Traditionally they spoke the Yambina language.
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Traditionally they spoke the Yambina language.
|This Indigenous Australians-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
1. Aboriginal Australians – Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members of the Aboriginal race of Australia. Until the 1980s, the legal and administrative criterion for inclusion in this category was race. In the era of colonial and post-colonial government, access to human rights depended upon your race. If you were a full blooded Aboriginal native, the Constitution of Australia, in its original form as of 1901, referred to Aboriginals twice, but without definition. Section 51 gave the Commonwealth parliament power to legislate with respect to the people of any throughout the Commonwealth. The purpose of this provision was to give the Commonwealth power to regulate non-white immigrant workers, the only other reference, Section 127, provided simply that aboriginal natives shall not be counted in reckoning the size of the population of the Commonwealth or any part of it. The purpose of section 127 was to prevent the inclusion of Aboriginal people in section 24 determinations of the distribution of House of Representatives seats amongst the states and territories, after both of these references were removed by the 1967 referendum, the Australian Constitution had no references to Aboriginals. Since that time, there have been a number of proposals to amend the constitution to specifically mention Indigenous Australians, the change to Section 51 gave the Commonwealth parliament the power to make laws specifically with respect to Aboriginal peoples as a race. The case concerned an application of legislation that would preserve cultural heritage of Aboriginal Tasmanians and it was held that Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, together or separately, and any part of either, could be regarded as a race for this purpose. As to the criteria for identifying a person as a member of such a race, Deane said, It is unnecessary, for the purposes of the present case, to consider the meaning to be given to the phrase people of any race in s.51. Plainly, the words have a wide and non-technical meaning, the phrase is, in my view, apposite to refer to all Australian Aboriginals collectively. Any doubt, which might otherwise exist in regard, is removed by reference to the wording of par. The phrase is also apposite to refer to any identifiable racial sub-group among Australian Aboriginals, while Deanes three-part definition reaches beyond the biological criterion to individuals self-identification, it has been criticised as continuing to accept the biological criterion as primary. It has been difficult to apply, both in each of its parts and as to the relations among the parts, biological descent has been a fall-back criterion. If it is to be used to refer to us as a group of people. This has just really crept up on us and we are very happy with our involvement with indigenous people around the world, on the international forum because theyre our brothers and sisters. But we do object to it being used here in Australia and her lecture offered a new perspective on the terms urban, traditional and of Indigenous descent as used to define and categorise Aboriginal Australians. She said, Not only are these categories inappropriate, they serve to divide us, governments insistence on categorising us with modern words like urban, traditional and of Aboriginal descent are really only replacing old terms half-caste and full-blood – based on our colouring
2. Indigenous Australians – Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to European colonisation. In present-day Australia these groups are divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken, it is estimated that 120 to 145 of these remain in use. Aboriginal people today mostly speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English, a population collapse following European settlement, and a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans may have caused a massive and early depopulation. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the flags of Australia. The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century, to mean, first or earliest known and it comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from ab and origo. The word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789 and it soon became capitalised and employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. Strictly speaking, Aborigine is the noun and Aboriginal the adjectival form, however, use of either Aborigine or Aboriginal to refer to individuals has acquired negative connotations in some sectors of the community, and it is generally regarded as insensitive and even offensive. The more acceptable and correct expression is Aboriginal Australians or Aboriginal people, the term Indigenous Australians, which also includes Torres Strait Islander peoples, has found increasing acceptance, particularly since the 1980s. The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many groups that often identify under names from local Indigenous languages. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land, Palawah in Tasmania and these larger groups may be further subdivided, for example, Anangu recognises localised subdivisions such as Pitjantjatjara, Yankunytjatjara, Ngaanyatjarra, Luritja and Antikirinya. It is estimated that prior to the arrival of British settlers, the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, accordingly, they are not generally included under the designation Aboriginal Australians. This has been another factor in the promotion of the inclusive term Indigenous Australians. Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves fully as Torres Strait Islanders, a further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage. The Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879, eddie Mabo was from Mer or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term blacks has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement, while originally related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal heritage or culture in general and refers to people of any skin pigmentation. In the 1970s, many Aboriginal activists, such as Gary Foley, proudly embraced the term black, the book included interviews with several members of the Aboriginal community including Robert Jabanungga reflecting on contemporary Aboriginal culture
3. Queensland – Queensland is the second-largest and third-most-populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west, to the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Sea and Pacific Ocean. Queensland has a population of 4,750,500, concentrated along the coast, the state is the worlds sixth largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 km2. The capital and largest city in the state is Brisbane, Australias third largest city, often referred to as the Sunshine State, Queensland is home to 10 of Australias 30 largest cities and is the nations third largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled largely by its tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, the first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain. The colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney, New South Wales at that time included all of what is now Queensland, Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842, the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. The 6th of June is now celebrated statewide as Queensland Day. Queensland achieved statehood with the Federation of Australia on 1 January 1901, the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement. The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch, Spanish and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770, the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a colony from New South Wales. The Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC, likely via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, during the last ice age Queenslands landscape became more arid and largely desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the worlds first seed-grinding technology, warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the states tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa and this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, and it also marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland, the Aboriginal population declined significantly after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century
4. Gladstone, Queensland – Gladstone /ˈɡlædstən/ is a city in the Gladstone Region, Queensland, Australia. It is approximately 550 km by road north of Brisbane and 100 km south-east of Rockhampton, situated between the Calliope and Boyne Rivers, Gladstone is home to Queenslands largest multi-commodity shipping port. Gladstone, together with Boyne Island and Tannum Sands, had an urban population of 49,248 at June 2015. This urban area covers 240.2 km2, Gladstone is the largest settlement within and the seat of the Gladstone Regional Council, which formed in 2008 amalgamating three former local government areas. Before European settlement, the Gladstone region was home of the Toolooa, Meerooni, in May 1770, the HM Bark Endeavour, under the command of James Cook, sailed by the entrance to Gladstone Harbour under the cover of darkness. Matthew Flinders, during his 1801–1803 circumnavigation of Australia, became the first recorded European to sight the harbour in August 1802. He named the harbour Port Curtis, after Admiral Roger Curtis, John Oxley conducted further exploration of the harbour and surrounding countryside in November 1823. Oxley was dismissive of the region, noting the harbour was difficult to enter, the countryside was too dry, nevertheless, a colony was eventually established at Port Curtis. Colonel George Barneys expedition was eventful, on 25 January 1847, the Lord Auckland, carrying 87 soldiers and convicts, arrived off the southern entrance of Port Curtis and promptly ran aground on shoals off the southern tip of Facing Island. The settlers spent seven weeks on the island before being rescued by the supply ship Thomas Lowry and delivered the intended site of settlement, on 30 January at a proclamation ceremony, Barney was sworn in as Lieutenant Governor of the colony of North Australia. The convict settlement lasted barely two months, a change of government in Britain ordered the withdrawal of Barney and the settlers. However, interest in the region remained, by 1853, Francis MacCabe was surveying the site of a new town on the shores of Port Curtis. Maurice OConnell was appointed government resident the following year, resulting in an influx of free settlers as land became available throughout the region, in 1863, the town became a Municipality with Richard Hetherington elected Gladstones first mayor. The fledgling town was named after the British Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone and has a 19th-century marble statue on display in its town museum, development of Gladstone was slow until 1893, when a meatworks was established at Parsons Point. On 2 March 1949, a cyclone hit Gladstone, doing extensive damage to the town. In 1963, Queensland Alumina Limited established its alumina refinery on the site of the old meatworks, Gladstones port facilities were expanded and the city launched into an era of industrial development and economic prosperity. William Robert Golding — builder, historian, local government councillor, local government head, public servant, percival Albert Gourgaud — public servant, public servant head. Henry John Manning — company managing director, journalist, newspaper executive, frederick Woolnough Paterson — barrister, communist, farmer, local government councillor, Member of Lower House, school teacher, soldier
5. Guugu Yimithirr – The Guugu Yimithirr are an Australian Aboriginal tribe of Far North Queensland, many of whom today live at Hopevale, which is the administrative centre of Hopevale Shire. At the 2011 census, Hopevale had a population of 1,005 people.2011 census and it is about 46 km from Cooktown by road. It is also the name of their language and they were a both a coastal and inland people, the former clans referring to themselves as a saltwater people. The major dialects are dhalun-dhirr, spoken on the areas, and waguurr-ga. It is still spoken by approximately 200 people, and was listed by Peter Austin as one of the languages at immediate risk of extinction, Guugu Yimithirr had several dialects, dhalan-dhirr, wagurrr-ga, guugu nyiiguudyi, guugu nyalaadyi, guugu yinaa and guugu diirrurru. Because they intermarried widely with tribes speaking other tongues, it was not unusual for Guugu Yimithirr people to be familiar with several languages. Dialects of the language were spoken north of Cape Bedford and the McIvor River. Captain Cook left a few pigs on the land, and they bred quickly, Guugu Yimithirr practice certain forms of social avoidance. The language itself has a form of language in which, speaking in the presence of certain family members. In everyday conversation the man is going is bama dhaday, in the presence of certain kin, this must be altered to yambaal bali. Speaking was totally forbidden in the presence of ones mother-in-law, one being obliged to sit, with bowed head, the system of spatial coordination inscribed in the language is totally different from that in Western languages, where the reference system is relative with respect to the subject. The language thus provides them with a map, allowing quite a precise dead-reckoning of all points around them wherever they are. Though the modern population was displaced and pushed 30 miles northwards, the expeditions members found them to be quite friendly, though they initially kept their distance. After a month, the Europeans were approached by five men, and he offered them bread, which they refused with disgust. Different concepts of hospitality and the rules of sharing clashed, soon after, the natives set fire to grass in the bay, and in retaliation, some received injuries from shot. One of the members of the crew, the skilled botanist and he described them as diminutive and small boned, agile, their skin painted with red and white ochre, with wood-sooty skin and generally given to shaving their hair off. They used wood from the ficus riduola as a rasp to sharpen their spears and their languages was quite mellifluous, with clear enunciation. In 1885 a curfew was imposed on them, disallowing their movement after dusk, H. Schwartz, who renamed it Hope Vale
6. Gubbi Gubbi people – The Gubbi Gubbi, also written Kabi Kabi, people are an Indigenous Australian people native to southeastern Queensland. They are now classified as one of several Murri language groups in Queensland, norman Tindale situated the Gubbi Gubbi as an inland tribe of the Wide Bay–Burnett area, whose lands extended over 3,700 sq. miles and lay west of Maryborough. The northern borders ran as far as Childers and Hervey Bay, on the south, they approached the headwaters of the Mary River and Cooroy. Westwards, they reached as far as the Coast Ranges and Kilkivan, Gubbi Gubbi country is currently located between Pumicestone Road, near Caboolture in the south, through to Childers in the north. Some Gubbi Gubbi died in the poisoning of upwards of 60 Aborigines on the Kilcoy run in 1842. A further 50-60 are said to have killed by food laced with arsenic at Whiteside Station in April 1847. In June 1849 two youths, the Pegg brothers, were speared on the property while herding sheep and they had feasted on stolen sheep. Marksmen picked off many, even those fleeing by diving into the Burnett River, the slaughter was extensive, and the bones of many of the dead were uncovered on the site many decades later. Blaxland was in turn killed in a payback action sometime in July–August 1850 and his death was revenged in a further large-scaled massacre of tribes in the area. The escaped convict James Davis lived among other tribes, the Gubbi Gubbi John Mathew and he described their society in a 1910 monograph, Two Representative Tribes of Queensland. The Queensland lungfish was native to Gubbi Gubbi waters and the species fell under a taboo among them and it was known in their language as dala
7. Djabugay – Djabugay belongs to the Yidinic branch of the Pama–Nyungan language family, and is closely related to Yidin. The last speaker with a knowledge of the language was Gilpin Banning. Their western boundary was defined by the margin of the rain forest from Tolga north to Mount Molloy. By 1952, the Djabugay claimed also the strip between Cairns Inlet and Lamb Range, with one horde lived near Redlynch, Cairns. The somewhat ambiguous eurocentric concept of the Dreamtime devised to describe Aboriginal religion or the traditional worldview of the Djabugay and the Yidinji, was expressed in the word bulurru. It finally came to rest at Wangal Djungay In one account, he was killed by emu men at Din din, an incident which unleashed the powerful monsoonal rains on the region. There were 2 Bulurru dreamtime brothers, Damarri and Guyala, who laid down the contours, created the plant foods, established the customary law, the contours of the Barron River and Redlynch Valley, for example, are thought of as representing the supine body of Damarri. The tale of Budadjis travels along the Barron Gorge is included in the web guide of Queensland Rail to the journey from Cairns to Kuranda. European settlers explored and cleared the land for gold and tin, dispersals, the euphemism for shooting groups of blacks, were undertaken at Smithfield, Bibhoora at Clohesy River close to Kuranda in the early 1880s, and near Mareeba in 1881. In May 1886, a railway was constructed from Cairns to Herberton with part of the going on top of a walking track. The Djabugay were unhappy about this development and withstood the settlement by spearing bullocks, as the settlers entered, traditional hunting and gathering grounds were taken over. This led to the notorious Speewah massacre in 1890 where John Atherton took revenge on the Djubagay by sending in native troopers to avenge the killing of a bullock. The Djubagay were segregated from them and forced to live at the Mona-Mona Mission and were unable to hunt and their numbers fell dramatically at the turn of the century. By 1896, the region supported coffee plantations and the Djabugay were used as labour on farms, many now own their own land, some other settlements and farms in the area. On 17 December 2004, it was recognised that native title existed in the Barron Gorge National Park for the Djabugay and it followed that the physical landscape, its storyplaces and storywaters in bulurru tradition underline the inalienable connection between the native claimants, their ancestral beings and the land. In land title claims, there was a running dispute between the Djabugay and the Yirrganydji the latter claiming native title to the area from Cairns to Port Douglas. The clash arose out of the siting of the Tjapukai Cultural Theme Park, though some Djabuguy wished their claim to be included under the general claim, regarding them as part of the Dajabugay people, the Yirrganydji insisted on maintaining their separate identity. Eventually the two representing the groups thrashed out a compromise agreement
8. Norman Tindale – Norman Barnett Tindale AO was an Australian anthropologist, archaeologist, entomologist and ethnologist. The family returned to Perth, and in 1917 moved to Adelaide where Tindale took up a position as a cadet at the Adelaide Public Library. Shortly after this, Tindale lost the sight in one eye in a gas explosion which occurred while assisting his father with photographic processing. In January 1919 he secured a position at the South Australian Museum as Entomologists Assistant to Arthur Mills Lea and he had already published thirty-one papers on entomological, ornithological and anthropological subjects before receiving his Bachelor of Science degree at the University of Adelaide in March 1933. Tindale is best remembered for his work mapping the various groupings of Indigenous Australians. This interest began with a trip to Groote Eylandt where an Anindilyakwa man gave Tindale very detailed descriptions of which land was his. This led Tindale to question the orthodoxy of the time which was that Aboriginal people were purely nomadic and had no connection to any specific region. While Tindales methodology and his notion of the tribe have been superseded. Quite a number of now-important record films were made by Tindale, in 1942 Tindale joined the Royal Australian Air Force and was assigned the rank of Wing Commander. He had previously tried to enlist in the Australian army at the outbreak of WWII but was rejected due to his damaged eyesight, in 1967, at the age of sixty-six, he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Colorado. He was eventually honoured with a doctorate by the Australian National University in 1980, during 1993 Tindale received unofficial confirmation of his appointment as an Officer of the Order of Australia, this was presented posthumously, to his widow Muriel. Also in 1993, the South Australian Museum Boards named a public gallery in his honour, Tindale published extensively, both as sole author and collaborator. Note that the archives contain 2,804 items related to Dr Tindale