Yellow-billed blue magpie
The yellow-billed blue magpie or gold-billed magpie is a passerine bird in the crow and jay family, Corvidae. It forms a superspecies with the red-billed blue magpie; the species ranges across the northern parts of the Indian Subcontinent including the lower Himalayas, with a disjunct population in Vietnam. Length 66 cm, including tail of about 46 cm. Sexes alike. Head and breast black, with a white patch on the nape, it is divided into two races. Of these, U. f. cucullata is the better known and is found from the Western boundary of the range to Western Nepal, being a common species about most of the hill stations of the Western Himalayas, breeding in a zone from 1,500 to 3,000 m. The typical form is found from Eastern Nepal eastwards and differs in that the under parts have a darker lilac tinge. A resident species, but during the winter months it deserts the higher parts of its summer zone. From Simla eastwards, the allied red-billed blue magpie is found in the same areas as the yellow-billed species.
The blue magpies are, as may be judged from their handsome tails arboreal birds. They feed on the ground and adopt a curious hopping gait, with the tail held high to prevent it coming into contact with the ground, they live in parties of seven or eight birds and are partial to particular localities, so that once a party has taken up its abode in any particular nullah or patch of forest it will be found there. They are active, flying incessantly from bough to bough and not hesitating to launch high into the air when flying from ridge to ridge; the flight is rather slow and undulating once the bird comes into the open. The food consists of small mammals, the eggs and young of other birds and wild fruits and berries of various kinds; this bird is noisy. The nest is built in a fork of a tree of moderate size but with dense foliage, is difficult to find, it is a rather large and constructed cup of sticks with a lining of fine grass and fibres. The clutch consists of four eggs; the base-colour varies from a pale, dingy yellowish-stone colour to a darkish rather reddish-stone colour, there is occasionally a faint greenish tinge.
The markings consist of small specks, blotches and mottlings of various shades of brown, sienna 1 or purple, they tend to collect in a cap or zone about the broad end of the egg
Crypsirina is a small genus of long-tailed passerine birds in the crow and jay family, Corvidae. The two species are arboreal and come to the ground to feed, they are The racket-tailed treepie placed in Dendrocitta, is an all-black Southeast Asian species. The grey and black hooded treepie is endemic to Myanmar. Madge and Burn and Jays ISBN 0-7136-3999-7
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, can reproduce sexually, grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million animal species in total. Animals range in length from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The category includes humans, but in colloquial use the term animal refers only to non-human animals; the study of non-human animals is known as zoology. Most living animal species are in the Bilateria, a clade whose members have a bilaterally symmetric body plan; the Bilateria include the protostomes—in which many groups of invertebrates are found, such as nematodes and molluscs—and the deuterostomes, containing the echinoderms and chordates.
Life forms interpreted. Many modern animal phyla became established in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion which began around 542 million years ago. 6,331 groups of genes common to all living animals have been identified. Aristotle divided animals into those with those without. Carl Linnaeus created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809. In 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into the multicellular Metazoa and the Protozoa, single-celled organisms no longer considered animals. In modern times, the biological classification of animals relies on advanced techniques, such as molecular phylogenetics, which are effective at demonstrating the evolutionary relationships between animal taxa. Humans make use of many other animal species for food, including meat and eggs. Dogs have been used in hunting, while many aquatic animals are hunted for sport.
Non-human animals have appeared in art from the earliest times and are featured in mythology and religion. The word "animal" comes from the Latin animalis, having soul or living being; the biological definition includes all members of the kingdom Animalia. In colloquial usage, as a consequence of anthropocentrism, the term animal is sometimes used nonscientifically to refer only to non-human animals. Animals have several characteristics. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, unlike bacteria, which are prokaryotic, unlike protists, which are eukaryotic but unicellular. Unlike plants and algae, which produce their own nutrients animals are heterotrophic, feeding on organic material and digesting it internally. With few exceptions, animals breathe oxygen and respire aerobically. All animals are motile during at least part of their life cycle, but some animals, such as sponges, corals and barnacles become sessile; the blastula is a stage in embryonic development, unique to most animals, allowing cells to be differentiated into specialised tissues and organs.
All animals are composed of cells, surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins. During development, the animal extracellular matrix forms a flexible framework upon which cells can move about and be reorganised, making the formation of complex structures possible; this may be calcified, forming structures such as shells and spicules. In contrast, the cells of other multicellular organisms are held in place by cell walls, so develop by progressive growth. Animal cells uniquely possess the cell junctions called tight junctions, gap junctions, desmosomes. With few exceptions—in particular, the sponges and placozoans—animal bodies are differentiated into tissues; these include muscles, which enable locomotion, nerve tissues, which transmit signals and coordinate the body. There is an internal digestive chamber with either one opening or two openings. Nearly all animals make use of some form of sexual reproduction, they produce haploid gametes by meiosis.
These fuse to form zygotes, which develop via mitosis into a hollow sphere, called a blastula. In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location, attach to the seabed, develop into a new sponge. In most other groups, the blastula undergoes more complicated rearrangement, it first invaginates to form a gastrula with a digestive chamber and two separate germ layers, an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm. In most cases, a third germ layer, the mesoderm develops between them; these germ layers differentiate to form tissues and organs. Repeated instances of mating with a close relative during sexual reproduction leads to inbreeding depression within a population due to the increased prevalence of harmful recessive traits. Animals have evolved numerous mechanisms for avoiding close inbreeding. In some species, such as the splendid fairywren, females benefit by mating with multiple males, thus producing more offspring of higher genetic quality; some animals are capable of asexual reproduction, which results
The grey treepie known as the Himalayan treepie, is an Asian treepie, a medium-sized and long-tailed member of the crow family. They are distributed along the foothills of the Himalayas in the Indian Subcontinent and extending into Indochina, southern mainland China and Taiwan; the populations vary in plumage and several are named as subspecies. Grey treepies are omnivorous birds thriving among dense foliage and in forests, they sometimes take part in mixed species flocks with laughingthrushes the white-throated laughingthrush. They systematically work together through the hill forests, rhododendrons and other broad-leaved trees in the mornings; the grey treepie weighs 89 -- 121 g. It is the same size as other Dendrocitta species and is separated from them by the overall grey colour of the body; the races in the western part of the distribution have a greyish rump and some grey in tail while the eastern forms have a white rump and a black tail. The face and throat are black with a diffuse mask.
The body is grey on the underside becoming whiter towards the vent. The back and scapulars are brownish; the crown and nape are greyish and the black wing has a prominent white carpal patch. The vent is rufous and the outer tail feathers and tips of the central feathers are black; the beak is black, the legs are blackish-brown and the eyes are red or reddish-brown. The two sexes are similar; the juvenile bird is duller, with a browner nape, all of its feathers have rufous tips. The species occupies a large geographical range and has several recognised regional forms that differ from one another for instance in colour and tail length; these include occidentalis of the western Himalayan foothills, himalayana from the central Himalayas east into Thailand and Vietnam. A disjunct population, said to have a smaller or narrower bill, is found in the Eastern Ghats of peninsular India, sometimes subsumed into himalayana; the Southeast Asian races include assimilis, sinica and insulae. It has been suggested that this species forms a superspecies along with Dendrocitta occipitalis and Dendrocitta cinerascens.
The grey treepie is arboreal and is found in a wide range of habitats including forest and human habitation. The distribution range includes the foothills of the Himalayas, the Eastern Ghats, Burma, China, Hainan and northern Indochina. In the Himalayas, it is found up to 2,400 m above sea level, in southeastern China, it is found between 400 m and 1,200 m; this treepie is an arboreal feeder but will take some food from the ground in cultivated regions. It eats a wide range of insects and other invertebrates, nectar and other seeds, small reptiles and nestlings, it sometimes joins mixed-species foraging flocks. In the foothills of the Himalayas in India, they are known to breed from 2000 to 6000 feet high during the months of May to July; the nest is a shallow cup lined with hair and is built in trees and bushes or clumps of bamboo with 3-4 eggs per clutch. The eggs can be buffish or pale green, with brown or grey spots. Both the male and female feed the young birds; the voice is described as harsh and grating, but like other species is quite varied and includes a grating k-r-r-r-r sound as well as more melodious notes not unlike those of the rufous treepie.
These include a tiddly-aye-kok, ko-ku-la and barking braap...braap...braap calls. The global population size is not known. In China, there are an estimated 10,000 to 100,000 breeding pairs, the population size in Taiwan is estimated at 10,000 to 100,000 breeding pairs; the population in Hainan may be endangered by habitat destruction. The species has a large range, the population decline does not appear to be rapid, so the IUCN Red List has assessed the species to be of least concern. Grey treepie
Cissa is a genus of short-tailed magpies, though sometimes known as hunting cissas, that reside in the forests of tropical and subtropical southeast Asia and adjacent regions. The four species are quite similar with bright red bills, a green plumage, black mask, rufous wings. Due to excess exposure to sunlight, they appear rather turquoise in captivity, they are carnivorous, feed on arthropods and small vertebrates. The genus Cissa contains four species: Van Balen, S.. A.. A.. Biology and conservation status of the Short-tailed Green Magpie Cissa thalassina from Java. Bird Conservation International 23: 1-19
The Eurasian jay is a species of bird occurring over a vast region from Western Europe and north-west Africa to the Indian Subcontinent and further to the eastern seaboard of Asia and down into south-east Asia. Across its vast range, several distinct racial forms have evolved to look different from each other when forms at the extremes of its range are compared; the bird is called jay, by English speakers in Great Britain and Ireland. It is the original ` jay'; the Eurasian jay was one of the many species described by Linnaeus in his 18th century work Systema Naturae. He recognised its affinity with other corvids; the current scientific name is from Latin. Eight racial groups are recognised by Madge & Burn: Jena Phyletic Museum, in Germany, features an excellent display of plumage variations across these races, used as a striking example of the variation that can be found within species; the nominate group, with a streaked crown. The cervicalis group, with a rufous nape, grey mantle pale head sides, a streaked or black crown.
The atricapillus group, with a uniform mantle & nape, black crown and pale face. The race small with black forecrown and broadly streaked hindcrown; the brandtii group, with a streaked crown, reddish dark iris and grey mantle. The leucotis group, with no white in the wing, a white forecrown, black hindcrown and much white on the sides of the head; the bispecularis group, with an unstreaked rufous crown, no white wing-patch. The japonicus group, with a large white wing-patch, scaled crown. A member of the widespread jay group, about the size of the jackdaw, it inhabits mixed woodland with oaks, is a habitual acorn hoarder. In recent years, the bird has begun to migrate into urban areas as a result of continued erosion of its woodland habitat. Before humans began planting the trees commercially on a wide scale, Eurasian jays were the main source of movement and propagation for the English oak, each bird having the ability to spread more than a thousand acorns each year. Eurasian jays will bury the acorns of other oak species, have been cited by the National Trust as a major propagator of the largest population of Holm oak in Northern Europe, situated in Ventnor on the Isle of Wight.
Jays have been recorded carrying single acorns as far as 20 km, are credited with the rapid northward spread of oaks following the last ice age. Its usual call is the alarm call, a harsh, rasping screech and is used upon sighting various predatory animals, but the jay is well known for its mimicry sounding so like a different species that it is impossible to distinguish its true identity unless the jay is seen, it will imitate the sound of the bird it is attacking, such as a tawny owl, which it does mercilessly if attacking during the day. However, the jay is a potential prey item for owls at night and other birds of prey such as goshawks and peregrines during the day. Feeding in both trees and on the ground, it takes a wide range of invertebrates including many pest insects, acorns and other seeds, fruits such as blackberries and rowan berries, young birds and eggs and small rodents. Like most species, the jay's diet changes with the seasons but is noteworthy for its prolific caching of food—especially oak acorns and beechnuts—for winter and spring.
While caching occurs throughout the year, it is most intense in the autumn. It nests in trees or large shrubs laying 4–6 eggs that hatch after 16–19 days and are fledged after 21–23 days. Both sexes feed the young. For more information, see Anting In order to keep its plumage free from parasites, it lies on top of anthills with spread wings and lets its feathers be sprayed with formic acid. Similar to other corvids, Eurasian jays have been reported to plan for future needs. Male Eurasian Jays take into account the desires of their partner when sharing food with her as a courtship ritual and when protecting food items from stealing conspecifics. Akimova, A.. "First insights into a DNA sequence based phylogeny of the Eurasian Jay Garrulus glandarius". Русский орнитологический журнал: 567–575. ISSN 0869-4362. Retrieved 10 October 2012. Cheke, Lucy G.. "Tool-use and instrumental learning in the Eurasian jay". Animal Cognition. 14: 441–455. Doi:10.1007/s10071-011-0379-4. PMID 21249510.. The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds - Birds & Wildlife - Jay Ageing and sexing by Javier Blasco-Zumeta & Gerd-Michael Heinze Feathers of Eurasian jay Jay photos and information BirdLife species factsheet for Garrulus glandarius "Eurasian jay media".
Internet Bird Collection. Eurasian jay photo gallery at VIREO Interactive range map of Garrulus glandarius at IUCN Red List maps Garrulus glandarius in the Flickr: Field Guide Birds of the World Eurasian jay media from ARKive