London Borough of Hackney
The London Borough of Hackney is a London Borough in Inner London, United Kingdom. The historical and administrative heart of Hackney is Mare Street, which lies 5 miles north-east of Charing Cross; the borough is named after its principal district. Southern and eastern parts of the borough are popularly regarded as being part of east London, with the north-west belonging to north London; the London Plan issued by the Greater London Authority assigns whole boroughs to sub-regions for statutory monitoring and resource allocation purposes. The most recent iteration of this plan assigns Hackney to the ‘East’ sub-region, while the 2008 and 2004 versions assigned the borough to ‘North’ and ‘East’ sub-regions respectively; the modern borough was formed 1965 by the merger of the Metropolitan Borough of Hackney with the much smaller Metropolitan Boroughs of Stoke Newington and Shoreditch. Hackney is bounded by Islington to the west, Haringey to the north, Waltham Forest to the north-east, Newham to the east, Tower Hamlets to the south-east and the City of London to the south-west.
Hackney was one of the host boroughs of the London Olympics in 2012, with several of the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park venues falling within its boundaries. In the 13th century the name appears as Hackenaye or Hacquenye, but no certain derivation is advanced; the Concise Oxford Dictionary of Place Names discusses the origin of the name. The first surviving records of the place name are as Hakeneye; the ‘ey’ suffix certainly refers to an island. This was once a much wilder place than today; the Dictionary suggests that the ‘Hack’ element may derive from: The Old English ‘Haecc’ meaning a hatch – an entrance to a woodland or common. Or alternatively from ‘Haca’ meaning a hook, in this context, a bend of the river. Given the island context, the ‘hatch’ option is unlikely to be correct, so the favoured'Haka's Island' or the'Island on the bend' seem more likely; the place name will have referred to just the island or both the island and the manor of the same name based around it. Subsequently, the name Hackney was applied to the whole ancient parish of Hackney.
In the Iron Age and until after the Roman period, the River Lea was considered to separate the territories of the Catuvellauni to the west of the river from the Trinovantes to the east. The Romans built the Roman road, Ermine Street, which runs through the modern borough under the names Shoreditch High Street and Kingsland Road amongst others. In the Anglo-Saxon period, the River Lea separated the core territories of the East Saxons from the Middle Saxons they controlled; this continuity of this natural boundary from pre-Roman period may be a result of the differing Saxon groups taking control of pre-defined territories. After both areas were brought under the control of Alfred the Great, the river became the boundary between the historic counties of Middlesex and Essex. In the Tudor period, the lands of religious orders were put up for sale, thus Hackney became a retreat for the nobility around Hackney Homerton. Henry VIII's Palace was by Lea Bridge roundabout today. Sutton House, on Homerton High Street, is the oldest surviving dwelling in Hackney built in 1535 as Bryck Place for Sir Ralph Sadleir, a diplomat.
The village of Hackney flourished from the Tudor to late Georgian periods as a rural retreat. The first documented "hackney coach"—the forerunner of the more generic "hackney carriage"—operated in London in 1621. Current opinion is that the name "hackney," to refer to a London taxi, is derived from the village name. Construction of the railway in the 1850s ended Hackney's rural reputation by connecting it to other parts of the city and stimulating development. London's first Tudor theatres were built at Shoreditch; the Gunpowder Plot was first exposed nearby in Hoxton. In 1727 Daniel Defoe said of the villages of Hackney All these, except the Wyck-house, are within a few years so encreas'd in buildings, so inhabited, that there is no comparison to be made between their present and past state: Every separate hamlet is encreas'd, some of them more than treble as big as formerly; this town is so remarkable for the retreat of wealthy citizens, that there is at this time near a hundred coaches kept in it.
The parish church of St John-at-Hackney was built in 1789, replacing the nearby former 16th-century parish church dedicated to St Augustine. Notable residents from the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries included Robert Aske, William Cecil, Samuel Courtauld, Samuel Hoare, Joseph Priestley and Thomas Sutton. Many grand houses stood in Stamford Hill. Alfred Hitchcock made many of his first films in Hoxton at the Gainsborough Studios in Poole Stre
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Spanish Town is the capital and the largest town in the parish of St. Catherine in the historic county of Middlesex, Jamaica, it was the Spanish and British capital of Jamaica from 1534 until 1872. The town is home to numerous memorials, the national archives, one of the oldest Anglican churches outside England; the Spanish settlement of Villa de la Vega was founded by governor Francisco de Garay in 1534 as the capital of the colony. It was called Santiago de la Vega or St. Jago de la Vega. Indigenous Taino had been living in the area for a millennium before this, but this was the first European habitation on the south of the island; when the English conquered Jamaica in 1655, they renamed the settlement as Spanish Town. Since the town was badly damaged during the conquest, Port Royal took on many administrative roles and functioned as an unofficial capital during the beginning of English rule. By the time Port Royal was devastated by an earthquake in 1692, Spanish Town had been rebuilt and was again functioning as the capital.
Spanish Town remained the capital until 1872. Kingston had been founded in the aftermath of the 1692 earthquake. By 1755, serious rivalry from lobbyists caused increasing speculation about the continued suitability of Spanish Town as the capital. In 1836, Governor Lionel Smith observed that "the capital was in ruins, with no commercial and agricultural concern in operation." To worsen the situation, following the Morant Bay Rebellion of 1865, Sir John Peter Grant ordered the removal of the capital in 1872 to Kingston. As a larger port, it had come to be considered the natural capital of the island. After the seat of government was relocated, Spanish Town lost much of its economic and cultural vitality. Built on the west bank of the Rio Cobre, the town lies thirteen miles from Kingston on the main road, its history was shaped by two significant colonial periods: Spanish rule from 1534–1655 and the English from 1655–1872. After that the capital was relocated to Kingston; the Anglican Church took over the 16th century cathedral.
The historic architecture and street names mark the colonial history, such as Red Church and White Church streets, symbolic of the Spanish chapels of the red and white cross, as well as Monk Street, in reference to the monastery that once stood nearby. Nugent and Manchester streets were named for the British Colonial Governors, George Nugent and William Montagu, 5th Duke of Manchester. King Street runs past the King's House, the governor's residence, Constitution Street, near to the Square, refers to the island's former administrative centre. Regency buildings in the town centre include the Rodney Memorial flanked by two guns from the French ship Ville de Paris, the façade of the Old King's House, the residence of the governor until 1872. Spanish Town is the site of an early cast-iron bridge, designed by Thomas Wilson and manufactured by Walker and Company of Rotherham, England. Spanning the Rio Cobre, the bridge was erected in 1801 at a cost of £4,000, its four arched ribs are supported on massive masonry abutments.
After the abutments deteriorated, endangering the structure, it was listed in the 1998 World Monuments Watch by the World Monuments Fund. A restoration project began in 2004, with funding provided by American Express through World Monuments Fund. Progress was slow until 2008. A first phase of restoration was completed in April 2010, when the repair of the abutments allowed the bridge to be reopened for the public. More violence in the area has prevented the bridge from achieving the status of a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 2009 the population of Spanish Town was estimated to be about 160,000; the population of Spanish Town, like the rest of the St. Catherine, has been growing rapidly, it is sometimes referred to colloquially as "Spain" or "Prison Oval" within Jamaica. The latter nickname is a reference to the cricket pitch or oval located just outside the St. Catherine District Prison, where some inmates can get a limited view of the sport through their cell windows. Association football is played at the Prison Oval.
C. is the major team. The town had one of the first Spanish cathedrals to be built in the New World, constructed around 1525. Many Christian denominations have churches or meeting halls in the town, including a Roman Catholic church and Wesleyan and Seventh-day Adventist chapels. There is a mosque. Standing untouched in character is a historic alms-house, public hospital, a penal institution built in the eighteenth century; the town contains a factory that manufactures dyes from logwood, a salt factory, a rice processing plant. In the neighbourhood are five large sugar estates, a milk condensary, a large textile mill; the Rio Cobre Juvenile Correctional Centre of the Department of Correctional Services, Jamaica is located in Spanish Town. Spanish Town is on the main A2 roads, it is well served by mini buses and taxis, which operate from the Spanish Town Transport Hub. The now disused Spanish Town railway station provided access to four lines: Kingston to Montego Bay Spanish Town to Ewarton Bog Walk to Port Antonio Linstead to New WorksThe station opened in 1845 and closed in October 1992 when all passenger traffic on Jamaica's railways abruptly ceased.
Blackbeard, British pirate Yohan Blake Sprinter, attended school in Spanish Town Davian Clarke, sprinter Chronixx, singer Chevelle Franklyn Gospel reggae singer, born in Tawes Pen, Spanish Town Uriah Hall, mixed martial artist, born in Spanish Town Andrew Holness, Prime Minister of Jamaica Grace J
Brixton is a district of South London, within the London Borough of Lambeth. The area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London. Brixton is residential with a prominent street market and substantial retail sector, it is a multiethnic community, with a large percentage of its population of Afro-Caribbean descent. It lies within Inner South London and is bordered by Stockwell, Streatham, Tulse Hill and Herne Hill; the district houses the main offices of the London Borough of Lambeth. Brixton is 2.7 miles south-southwest from the geographical centre of London near Brixton Underground station. The name Brixton is thought to originate from Brixistane, meaning the stone of Brixi, a Saxon lord. Brixi is thought to have erected a boundary stone to mark the meeting place of the ancient hundred court of Surrey; the location is unknown but is thought to be at the top of Brixton Hill, at a road known at the time as Bristow or Brixton Causeway, long before any settlement in the area.
Brixton marks the rise from the marshes of North Lambeth up to the hills of Upper Norwood and Streatham. At the time the River Effra flowed from its source in Upper Norwood through Herne Hill to Brixton. At Brixton the river was crossed by low bridges for Roman roads to the south coast of Britain, now Brixton Road and Clapham Road; the main roads were connected through a network of medieval country lanes, such as Acre Lane, Coldharbour Lane, Brixton Water Lane and Lyham Road Black Lane. It was only at the end of the 18th century that villages and settlements formed around Brixton, as the original woodland was reduced until the area was covered in farmland and market gardens known for game and strawberries; the area remained undeveloped until the beginning of the 19th century, the main settlements being near Stockwell, Brixton Hill and Coldharbour Lane. With the opening of Vauxhall Bridge in 1816, improved access to Central London led to a process of suburban development; the largest single development, one of the last in suburban character, was Angell Town, laid out in the 1850s on the east side of Brixton Road, so named after a family that owned land in Lambeth from the late 17th century until well into the 20th.
One of a few surviving windmills in London, built in 1816, is just off Brixton Hill and surrounded by houses built during Brixton's Victorian expansion. When the London sewerage system was constructed during the mid-19th century, its designer Sir Joseph Bazalgette incorporated flows from the River Effra, which used to flow through Brixton, into his'high-level interceptor sewer' known as the Effra sewer. Brixton was transformed into a middle class suburb between the 1890s. Railways linked Brixton with the centre of London when the Chatham Main Line was built through the area by the London and Dover Railway in the 1860s. In 1888, Electric Avenue was so named after it became the first street in London to be lit by electricity. In this time, large expensive houses were constructed along the main roads in Brixton, which were converted into flats and boarding houses at the start of the 20th century as the middle classes were replaced by an influx of the working classes. By 1925, Brixton attracted thousands of new people.
It housed the largest shopping centre in South London at the time, as well as a thriving market, pubs and a theatre. In the 1920s, Brixton was the shopping capital of South London with three large department stores and some of the earliest branches of what are now Britain's major national retailers. Today, Brixton Road is the main shopping area, fusing into Brixton Market. A prominent building on Brixton High Street is Morleys, an independent department store established in the 1880s. On the western boundary of Brixton with Clapham stands the Sunlight Laundry, an Art Deco factory building. Designed by architect F. E. Simpkins and erected in 1937, this is one of the few art deco buildings, still owned by the firm that commissioned it and is still used for its original purpose; the Brixton area was bombed during World War II, contributing to a severe housing crisis, which in turn led to urban decay. This was followed by the building of council housing. In the 1940s and 1950s, many immigrants from the West Indies and Ireland, settled in Brixton.
More recent immigrants include other European citizens. Brixton has an ageing population, which affects housing strategies in the area; the first wave of immigrants who formed the British African-Caribbean community arrived in 1948 at Tilbury Docks on the HMT Empire Windrush from Jamaica and were temporarily housed in the Clapham South deep shelter. The nearest Labour Exchange was on Coldharbour Lane and the new arrivals spread out into local accommodation. Many immigrants only intended to stay in Britain for a few years, but although a number returned to the Caribbean, the majority remained to settle permanently; the arrival of the passengers has become an important landmark in the history of modern Britain, the image of West Indians filing off its gangplank has come to symbolise the beginning of modern British multicultural society. In 1998 the area in front of the Tate Library in Brixton was renamed "Windrush Square" to mark the 50th anniversary of the arrival of the Windrush. Brixton was the scene of riots in April 1981 at a time when Brixton underwent deep social and economic problems—high unemployment, high crime, poor housing, no amenities—in a predominantly African-Caribbean community.
The Metropolitan Police began Operation Swamp 81 at the beginning of April, aimed at reducing street crime through the repeated u
Kingston is the capital and largest city of Jamaica, located on the southeastern coast of the island. It faces a natural harbour protected by the Palisadoes, a long sand spit which connects the town of Port Royal and the Norman Manley International Airport to the rest of the island. In the Americas, Kingston is the largest predominantly English-speaking city south of the United States; the local government bodies of the parishes of Kingston and St. Andrew were amalgamated by the Kingston and St. Andrew Corporation Act of 1923, to form the Kingston and St. Andrew Corporation. Greater Kingston, or the "Corporate Area" refers to those areas under the KSAC. Kingston Parish had a population of 96,052, St. Andrew Parish had a population of 555,828 in 2001. Kingston is only bordered by Saint Andrew to the east and north; the geographical border for the parish of Kingston encompasses the following communities, Tivoli Gardens, Denham Town, Rae Town, Kingston Gardens, National Heroes Park, Bournemouth Gardens, Norman Gardens, Rennock Lodge and Port Royal, along with portions of Rollington Town, Franklyn Town and Allman Town.
The city proper is bounded by Six Miles to the west, Stony Hill to the north, Papine to the northeast and Harbour View to the east, communities in urban and suburban Saint Andrew. Communities in rural St. Andrew such as Gordon Town, Mavis Bank, Lawrence Tavern, Mt. Airy and Bull Bay would not be described as being in Kingston city. Two parts make up the central area of Kingston: the historic Downtown, New Kingston. Both are served by Norman Manley International Airport and by the smaller and domestic Tinson Pen Aerodrome. Kingston was founded in July 1692 as a place for survivors of the 1692 earthquake that destroyed Port Royal. Before the earthquake, Kingston's functions were purely agricultural; the earthquake survivors set up a camp on the sea front. Two thousand people died due to mosquito-borne diseases; the people lived in a tented camp on Colonel Barry's Hog Crawle. The town did not begin to grow until after the further destruction of Port Royal by fire in 1703. Surveyor John Goffe drew up a plan for the town based on a grid bounded by North, East and Harbour Streets.
The new grid system of the town was designed to facilitate commerce the system of main thoroughfares 66 feet across which allowed transportation between the port and plantations farther inland. By 1716 it had become the centre of trade for Jamaica; the government sold land to people with the regulation that they purchase no more than the amount of the land that they owned in Port Royal, only land on the sea front. Wealthy merchants began to move their residences from above their businesses to the farm lands north on the plains of Liguanea; the first free school, Wolmers's, was founded in 1729 and there was a theatre, first on Harbour Street and moved in 1774 to North Parade. Both are still in existence. In 1755 the governor, Sir Charles Knowles, had decided to transfer the government offices from Spanish Town to Kingston, it was thought by some to be an unsuitable location for the Assembly in proximity to the moral distractions of Kingston, the next governor rescinded the Act. However, by 1780 the population of Kingston was 11,000, the merchants began lobbying for the administrative capital to be transferred from Spanish Town, by eclipsed by the commercial activity in Kingston.
By the end of the 18th century, the city contained more than 3,000 brick buildings. The harbour fostered trade, played part in several naval wars of the 18th century. Kingston took over the functions of Spanish Town; these functions included agriculture, processing and a main transport hub to and from Kingston and other sections of the island. The government passed an act to transfer the government offices to Kingston from Spanish Town, which occurred in 1872, it kept this status when the island was granted independence in 1962. In 1907, 800 people died in another earthquake known as the 1907 Kingston earthquake, destroying nearly all the historical buildings south of Parade in the city; that was. These three-story-high buildings were built with reinforced concrete. Construction on King Street in the city was the first area to breach this building code. During the 1930s, island-wide riots led to the development of trade unions and political parties to represent workers; the city became home to the Mona campus of the University of the West Indies founded in 1948, with 24 medical students.
Not until the 1960s did major change occur in the development of Kingston's city centre. The international attention of reggae music at that time coincided with the expansion and development of 95 acres of the Kingston city centre waterfront area; these developments led to an influx of shops and offices, the development of a new financial centre: New Kingston, which replaced the Knutsford Racetrack. Multi-story buildings and boulevards were placed within that section. In 1966 Kingston was the host city to the Commonwealth Games; the western section of the city was not the focus of development, that area proved to be politically tense. The 1970s saw deteriorating economic conditions that led to recurrent violence and a decline in tourism which affected the island. In the 1980 general elections, the democratic socialist People's National Party government was voted out, subsequent governments have been more market-oriented. Within a global urban era, the 1990s saw that Kingston has made efforts to modernise and devel
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa
Harlesden is an area in the London Borough of Brent, northwest London. Its main focal point is the Jubilee Clock. Harlesden has been praised for its vibrant Caribbean culture and unofficially named London's reggae capital; the population includes people of Afro-Caribbean heritage, as well as Irish, Portuguese and smaller Latin Americans and East African groups within the community. In the 19th century, Harlesden a rural village, began to develop some of its urban appearance with the arrival of the railways. Willesden Junction, Kensal Green and Harlesden stations all had an effect on the developing village. Cottages for railway and industrial workers were built, as was grander housing for the local middle class. Harlesden lost its rural nature, with factories replacing farms and woodland. From late Victorian times until the 1930s, housing completed its spread across the area, Harlesden became part of the London conurbation. After World War I, one of Europe's biggest industrial estates was constructed at nearby Park Royal, large factories there included McVitie & Price from 1910, Heinz from 1919.
At 6am, January 16 1939, the Irish Republican Army blew up the Harlesden electricity cable bridge. The bridge crossed the Grand Junction Canal, carried the power line from Battersea Power Station. No one was injured in the attack; the image of Harlesden today began to take shape in the 1960s and 1970s. Continued immigration from Ireland and new immigration from the Caribbean, the Indian sub-continent and Africa changed the racial and cultural make up of the area. More the area has become home to Brazilian and Portuguese communities. In 2011, 71.4% of homes were apartments across the ward, 15.8% of homes were terraced houses, 8.6% semi-detached houses and 4% detached houses. Most of the terraces are pre-1920s and the flats converted from them. Many of the flats date to after the year 2000. Non-mixed use terraces and private sector built apartments are the main housing types that attract high prices from private sector owner-occupiers unable to afford similar properties in nearby Kensal Green and Queen's Park.
Starting in 1999, Harlesden and the nearby Stonebridge estate, witnessed a high number of murders and became a crime hotspot, because of several rival yardie gangs. During this time Harlesden turned into one of London's main crack cocaine trading centres, one of the yardies' strongholds. By 2001 the area had the highest murder rate in Britain. There were 26 shooting incidents that year alone. Crime rates were reduced in the late 2000s. During the nationwide riots of 2011, some shops in Harlesden were attacked by looters. On 15 May 2016, a route 18 bus lost control and crashed onto a shop in the town centre at two in the afternoon. 17 people, including three children, were injured. 19% of the population was Black Caribbean, followed by 19% Black African, 15% Other White, 14% White British. Stations in the area are: Willesden Junction Station Harlesden Station Gappy Ranks Ronny Jordan Sabrina Washington James DeGale Audley Harrison K Koke Nines George the Poet Chizzy Akudolu OG Anunoby Hastings Banda Dennis Brown Marlon Davis - comedian Anthony C. George Ian Hancock Paul Merson Shane Richie Louis Theroux Harlesden Town Centre Partnership at the Wayback Machine