A protest song is a song, associated with a movement for social change and hence part of the broader category of topical songs. It may be classical, or commercial in genre. Among social movements that have an associated body of songs are the abolition movement, women's suffrage, the labour movement, the human rights movement, civil rights, the anti-war movement and 1960s counterculture, the feminist movement, the sexual revolution, the gay rights movement, animal rights movement and veganism, gun control, environmentalism. Protest songs are situational, having been associated with a social movement through context. "Goodnight Irene", for example, acquired the aura of a protest song because it was written by Lead Belly, a black convict and social outcast, although on its face it is a love song. Or they may be abstract, expressing, in more general terms, opposition to injustice and support for peace, or free thought, but audiences know what is being referred to. Beethoven's "Ode to Joy", a song in support of universal brotherhood, is a song of this kind.
It is a setting of a poem by Friedrich Schiller celebrating the continuum of living beings, to which Beethoven himself added the lines that all men are brothers. Songs which support the status quo do not qualify as protest songs. Protest song texts may have significant cognitive content; the labour movement musical Pins and Needles summed up the definition of a protest song in a number called "Sing Me a Song of Social Significance." Phil Ochs once explained, "A protest song is a song that's so specific that you cannot mistake it for BS."An 18th-century example of topical song intended as a feminist protest song is "Rights of Woman", sung to the tune of "God Save the King", written anonymously by "A Lady", published in the Philadelphia Minerva, October 17, 1795. There is no evidence that it was sung as a movement song, however. A more recent song advocating sexual liberation is "Sexo" by Los Prisioneros; the sociologist R. Serge Denisoff saw protest songs rather narrowly in terms of their function, as forms of persuasion or propaganda.
Denisoff saw the protest song tradition as originating in the "psalms" or songs of grassroots Protestant religious revival movements, terming these hymns "protest-propaganda", as well. Denisoff subdivided protest songs as either "magnetic" or "rhetorical". "Magnetic" protest songs were aimed at attracting people to the movement and promoting group solidarity and commitment – for example, "Keep Your Eyes on the Prize" and "We Shall Overcome". "Rhetorical" protest songs, on the other hand, are characterized by individual indignation and offer a straightforward political message designed to change political opinion. Denisoff argued that although "rhetorical" songs are not overtly connected to building a larger movement, they should be considered as "protest-propaganda". Examples include Bob Dylan's "Masters of War" and "What's Going On" by Marvin Gaye. Ron Eyerman and Andrew Jamison, in Music and Social Movements: Mobilizing Tradition in the Twentieth Century, take issue with what they consider Denisoff's reductive approach to the history and function of song in social movements.
They point out that Denisoff had paid little attention to the song tunes of protest music, considered them subordinate to the texts, a means to the message. It is true that in the text-oriented western European song tradition, tunes can be subordinate and limited in number Eyerman and Jamison point out that some of the most effective protest songs gain power through their appropriation of tunes that are bearers of strong cultural traditions, they note that:There is more to music and movements than can be captured within a functional perspective, such as Denisoff's, which focuses on the use made of music within already-existing movements. Music, song, we suggest, can maintain a movement when it no longer has a visible presence in the form of organizations and demonstrations, can be a vital force in preparing the emergence of a new movement. Here the role and place of music needs to be interpreted through a broader framework in which tradition and ritual are understood as processes of identity and identification, as encoded and embodied forms of collective meaning and memory.
Martin Luther King Jr. described the freedom songs this way: "They invigorate the movement in a most significant way... these freedom songs serve to give unity to a movement." Raï is a form of folk music, originated in Oran, Algeria from Bedouin shepherds, mixed with Spanish, French and Arabic musical forms, which dates back to the 1930s and has been evolved by women in the culture. Raï has been forbidden music in Algeria, to the point of one popular singer being assassinated, although since the 1980s it has enjoyed some considerable success; the song "Parisien Du Nord" by Cheb Mami is a recent example of how the genre has been used as form of protest, as the song was written as a protest against the racial tensions that sparked the 2005 French riots. According to Memi: It is a song against racism, so I wanted to sing it with a North African, born in France... Because of that and because of his talent, I chose K-Mel. In the song, we say,'In your eyes, I feel like foreigner.' It's like the kids who were born in France but they have Arab faces.
They are French, they should be considered French." Indigenous issues feature prominently in politically i
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press is the largest university press in the world, the second oldest after Cambridge University Press. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the vice-chancellor known as the delegates of the press, they are headed by the secretary to the delegates, who serves as OUP's chief executive and as its major representative on other university bodies. Oxford University has used a similar system to oversee OUP since the 17th century; the Press is located on opposite Somerville College, in the suburb Jericho. The Oxford University Press Museum is located on Oxford. Visits are led by a member of the archive staff. Displays include a 19th-century printing press, the OUP buildings, the printing and history of the Oxford Almanack, Alice in Wonderland and the Oxford English Dictionary; the university became involved in the print trade around 1480, grew into a major printer of Bibles, prayer books, scholarly works. OUP took on the project that became the Oxford English Dictionary in the late 19th century, expanded to meet the ever-rising costs of the work.
As a result, the last hundred years has seen Oxford publish children's books, school text books, journals, the World's Classics series, a range of English language teaching texts. Moves into international markets led to OUP opening its own offices outside the United Kingdom, beginning with New York City in 1896. With the advent of computer technology and harsh trading conditions, the Press's printing house at Oxford was closed in 1989, its former paper mill at Wolvercote was demolished in 2004. By contracting out its printing and binding operations, the modern OUP publishes some 6,000 new titles around the world each year; the first printer associated with Oxford University was Theoderic Rood. A business associate of William Caxton, Rood seems to have brought his own wooden printing press to Oxford from Cologne as a speculative venture, to have worked in the city between around 1480 and 1483; the first book printed in Oxford, in 1478, an edition of Rufinus's Expositio in symbolum apostolorum, was printed by another, printer.
Famously, this was mis-dated in Roman numerals as "1468", thus pre-dating Caxton. Rood's printing included John Ankywyll's Compendium totius grammaticae, which set new standards for teaching of Latin grammar. After Rood, printing connected with the university remained sporadic for over half a century. Records or surviving work are few, Oxford did not put its printing on a firm footing until the 1580s. In response to constraints on printing outside London imposed by the Crown and the Stationers' Company, Oxford petitioned Elizabeth I of England for the formal right to operate a press at the university; the chancellor, Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, pleaded Oxford's case. Some royal assent was obtained, since the printer Joseph Barnes began work, a decree of Star Chamber noted the legal existence of a press at "the universitie of Oxforde" in 1586. Oxford's chancellor, Archbishop William Laud, consolidated the legal status of the university's printing in the 1630s. Laud envisaged a unified press of world repute.
Oxford would establish it on university property, govern its operations, employ its staff, determine its printed work, benefit from its proceeds. To that end, he petitioned Charles I for rights that would enable Oxford to compete with the Stationers' Company and the King's Printer, obtained a succession of royal grants to aid it; these were brought together in Oxford's "Great Charter" in 1636, which gave the university the right to print "all manner of books". Laud obtained the "privilege" from the Crown of printing the King James or Authorized Version of Scripture at Oxford; this "privilege" created substantial returns in the next 250 years, although it was held in abeyance. The Stationers' Company was alarmed by the threat to its trade and lost little time in establishing a "Covenant of Forbearance" with Oxford. Under this, the Stationers paid an annual rent for the university not to exercise its full printing rights – money Oxford used to purchase new printing equipment for smaller purposes.
Laud made progress with internal organization of the Press. Besides establishing the system of Delegates, he created the wide-ranging supervisory post of "Architypographus": an academic who would have responsibility for every function of the business, from print shop management to proofreading; the post was more an ideal than a workable reality, but it survived in the loosely structured Press until the 18th century. In practice, Oxford's Warehouse-Keeper dealt with sales and the hiring and firing of print shop staff. Laud's plans, hit terrible obstacles, both personal and political. Falling foul of political intrigue, he was executed in 1645, by which time the English Civil War had broken out. Oxford became a Royalist stronghold during the conflict, many printers in the city concentrated on producing political pamphlets or sermons; some outstanding mathematical and Orientalist works emerged at this time—notably, texts edited by Edward Pococke, the Regius Professor of Hebrew—but no university press on Laud's model was possible before the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660.
It was established by the vice-chancellor, John Fell, Dean of Christ Church, Bishop of Oxford, Secretary to the Delegates. Fell regarded Laud as a martyr, was determined to honour his vision of the Press. Using the provisions of the Great Charter, Fell persuaded Oxford to refuse any further payments from the Stationers and drew
A folk club is a regular event, permanent venue, or section of a venue devoted to folk music and traditional music. Folk clubs were an urban phenomenon of 1960s and 1970s Great Britain and Ireland, vital to the second British folk revival, but continue today there and elsewhere. In America, as part of the American folk music revival, they played a key role not only in acoustic music, but in launching the careers of groups that became rock and roll acts. From the end of the Second World War there had been attempts by the English Folk Dance and Song Society in London and Birmingham to form clubs where traditional music could be performed. A few private clubs, like the Good Earth Club and the overtly political Topic Club in London, were formed by the mid-1950s and were providing a venue for folk song, but the folk club movement received its major boost from the short-lived British skiffle craze, from about 1955 to 1959, creating a demand for opportunities to play versions of American folk and jazz music on assorted acoustic and improvised instruments.
This included, as the name suggests, the'Ballad and Blues' club in, Soho, co-founded by Ewan MacColl, although the date and nature of the club in its early years is disputed. As the craze subsided from the mid-1950s many of these clubs began to shift towards the performance of English traditional folk material as a reaction to the growth of American dominated pop and rock n’ roll music; the Ballad and Blues Club became the ‘Singer Club’ and, in 1961 moved to The Princess Louise pub in Holborn, with the emphasis placed on English traditional music and singing the songs of one's own culture, e.g. English singers should avoid imitating Americans and vice versa, using authentic acoustic instruments and styles of accompaniment; this led to the creation of strict ` policy clubs', that pursued a traditional form of music. This became the model for a expanding movement and soon every major city in Britain had its own folk club. By the mid-1960s there were over 300 in Britain, providing an important circuit for acts that performed traditional songs and tunes acoustically, where some could sustain a living by playing to a small but committed audience.
Scottish folk clubs were less dogmatic than their English counterparts and continued to encourage a mixture of Scottish, Irish and American material. Early on they hosted traditional performers, including Donald Higgins and the Stewarts of Blairgowrie, beside English performers and new Scottish revivalists such as Robin Hall, Jimmie Macgregor and The Corries; some of the most influential clubs in the UK included Les Cousins and The Troubadour, in London and the Bristol Troubadour in England's West Country. Although the name suggests a fixed space, most clubs were a regular gathering in the back or upstairs room of a public house on a weekly basis; these clubs were an urban phenomenon and most members seem to have been from the urbanised middle classes, although the material, their focus was that of the rural working classes. The clubs were known for the amateur nature of their performances including, or focusing on local ‘floor singers’, of members who would step up to sing one or two songs.
They had ‘residents’ talented local performers who would perform regular short sets of songs. In the late 1960s and early 1970s in the West country there was quite a revival of local folk clubs with regular weekly gatherings in places like Taunton, Ottery St Mary, Barnstaple, Padstow where a new group of local performers such as Cyril Tawney performed along with local singers performing "Come all Ye" nights Many of these emerged as major performers in their own right, including A. L. Lloyd, Martin Carthy, Shirley Collins who were able to tour the clubs as a circuit and who became major recording artists. A generation of performers used the folk club circuit for successful mainstream careers, including Billy Connolly, Jasper Carrott, Ian Dury and Barbara Dickson; the number of clubs began to decline in the 1980s, in the face of changing musical and social trends. In London Les Cousins in Greek Street, where John Renbourn played, The Scots Hoose in Cambridge Circus, were both casualties; the Singers Club closed its doors in 1993.
The decline began to stabilise in the mid-1990s with the resurgence of interest in folk music and there are now over 160 folk clubs in the United Kingdom, including many that can trace their origins back to the 1950s including The Bridge Folk Club in Newcastle claims to the oldest club still in existence in its original venue. In Edinburgh, Sandy Bell's club in Forest Hill has been running since the late 1960s. In London, the Troubadour at Earl's Court, where Bob Dylan, Paul Simon, Sandy Denny and Martin Carthy sang, became a poetry club in the 1990s, but is now a folk club again; the nature of surviving folk clubs has changed many larger clubs use PA systems, opening the door to use of electric instruments, although drums and full electric line-ups remain rare. The mix of music includes American roots music, British folk rock, world music as well as traditional British folk music. From 2000 the BBC Radio 2 folk awards have included an award for the best folk club. Since 2002 A "public entertainment licence" was required from local authorities for any kind of public performance of music.
To avoid the constant need to re-apply for licences for new events, some folk clubs opted to create a "Private members club" instead. This required t
Folk metal is a fusion genre of heavy metal music and traditional folk music that developed in Europe during the 1990s. It is characterised by the widespread use of folk instruments and, to a lesser extent, traditional singing styles, it sometimes features soft instrumentation influenced by folk rock. The earliest folk metal bands were Skyclad from Cruachan from Ireland. Skyclad's debut album The Wayward Sons of Mother Earth was released in 1991 and would be considered a thrash metal album with some folk influences, unlike Cruachan’s early work which embraced the folk element as a defining part of their sound, it was not until 1994 and 1995 that other early contributors in the genre began to emerge from different regions of Europe and beyond. Among these early groups, the German band Subway to Sally spearheaded a different regional variation that over time became known as medieval metal. Despite their contributions, folk metal remained little known with few representatives during the 1990s, it was not until the early 2000s when the genre exploded into prominence in Finland with the efforts of such groups as Finntroll, Korpiklaani and Moonsorrow.
The music of folk metal is characterised by its diversity with bands known to perform different styles of both heavy metal music and folk music. A large variety of folk instruments are used in the genre with many bands featuring six or more members in their regular line-ups. A few bands are known to rely on keyboards to simulate the sound of folk instruments. Lyrics in the genre deal with fantasy, paganism and nature; the English band Skyclad was formed in 1990 after vocalist Martin Walkyier left his previous band, Sabbat. Skyclad began as a thrash metal band but added violins from session musician Mike Evans on several tracks from their debut album, The Wayward Sons of Mother Earth, an effort described by Eduardo Rivadavia of AllMusic as "ambitious" and "groundbreaking." The song "The Widdershins Jig" from the debut album has been acclaimed as "particularly significant" and "a certain first in the realms of Metal". With a full-time fiddler in their lineup, the band's second album feature a "now legendary folky jig style" and "more prominent inclusion of the fiddle playing lead lines and melodies associated with the lead guitar parts of most other rock bands."Even with the departure of Martin Walkyier in 2001, Skyclad remains an active folk metal group today after nearly two decades since their formation.
In contrast, the Portuguese band Moonspell had a brief tenure in the genre. Their first release was the 1994 Under the Moonspell EP with music that featured Lusitanian folk and Medieval influences. With the release of their debut album Wolfheart in the following year, the band made a transition into gothic metal and within a matter of years "quickly evolved into one of the major players of the European goth-metal scene."Cruachan were formed in 1992 in Dublin, Ireland. From the outset their intention was to mix the native Irish folk music of their home country with the more extreme side of metal music, their debut album Tuatha Na Gael was released in 1995 and was a full folk metal album from start to finish. In the Italian book “FOLK METAL, Dalle Origini Al Ragnarok”, a comprehensive history of the genre, Author Fabrizio Giosue credits Cruachan as being the first real Folk Metal band, he acknowledges that Skyclad did have some folk parts in some songs before Cruachan however he goes on to say Cruachan used folk music as much as they used heavy metal music.
Cruachan used arrangements of known folk songs and melodies, Skyclad wrote folk "sounding" parts. Spanish band Mägo de Oz was among early Folk Metal artists that were influenced by the Celtic folk music; the band introduced folk elements and instruments in their power metal-based music from their 1994 debut album. Another early contributor to folk metal is the Finnish group Amorphis, they formed in 1990 with The Karelian Isthmus, following two years later. Their sophomore effort Tales from the Thousand Lakes was released in 1994 with "plenty of fascinating melodies and song structures that drew from the traditional folk music of their native country." The album received a favorable reception from fans with "its content being exalted across the Metal underground as the pinnacle of atmospheric Death Metal achievement." In the years 1994 and 1995, several distinct variations on folk metal emerged from different regions. The German band Subway to Sally was formed in 1992 as a folk rock band, singing in English and incorporating Irish and Scottish influences in their music.
With their second album MCMXCV released in 1995, the band adopted a "more traditional approach" and started singing in German. Taking Skyclad as an influence, Subway to Sally performs a blend of hard rock and heavy metal "enriched with medieval melodies enmeshed in the songs via bagpipes, hurdy-gurdy, mandoline, shalm and flute" and combined with "romantic-symbolic German-speaking poetry" in their lyrics. With chart success in their native Germany, they have since been credited as the band "that set off the wave of what is known as medieval rock."This distinctly German phenomenon has been continued and expanded further by subsequent bands. Formed in 1996, the Berlin based In Extremo has found chart success with their "medieval style stage garb and unashamed usage of such bizarre, sometimes hand made, instruments as the Scottish bagpipes." Another band that has experienced commercial success in Germany is the Bavarian outfit Schandmaul. Describing themselves as the "minstrels of today," the band employs a musical arsenal that includes the bagpipes, barrel organ, shawm
Nerd-folk is a musical genre that features humorous original songs involving geeky topics performed in a folk style. Angela and Aubrey Webber of The Doubleclicks credit Marian Call and others with creating the genre; the genre is related to other nerd music genres geek rock. Brobdingnagian Bards Marian Call Jonathan Coulton Dethstarla Debs and Errol The Doubleclicks Eaten by Monsters Garfunkel and Oates Hank Green Hello, The Future! Marc Gunn Misbehavin' Maidens Molly Lewis Paul & Storm The PDX Broadsides The Roches SJ Stephens
A folk dance is developed by people that reflect the life of the people of a certain country or region. Not all ethnic dances are folk dances. For example, ritual dances or dances of ritual origin are not considered to be folk dances. Ritual dances are called "Religious dances" because of their purpose; the terms "ethnic" and "traditional" are used when it is required to emphasize the cultural roots of the dance. In this sense, nearly all folk dances are ethnic ones. If some dances, such as polka, cross ethnic boundaries and cross the boundary between "folk" and "ballroom dance", ethnic differences are considerable enough to mention, they share some or all of the following attributes: Dances are held at folk dance gatherings or social functions by people with little or no professional training to traditional music. Dances not designed for public performance or the stage, though they may be arranged and set for stage performances. Execution dominated by an inherited tradition from various international cultures rather than innovation.
New dancers learn informally by observing others or receiving help from others. More controversially, some people define folk dancing as dancing for which there is no governing body or dancing for which there are no competitive or professional institutions; the term "folk dance" is sometimes applied to dances of historical importance in European culture and history. For other cultures the terms "ethnic dance" or "traditional dance" are sometimes used, although the latter terms may encompass ceremonial dances. There are a number of modern dances, such as hip hop dance, that evolve spontaneously, but the term "folk dance" is not applied to them, the terms "street dance" or "vernacular dance" are used instead; the term "folk dance" is reserved for dances which are to a significant degree bound by tradition and originated in the times when the distinction existed between the dances of "common folk" and the dances of the modern ballroom dances originated from folk ones. Varieties of European folk dances include: Sword dances include long sword dances and rapper dancing.
Some choreographed dances such as contra dance, Scottish country dance, modern Western square dance, are called folk dances, though this is not true in the strictest sense. Country dance overlaps with contemporary folk ballroom dance. Most country dances and ballroom dances originated from folk dances, with gradual refinement over the years. People familiar with folk dancing can determine what country a dance is from if they have not seen that particular dance before; some countries' dances have features that are unique to that country, although neighboring countries sometimes have similar features. For example, the German and Austrian schuhplattling dance consists of slapping the body and shoes in a fixed pattern, a feature that few other countries' dances have. Folk dances sometimes evolved long before current political boundaries, so that certain dances are shared by several countries. For example, some Serbian and Croatian dances share the same or similar dances, sometimes use the same name and music for those dances.
International folk dance groups exist in cities and college campuses in many countries, in which dancers learn folk dances from many cultures for recreation. Balfolk events are social dance events with live music in Western and Central Europe, originating in the folk revival of the 1970s and becoming more popular since about 2000, where popular European partner dances from the end of the 19th century such as the schottische, polka and waltz are danced, with additionally other European folk dances from France, but from Sweden and other countries. Attan - The national dance of Pakistan. Folk dance of Pashtuns tribes of Pakistan including the unique styles of Quetta and Waziristan in Pakistan. Lewa - Baluch folk dance in Pakistan. Khattak Dance - Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan. Chitrali Dance - Chitral, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan. Azerbaijani dances Kurdish dance Dabke, a folk dance of the Levant Thabal chongba Assyrian folk dance Armenian dance Bhangra, a Punjabi harvest dance in Pakistan and music style that has become popular worldwide.
Bihu, an Assamese dance celebrating the arrival of spring, traditionally the beginning of the Assamese New Year Garba Circular Devotional dance from Gujarat danced the world over Kalbelia is one of the most sensuous dance forms of Rajasthan, performed by the kalbelia tribe Khigga, a common folk dance among Assyrian people Israeli folk dance Odori, Japanese traditional dance danced in long parades in the streets where anyone can join in Buyō, typical dance of the Japanese geishas or dance artists Kyushtdepdi - The national dance of Turkmenistan Yangge Romvong Bon dance Rimse Kachāshī Nongak Cariñosa Tinikling Singkil Maglalatik Binasuan Pandanggo Pista Kuratsa Magkasuyo Sayaw sa Bangko Itik-itik kuratsa La Jota Moncadena Balse Marikina Paraguanen Kuntao Silat Amil Bangsa Benjan Lerion Kalesa Zapin Bamboo dance Baile Folklorico Hula Haka List of ethnic and folk dances sorted by origin Dance basic topics, a list of general dance topics Balfolk, contemporary folk dance practised across Europe Elizabeth Burchinal, authority on American folk dance Folk Dance Hawaii Folk dancing at Curlie Dancilla Folklore People Community Folk Dance Folklore Festivals Folklore Festivals Society for International Folk Dancing
Contemporary folk music
Contemporary folk music refers to a wide variety of genres that emerged in the mid 20th century and afterwards which were associated with traditional folk music. Starting in the mid-20th century a new form of popular folk music evolved from traditional folk music; this process and period is reached a zenith in the 1960s. The most common name for this new form of music is "folk music", but is called "contemporary folk music" or "folk revival music" to make the distinction; the transition was somewhat centered in the US and is called the American folk music revival. Fusion genres such as folk rock and others evolved within this phenomenon. While contemporary folk music is a genre distinct from traditional folk music, it shares the same English name and venues as traditional folk music. While the Romantic nationalism of the first folk revival had its greatest influence on art-music, the "second folk revival" of the 20th century brought a new genre of popular music with artists marketed through concerts and broadcasting.
One of the earliest figures in this revival was Woody Guthrie, who sang traditional songs in the 1930s and 1940s as well as composing his own. In the United Kingdom, the folk revival fostered a generation of singer-songwriters such as Donovan, who achieved initial prominence in the 1960s; the folk revival spawned Canada's first true wave of internationally successful artists such as Gordon Lightfoot, Leonard Cohen, Joni Mitchell, Buffy Sainte-Marie. Major performers who emerged from the 1940s to the early 1960s included Woody Guthrie, Pete Seeger, Joan Baez, Bob Dylan; the mid-1960s through the early 1970s was associated with large musical, political and counterculture changes. Folk music underwent a related rapid evolution and diversification at that same time. Major changes occurred through the evolution of established performers such as Bob Dylan, Joan Baez, Judy Collins, the Seekers and Peter Paul and Mary, through the creation of new fusion genres with rock and pop. During this period, the term "protest music" was used to characterize folk music with topical political themes.
The Canadian performers Gordon Lightfoot, Leonard Cohen, Bruce Cockburn and Joni Mitchell represented such fusions and enjoyed great popularity in the U. S. Starting in the 1970s folk music was fueled by new singer-songwriters such as Joni Mitchell, John Denver, Harry Chapin. Other subgenres of folk include anti folk, folk punk, indie folk, freak folk and Americana and fusion genres such as folk metal, progressive folk, psychedelic folk, neofolk. Definitions of "contemporary folk music" are vague and variable. Here, it is taken to mean all music, called folk, not traditional music, a set of genres that began with and evolved from the folk revival of the mid-20th century. According to Hugh Blumenfeld, for the American folk scene: This is the common use of the term "contemporary folk music", but is not the only case of evolution of new forms from traditional ones. Nueva canción, a similar evolution of a new form of committed music, occurred in several Spanish-speaking countries, for example. Contemporary country music descends from a rural American folk tradition, but has evolved differently.
Bluegrass music is a professional development of American old time music, intermixed with blues and jazz. While the Romantic nationalism of the folk revival had its greatest influence on art-music, the "second folk revival" of the 20th century brought a new genre of popular music with artists marketed through concerts and broadcasting; this is the genre that remains as "contemporary folk music" when traditional music is considered to be a separate genre. One of the earliest figures in this revival was Woody Guthrie, who sang traditional songs in the 1930s and 1940s as well as composing his own. Among Guthrie's friends and followers as a collector and composer was Pete Seeger. In the 1930s, Jimmie Rodgers, in the 1940s Burl Ives, in the early 1950s Seeger's group the Weavers and Harry Belafonte, in the late 1950s the Kingston Trio as well as other professional, commercial groups became popular; some who defined commercialization as the beginning of this phase consider the commercial hit Tom Dooley by the Kingston Trio in 1958 as marking the beginning of this era.
In 1963–1964, the ABC television network aired the Hootenanny television series devoted to this brand of folk music and published the associated magazine ABC-TV Hootenanny. Starting in 1950, the Sing Out!, The Little Sandy Review magazines helped spread both traditional and composed songs, as did folk-revival-oriented record companies. In the United Kingdom, the folk revival fostered young artists like the Watersons, Martin Carthy and Roy Bailey and a generation of singer-songwriters such as Bert Jansch, Ralph McTell and Roy Harper. Bob Dylan, Paul Simon and Tom Paxton visited Britain for some time in the early 1960s, the first two making use of the traditional English material they heard. In 1950, prominent American folklorist and collector of traditional songs Alan Lomax came to Britain and met A. L.'Bert' Lloyd and Ewan MacColl, a meeting credited as inaugurating the second British folk revival. In London, the colleagues opened the Ballads and Blues Club renamed the Singers' Club the first folk club in the UK.
As the 1950s progressed into the 1960s, the folk revival movement gathered momentum in both Britain and America. In much of rural Canad