the 80th IOC Session in Athens on 18 May 1978. Los Angeles had unsuccessfully bid for the two previous Summer Olympics, for 1976 and 1980; the United States Olympic Committee had submitted at least one bid for every Olympics since 1944, but had not succeeded since the Los Angeles Olympics in 1932, the previous time only a single bid had been issued for the Summer Olympics. The 1984 Olympic Torch Relay began in New York City and ended in Los Angeles, traversing 33 states and the District of Columbia. Unlike torch relays, the torch was continuously carried by runners on foot; the route involved 3,636 runners. Noted athlete O. J. Simpson was among the runners. Gina Hemphill, granddaughter of Jesse Owens, carried the torch into the Coliseum, completed a lap around the track handed it off to the final runner, Rafer Johnson, winner of the decathlon at the 1960 Summer Olympics.
With the torch, he touched off the flame which passed through a specially designed flammable Olympic logo, igniting all five rings. The flame passed up to cauldron atop the peristyle and remained aflame for the duration of the Games. John Williams composed the theme for the Olympiad, "Olympic Fanfare and Theme"; this piece won a Grammy for Williams and became one of the most well-known musical themes of the Olympic Games, along with Leo Arnaud's "Bugler's Dream". Composer Bill Conti wrote a song to inspire the weightlifters called "Power". An album, The Official Music of the XXIII Olympiad—Los Angeles 1984, featured three of those tracks along with sports themes written for the occasion by popular musical artists including Foreigner, Loverboy, Herbie Hancock, Quincy Jones, Christopher Cross, Philip Glass and Giorgio Moroder; the Brazilian composer Sérgio Mendes produced a special song for the 1984 Olympic Games, "Olympia," from his 1984 album Confetti. A choir of one thousand voices was assembled of singers in the region.
All were volunteers from nearby churches and universities. Etta James performed ``. Vicki McClure along with the International Children's Choir of Long Beach sang "Reach Out and Touch". Lionel Richie performed a 9-minute version of his hit single "All Night Long" at the closing ceremonies; the 1984 Summer Olympics was preceded by the 10-week-long adjunct Los Angeles Olympic Arts Festival, which opened on June 2 and ended on August 12. It provided more than 400 performances by 146 theater and music companies, representing every continent and 18 countries, it was organized by then-CalArts President Robert Fitzpatrick. The opening ceremony featured the arrival of Bill Suitor by means of the Bell Aerosystems rocket pack; the United States Army Band formed the Olympic rings to start the opening ceremony. The United States topped the medal count for the first time since 1968, winning a record 83 gold medals and surpassing the Soviet Union’s total of 80 golds at the 1980 Summer Olympics; as a result of an IOC agreement designating the Republic of China in the name of Chinese Taipei, the Peo
Athletics at the 1984 Summer Olympics
At the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, 41 events in athletics were contested. There were a total number of 1273 participating athletes from 124 countries. Women’s marathon and women’s 3000 meters were contested for the first time at these Games. * Athletes who ran in preliminary round and received medals. Athletics at the Friendship Games 1984 in athletics Athletics Australia
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea. Spanning 10,990 square kilometres in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles and the fourth-largest island country in the Caribbean. Jamaica lies about 145 kilometres south of Cuba, 191 kilometres west of Hispaniola. Inhabited by the indigenous Arawak and Taíno peoples, the island came under Spanish rule following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1494. Many of the indigenous people died of disease, the Spanish transplanted African slaves to Jamaica as labourers; the island remained a possession of Spain until 1655, when England conquered it and renamed it Jamaica. Under British colonial rule Jamaica became a leading sugar exporter, with its plantation economy dependent on African slaves; the British emancipated all slaves in 1838, many freedmen chose to have subsistence farms rather than to work on plantations. Beginning in the 1840s, the British utilized Chinese and Indian indentured labour to work on plantations.
The island achieved independence from the United Kingdom on 6 August 1962. With 2.9 million people, Jamaica is the third-most populous Anglophone country in the Americas, the fourth-most populous country in the Caribbean. Kingston is the country's capital and largest city, with a population of 937,700. Jamaicans have African ancestry, with significant European, Indian and mixed-race minorities. Due to a high rate of emigration for work since the 1960s, Jamaica has a large diaspora in Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States. Jamaica is an upper-middle income country with an average of 4.3 million tourists a year. Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm, with Elizabeth II as its queen, her appointed representative in the country is the Governor-General of Jamaica, an office held by Sir Patrick Allen since 2009. Andrew Holness has served as Prime Minister of Jamaica since March 2016. Jamaica is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with legislative power vested in the bicameral Parliament of Jamaica, consisting of an appointed Senate and a directly elected House of Representatives.
The indigenous people, the Taíno, called the island Xaymaca in Arawakan, meaning the "Land of Wood and Water" or the "Land of Springs". Colloquially Jamaicans refer to their home island as the "Rock." Slang names such as "Jamrock", "Jamdown", or "Ja", have derived from this. The Arawak and Taíno indigenous people, originating in South America, first settled on the island between 4000 and 1000 BC; when Christopher Columbus arrived in 1494, there were more than 200 villages ruled by caciques. The south coast of Jamaica was the most populated around the area now known as Old Harbour; the Taino still inhabited Jamaica when the English took control of the island in 1655. The Jamaican National Heritage Trust is attempting to locate and document any evidence of the Taino/yamaye. Today, few Jamaican natives remain. Most notably among some Maroon communities as well as within some communities in Cornwall County, Jamaica Christopher Columbus claimed Jamaica for Spain after landing there in 1494, his probable landing point was Dry Harbour, called Discovery Bay, St. Ann's Bay was named "Saint Gloria" by Columbus, as the first sighting of the land.
One and a half kilometres west of St. Ann's Bay is the site of the first Spanish settlement on the island, established in 1509 and abandoned around 1524 because it was deemed unhealthy; the capital was moved to Spanish Town called St. Jago de la Vega, around 1534. Spanish Town has the oldest cathedral of the British colonies in the Caribbean; the Spanish were forcibly evicted by the English at Ocho Rios in St. Ann. In the 1655 Invasion of Jamaica, the English, led by Sir William Penn and General Robert Venables, took over the last Spanish fort on the island; the name of Montego Bay, the capital of the parish of St. James, was derived from the Spanish name manteca bahía, alluding to the lard-making industry based on processing the numerous boars in the area. In 1660, the population of Jamaica was about 4,500 1,500 black. By the early 1670s, as the English developed sugar cane plantations and "imported" more slaves, black people formed a majority of the population; the colony was shaken and destroyed by the 1692 Jamaica earthquake.
The Irish in Jamaica formed a large part of the island's early population, making up two-thirds of the white population on the island in the late 17th century, twice that of the English population. They were brought in as indentured labourers and soldiers after the conquest of Jamaica by Cromwell's forces in 1655; the majority of Irish were transported by force as political prisoners of war from Ireland as a result of the ongoing Wars of the Three Kingdoms at the time. Migration of large numbers of Irish to the island continued into the 18th century. Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492 and forcibly converted to Christianity in Portugal, during a period of persecution by the Inquisition; some Spanish and Portuguese Jewish refugees went to the Netherlands and England, from there to Jamaica. Others were part of the Iberian colonisation of the New World, after overtly converting to Catholicism, as only Catholics were allowed in the Spanish colonies. By 1660, Jamaica had become a refuge for Jews in the New World attracting those, expelled from Spain and Portugal.
An early group of Jews arrived in 1510, soon after the son of Christopher Columbus settled on the island. Working as merchants and traders, the
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were