Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Johannes V. Jensen
Johannes Vilhelm Jensen was a Danish author considered the first great Danish writer of the 20th century. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1944 "for the rare strength and fertility of his poetic imagination with, combined an intellectual curiosity of wide scope and a bold, freshly creative style". One of his sisters, Thit Jensen, was a well-known writer and a vocal, controversial, early feminist, he was born in Farsø, a village in North Jutland, Denmark, as the son of a veterinary surgeon and he grew up in a rural environment. While studying medicine at the University of Copenhagen he worked as a writer to fund his studies. After three years of studying he chose to change careers and devote himself to literature; the first phase of his work as an author was influenced by fin-de-siècle pessimism. His career began with the publication of Himmerland Stories, comprising a series of tales set in the part of Denmark where he was born. During 1900 and 1901 he wrote his first masterpiece, Kongens Fald, a modern historical novel centred on King Christian II.
Literary critic Martin Seymour-Smith said it is an "indictment of Danish indecision and lack of vitality, which Jensen saw as a national disease. Apart from this aspect of it, it is a penetrating study of sixteenth-century people." In 1906 Jensen created his greatest literary achievement: the collection of verses Digte 1906, which introduced the prose poem to Danish literature. He wrote poetry, a few plays, many essays, chiefly on anthropology and the philosophy of evolution, he developed his theories of evolution in a cycle of six novels, Den lange rejse, translated into English as The Long Journey, published in a two-volume edition in 1938. This is considered his main work in prose, a daring and impressive attempt to create a Darwinian alternative to the Biblical Genesis myth. In this work we see the development of mankind from the Ice Age to the times of Columbus, focusing on pioneering individuals. Like his compatriot Hans Christian Andersen, he travelled extensively. Walt Whitman was among the writers.
Jensen became an atheist. Jensen's most popular literary works were all completed before 1920, a year which marks his initiation of the'Museumcentre Aars' in the town of Aars in Himmerland. After this he concentrated on ambitious biological and zoological studies in an effort to create an ethical system based upon Darwinian ideas, he hoped to renew classical poetry. For many years he worked in journalism, writing articles and chronicles for the daily press without joining the staff of any newspaper. Jensen was a controversial figure in Danish cultural life, he was a reckless polemicist and his dubious racial theories have damaged his reputation. However, he never showed any Fascist leanings. Today Jensen is still considered the father of Danish modernism in the area of modern poetry with his introduction of the prose poem and his use of a direct and straightforward language, his direct influence was felt as late as the 1960s. Without being a Danish answer to Kipling, Hamsun or Sandburg, he bears comparison to all three authors.
He combines the outlook of the regional writer with the view of the modern academic and scientific observer. In 1999, The Fall of the King was acclaimed as the best Danish novel of the 20th century by the newspapers Politiken and Berlingske Tidende, independently of each other. Danskere, 1896 Einar Elkjær, 1898 Himmerlandsfolk, 1898 Intermezzo, 1899 Kongens Fald, 1900–1901 – The Fall of the King Den gotiske renæssance, 1901 Skovene, 1904 Nye Himmerlandshistorier, 1904 Madame d'Ora, 1904 Hjulet, 1904 Digte, 1906 Eksotiske noveller, 1907–15 Den nye verden, 1907 Singaporenoveller, 1907 Myter, 1907–45 Nye myter, 1908 Den lange rejse, 1908–22 – The Long Journey – I: Den tabte land, 1919; the Fall of the King, 1933. Autobiography at Nobelprize.org Petri Liukkonen
Michael Laurence Nyman, CBE is an English composer of minimalist music, pianist and musicologist, known for numerous film scores, his multi-platinum soundtrack album to Jane Campion's The Piano. He has written a number including The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat, he has written six concerti, five string quartets, many other chamber works, many for his Michael Nyman Band. He is a performing pianist. Nyman prefers to write opera rather than other forms of music. Nyman was born in London to a family of Polish secular Jewish furriers. Nyman was educated at Walthamstow, he studied at King's College London and was accepted at the Royal Academy of Music in September 1961, studying with Alan Bush and Thurston Dart, focusing on piano and seventeenth-century baroque music. He won the Howard Carr Memorial Prize for composition in July 1964. In 1965–66 Nyman secured a residency in Romania, to study folk-song, supported by a British Council bursary. Nyman says he discovered his aesthetic playing the aria, "Madamina, il catalogo è questo" from Mozart's Don Giovanni on his piano in the style of Jerry Lee Lewis, which "dictated the dynamic and texture of everything I've subsequently done."
It subsequently became the base for his 1977 piece In Re Don Giovanni. In 1969, Nyman provided the libretto of Harrison Birtwistle's opera Down by the Greenwood Side and directed the short film Love Love Love before settling into music criticism, where he is acknowledged to have been the first to apply the term "minimalism" to music, he wrote introductions for George Frideric Handel's Concerti Grossi, Op. 6 and interviewed George Brecht in 1976. One of his earliest film scores was the British sex comedy Keep It Up Downstairs, he has since scored numerous films, many of them European art films, including several of those directed by Peter Greenaway. Nyman drew on early music sources in his scores for Greenaway's films: Henry Purcell in The Draughtsman's Contract and The Cook, the Thief, His Wife & Her Lover, Heinrich Ignaz Franz Biber in A Zed & Two Noughts, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in Drowning by Numbers, John Dowland in Prospero's Books at the request of the director, he wrote settings to various texts by Mozart for Letters and Writs, part of Not Mozart.
He produced a soundtrack for the silent film Man with a Movie Camera. Nyman's popularity increased after he wrote the score to Jane Campion's award-winning 1993 film The Piano; the album became a classical music best-seller. He was nominated for both a Golden Globe, his few forays into Hollywood have been Gattaca and The End of the Affair. Among Nyman's other works are the opera Noises, Sounds & Sweet Airs, for soprano, alto and instrumental ensemble. In 2000, he produced a new opera on the subject of cloning on a libretto by Victoria Hardie titled Facing Goya, an expansion of their one-act opera Vital Statistics; the lead, a widowed art banker, is written for contralto and the role was first created by Hilary Summers. His newest operas are Boy: Dada and Love Counts, both on libretti by Michael Hastings, he has composed the music for the children's television series Titch, based on the books written and illustrated by Pat Hutchins. Many of Nyman's works are written for his own ensemble, the Michael Nyman Band, a group formed for a 1976 production of Carlo Goldoni's Il Campiello.
Made up of old instruments such as rebecs and shawms alongside more modern instruments like the saxophone to produce as loud a sound as possible without amplification, it switched to a amplified line-up of string quartet, three saxophones, horn, bass trombone, bass guitar and piano. This line up has been variously augmented for some works. Nyman published an influential book in 1974 on experimental music called Experimental Music: Cage and Beyond, which explored the influence of John Cage on classical composers. In the 1970s, Nyman was a member of the Portsmouth Sinfonia – the self-described World's Worst Orchestra – playing on their recordings and in their concerts, he was the featured pianist on the orchestra's recording of Bridge Over Troubled Water on the Martin Lewis-produced 20 Classic Rock Classics album on which the Sinfonia gave their unique interpretations of the pop and rock repertoire of the 1950s–1970s. Nyman created a similar group called Foster's Social Orchestra, which specialised in the work of Stephen Foster.
One of their pieces appeared in the film Ravenous and an additional work, not used in the film, appeared on the soundtrack album. He has recorded pop music with the Flying Lizards.
Iraqi art, throughout its entire history, has been influenced by war and frequent political changes. For centuries, the capital, Baghdad was the Medieval centre of the literary and artistic Arab world, but its artistic traditions suffered at the hands of the Mongol invaders in the 13th century. During other periods it has flourished, such as during the reign of Pir Budaq, or under Ottoman rule in the 16th century when Baghdad was known for its Ottoman miniature painting. During the rule of the Safavids, Iraqi art was influenced by Persian art, it became a centre of poetry as well as arts. In the 20th century, an art revival, which combined both tradition and modern techniques, produced many notable poets and sculptors who contributed to the inventory of public artworks in Baghdad; these artists are regarded in the Middle East, some have earned international recognition. The Iraqi modern art movement had a profound influence on pan-Arab art generally; the art historian, Nada Shabout, points out that Iraqi art remains undocumented.
The West has little idea about Iraqi art. Problems associated with documenting a complete picture of Iraqi art have been compounded by the fact that many 20th-century artists, art historians and philosophers have been forced into exile, where they are isolated from their heritage and current practices. In addition, much of Iraq's art heritage has been looted or destroyed during periods of revolution and political unrest. Iraq's art has a deep heritage. Iraq has one of the longest written traditions in the world. Maqam traditions in music and calligraphy have survived into the modern day. However, the continuity of Iraq's arts culture has been subject to the vicissitudes of invading armies for centuries; the Mongol invasion of the 13th-century devastated much traditional art and craft and is seen as a break in the tradition of Iraqi art. Although British archaeologists excavated a number of Iraqi sites, including Nimrud and Tell Halaf in Iraq in the 19th-century, they sent many of the artefacts and statues to museums around the world.
It was not until the early 20th-century when a small group of Iraqi artists were awarded scholarships to study abroad that they became aware of ancient Sumerian art by visiting pretigious museums such as the Louvre, enabling them to reconnect with their cultural and intellectual heritage. Figurines, dating to the Neolithic period, found at the Palace of Tell Halaf and elsewhere, attest to Iraq's ancient artistic heritage; the Sassanids ruled the region, now Iraq and Iran between the 3rd and 7th centuries. Sasanian art is best represented in metalwork, jewellery and wall-reliefs. Few paintings from this period have survived, but an understanding of jewellery ornamentation can be inferred from pictorial and sculptural representations. During the early Islamic period, writing was transformed into an "iconophoric message...a carrier of meaning independent of its form into a subject worthy of the most elaborate ornamentation." Another development during this period was the use of repeating patterns or motifs on scrolls and wall-reliefs.
Inherited from the Muslims, this stylised system of ornamentation was subsequently given the label of arabesque. The Abassid Dynasty controlled much of the region now encompassed by Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Syria, between the 8th and 13th-centuries. During the Abassid period, pottery achieved a high level of sophistication, calligraphy began to be used to decorate the surface of decorative objects and illuminated manuscripts Q'ranic texts became more complex and stylised. Iraq's first art school was established during this period, allowing artisans and crafts to flourish. At the height of the Abassid period, in the late 12th-century, a stylistic movement of manuscript illustration and calligraphy emerged. Now known as the Baghdad School, this movement of Islamic art was characterised by representations of everyday life and the use of expressive faces rather than the stereotypical characters, used in the past; the school consisted of calligraphers, illustrators and translators, who collaborated to produce illuminated manuscripts derived from non-Arabic sources.
The works were scientific, social commentary or humorous entertainments. This movement continued for at least four decades, dominated art in the first half of the 13th-century. Poetry flourished during the Abbasid period, producing notable poets including: the 9th-century Sufi poets Mansur Al-Hallaj and Abū Nuwās al-Ḥasan ibn Hānī al-Ḥakamī; the Abbasid artist, Yahya Al-Wasiti lived in Baghdad in the late Abassid era was the pre-eminent artist of the Baghdad school. His most well-known works include the llustrations for the book of the Maqamat in 1237, a series of anecdotes of social satire written by al-Hariri. Al-Waiti's illustrations served as an inspiration for the 20th-century modern Baghdad art movement. Other examples of works in the style of the Baghdad School include the illustrations in Rasa'il al-Ikhwan al-Safa,. For centuries, Baghdad was the capital of the Abbasid caliphate. However, in 1258, Baghdad fell to the Mongol invaders, who pillaged the city, decimating mosques and palaces, thereby destroying most of the city's literary and artistic a
University of Basrah
The University of Basrah is situated in the city of Basra, Iraq. For historic reasons the final -h is retained on Basrah in the name of the university. Founded in 1964 to meet the needs of southern Iraq, the University of Basrah was at first affiliated with the University of Baghdad, but in 1964 it became an independent body. Today the University consists of fourteen colleges located on three campuses around the city of Basra, with research facilities and student halls of residence; the University awards the degrees of BA, BSc, Higher Diploma, MA, MSc and PhD. The university is composed of 15 colleges: College of Medicine College of Pharmacy College of Dentistry College of Veterinary Medicine College of Nursing College of Engineering College of Science College of Agriculture College of Education College of Business and Economics College of Law College of Arts College of Physical Education College of Education for Girls College of Fine Arts The University conducts research through the following research centres: Iranian Studies Centre Marine Science Centre Polymer Studies Centre Arabian Gulf Studies Centre Basrah Studies Centre Date Palm Research Centre Educational Counselling Centre Resources Centre Teaching Methods Development Centre Living Languages Centre Computer Centre Continuing Educational CentreThere is the Desalination Unit, the Natural History Museum, the Haemoglobinopathy Unit, the Internet Resources Centre, the Central Library, a Publishing house.
The University of Basrah consists of three campuses, they are as follows: Northern Campus of Qarmat Ali contains the colleges of Pharmacy, Veterinary Medicine, Science, Education and Physical Education. Southern Campus of Bab Al Zubayer contains the colleges of Business and Economics, Arts, Historical Studies, Fine Arts. College of Medicine Campus contains the College of the Teaching Hospital. College of Dentistry Campus contains the College of Dentistry. Dr. Abdel Hadi Mahbooba Dr. Sadeq Al-Khayyat Dr. Saad Abdul Baqi Al Rawi Dr. Khalil Hamid Al Talib Dr. Nizar Nadheef Al-Shawi Dr. Yousef Abdul Illah Khashab Dr. Majeed Mohammed Saeed Dr. Dakhil Hassan Jrew Dr. Akram Mohammed Sobhi Dr. Mohammed Abdul Al Al Nuaimi Dr. Salman Dawood Salman Dr. As'ad Saleem Abdulqadir Dr. Ali Abbass Alwan Dr. Salih Ismail Najim Prof. Thamer Ahmad Hamdan Al-Tamimi University of Basrah website