Earl of Lennox
The Earl or Mormaer of Lennox was the ruler of the district of the Lennox in western Scotland. The first earl recorded is Ailin I, sometimes called'Alwin', he is traditionally said to have been created Earl of Lennox by King Malcolm IV in 1154, but this is too early a date. The earldom may in fact have been created in the late twelfth century by King William the Lion for his brother David, after David gained the higher title Earl of Huntingdon, he resigned the Earldom of Lennox and it passed to Ailin. Earl Ailin's parentage and background is unknown, his line continued as Earls of Lennox until the time of Earl Duncan in the fifteenth century. Duncan's daughter Isabella married son of Robert, Duke of Albany. Duncan hoped this marriage would improve the family's prospects, but it would in fact be their downfall. Duke Robert had infamously murdered David, the heir to the throne, when David's brother James became king, he wreaked his vengeance: the entire family were executed, including Earl Duncan, despite the fact he had had no part in the murder.
Isabella was imprisoned in Tantallon Castle, but she escaped execution, succeeded her father as Countess of Lennox. All four of her sons died in her lifetime: two from King James's retribution, two from natural causes, she had several grandsons, but none of them were legitimate, the earldom therefore died with her around the year 1457. In 1473 the earldom was reclaimed by Sir John Stewart of Darnley, the grandson of Elizabeth Lennox, daughter to Earl Duncan and sister to Countess Isabella. In 1565 his great-great-great-grandson Henry, Lord Darnley married Queen of Scots, he would be murdered at Kirk o' Field in 1567, therefore on the death of his father Earl Matthew, the earldom of Lennox passed to James, the son of Henry and Mary. James would accede as King of Scots a few months and the title merged with the Crown. In 1572, the earldom was conferred upon King James's uncle Charles, he did not long enjoy the title, for he died four years at the age of twenty-one. It was next granted to the king's great-uncle Robert in 1578.
This Robert, described as being "symple and of lyttle action or accomte", was persuaded to exchange the earldom of Lennox for the earldom of March, so that the king could give the former title to his friend and cousin Esmé. In 1581, Esmé's earldom was raised to a dukedom, his line continued as Dukes of Lennox until the time of his great-grandson Charles, who died childless in 1672 after drowning at Elsinore while on a diplomatic mission to the Danish government. In 1675, the Dukedom of Lennox was conferred upon Charles, bastard son of King Charles II, along with the English Dukedom of Richmond and several other titles. However, he would sell his lands in the Lennox to the Duke of Montrose, meaning he became Duke of Lennox in name alone; this line survives today, is headed by another Charles. Despite being Stewarts, they used "Lennox" as their surname, changed to "Gordon-Lennox" in the 19th century after the fourth Duke married Lady Charlotte Gordon and heiress to George, Duke of Gordon. David, Earl of Huntingdon Ailin I, Earl of Lennox Ailin II, Earl of Lennox Maldouen, Earl of Lennox Malcolm I, Earl of Lennox Malcolm II, Earl of Lennox Donald, Earl of Lennox Margaret, Countess of Lennox m. Walter of Faslane, descendant of the second Earl.
Duncan, Earl of Lennox Isabella, Countess of Lennox m. Murdoch Stewart, Duke of AlbanyThe title became extinct c. 1459, as all four sons of Countess Isabella died without legitimate issue. John Stewart, 1st Earl of Lennox, he married his half-first cousin Mary, Queen of Scots and heiress of King James V of Scotland, by whom he was the father of King James VI of Scotland and I of England, who inherited the earldom on the death of his grandfather the 4th Earl, whereupon it merged with the Crown, but was re-created by the king for his uncle. Charles Stewart, Earl of Lennox, second son of the 4th Earl of the second creation. Robert Stewart, Earl of Lennox, "exchanged" for the Earldom of March in 1580, second son of the third Earl of the second creation. Esmé Stewart, Earl of Lennox, grandson of the third Earl of the second creation through his third son John. Esmé Stewart, Duke of Lennox Ludovic Stewart, Duke of Lennox and Richmond Esmé Stewart, Duke of Lennox James Stewart, Duke of Lennox and Richmond Esmé Stewart, Duke of Lennox and Richmond Charles Stewart, Duke of Lennox and Richmond Charles Lennox, Duke of Lennox and Richmond Charles Lennox, Duke of Lennox and Richmond Charles Lennox, Duke of Lennox and Richmond Charles Lennox, Duke of Lennox and Richmond Charles Gordon-Lennox, Duke of Lennox and Richmond Charles Gordon-Lennox, Duke of Lennox and Gordon Charles Gordon-Lennox, Duke of Lennox and Gordon Charles Gordon-Lennox, Duke of Lennox and Gordon Frederick Gordon-Lennox, Duke of Lennox and Gordon Charles Gordon-Lennox, Duke of Lennox, Richmond
Frederick, Prince of Wales
Frederick, Prince of Wales, KG, was heir apparent to the British throne from 1727 until his death from a lung injury at the age of 44 in 1751. He was the eldest but estranged son of King George II and Caroline of Ansbach, the father of King George III. Under the Act of Settlement passed by the English Parliament in 1701, Frederick was fourth in the line of succession to the British throne at birth, after his great-grandmother, paternal grandfather and father, he moved to Great Britain following the accession of his father, was created Prince of Wales. He predeceased his father and upon the latter's death on 25 October 1760, the throne passed to Prince Frederick's eldest son, George III. Prince Frederick Lewis was born on 1 February 1707 in Hanover, Holy Roman Empire, as Duke Friedrich Ludwig of Brunswick-Lüneburg, to Prince George, son of George, Elector of Hanover, one of Frederick's two godfathers; the Elector was the son of Sophia of Hanover, granddaughter of James VI and I and first cousin and heir presumptive to Queen Anne of Great Britain.
However, Sophia died before Anne at age 83 in June 1714, which elevated the Elector to heir-presumptive. This made Frederick's father the new Prince of Wales and first-in-line to the British throne and Frederick himself second-in-line. Frederick's other godfather was his grand-uncle Frederick I, King in Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg-Prussia. Frederick was nicknamed "Griff" within the family. In the year of Anne's death and the coronation of George I, Frederick's parents, Prince of Wales, Caroline of Ansbach, were called upon to leave Hanover for Great Britain when their eldest son was only seven years old, he was left in the care of his grand-uncle Ernest Augustus, Prince-Bishop of Osnabrück, did not see his parents again for 14 years. In 1722, the 15-year-old Frederick was inoculated against smallpox by Charles Maitland on the instructions of his mother Caroline, his grandfather, George I, created him Duke of Edinburgh, Marquess of the Isle of Ely, Earl of Eltham in the county of Kent, Viscount of Launceston in the county of Cornwall, Baron of Snaudon in the county of Carnarvon, on 26 July 1726.
The latter two titles have been interpreted differently since: the ofs are omitted and Snaudon rendered as Snowdon. Frederick arrived in England in 1728 as a grown man, the year after his father had become King George II. By George and Caroline had had several younger children, Frederick, himself now Prince of Wales, was a high-spirited youth fond of drinking and women; the long separation damaged their relationship, they would never be close. 1728 saw the foundation of Fredericksburg, named after him—his other namesakes are Prince Frederick, Fort Frederick, Fort Frederick, South Carolina, Fort Frederick, New York and Fort Frederica, while Fort Frederick, Point Frederick, Fort Frederick and Fort Frederick, New Brunswick were named after him posthumously. The motives for the ill-feeling between Frederick and his parents may include the fact that he had been set up by his grandfather as a small child, as the representative of the House of Hanover, was used to presiding over official occasions in the absence of his parents.
He was not permitted to go to Great Britain until after his father took the throne as George II on 11 June 1727. Frederick had continued to be known as Prince Friedrich Ludwig of Hanover after his father had been created Prince of Wales. In 1728, Frederick was brought to Britain and was created Prince of Wales on 8 January 1729, he served as the tenth Chancellor of the University of Dublin from 1728 to 1751, a portrait of him still enjoys a commanding position in the Hall of the Trinity College, Dublin. He sponsored a court of'opposition' politicians. Frederick and his group supported the Opera of the Nobility in Lincoln's Inn Fields as a rival to Handel's royally sponsored opera at the King's Theatre in the Haymarket. Frederick was a lover of music who played the cello, he enjoyed the natural sciences and the arts, became a thorn in the side of his parents, making a point of opposing them in everything, according to the court gossip Lord Hervey. At court, the favourite was Frederick's younger brother, Prince William, Duke of Cumberland, to the extent that the king looked into ways of splitting his domains so that Frederick would succeed only in Britain, while Hanover would go to William.
Hervey and Frederick wrote a theatrical comedy together, staged at the Drury Lane Theatre in October 1731. It was panned by the critics, the theatre's manager thought it so bad that it was unlikely to play out the first night, he had soldiers stationed in the audience to maintain order, when the play flopped the audience was given their money back. Hervey and Frederick shared a mistress, Anne Vane, who had a son called FitzFrederick Vane in June 1732. Either of them or William Stanhope, 1st Earl of Harrington, another of her lovers, could have been the father. Jealousy between them may have contributed to a breach, their friendship ended. Hervey wrote bitterly that Frederick was "false... never having the least hesitation in telling any lie that served his present purpose." A permanent result of Frederick's patronage of the arts is "Rule, Britannia!", one of th
Clan Stewart of Appin
Clan Stewart of Appin is the West Highland branch of the Clan Stewart and have been a distinct clan since their establishment in the 15th century. Their Chiefs are descended from Sir James Stewart of Perston, himself the grandson of Alexander Stewart, the fourth High Steward of Scotland, his cousin Walter Stewart, the 6th High Steward, married Marjorie Bruce, the daughter of King Robert the Bruce, their son Robert II was the first Stewart Monarch. The Stewarts of Appin are cousins to the Royal Stewart Monarchy; the Appin Stewarts is the West Highland branch of Clan Stewart, descend from Sir James Stewart of Perston, 4th son of Sir John Stewart of Bonkill, second son of Alexander, the 4th High Steward of Scotland. Sir James was the grandfather of John Stewart of Innermeath, through marriage to Isabel MacDougall, daughter of John Gallda MacDougall, Lord of Lorne, became the first Stewart Lord of Lorne; the Lordship of Lorne passed down for 2 more generations to Sir John Stewart, the third Stewart Lord of Lorne.
Appin is located on the Scottish West Coast between Benderloch to the South and the Ballachulish Narrows to the north in modern-day Argyll. Today the primary towns include Port Portnacroish. Both are surrounded by forests and water. To the west are islands including the island of Lismore, home to the MacLea and the Baron Buchull, keeper of the Buchull Mhòr, adherents of Appin. There are numerous sights of interest including Ardsheal's Cave, Castle Stalker, the Clach Ruric, Cnap a-Chaolais, Eilean Munde and Keil churchyard. Tradition tell us that in 1445, while returning to his seat at Dunstaffnage Castle from the great cattle tryst at Crieff, Sir John met and fell in love with the daughter of MacLaren of Ardvech. Although married, he began an affair with his new love which one year produced a son; the first son of this union was called Dugald, went on to become the progenitor of the famous Clan Stewart of Appin. Sir John Stewart was born around 1410, putting him at about 35 when he met the woman that would become his second wife.
After the death of his first wife, Sir John waited, for reasons we are unaware of today, for 5 years until setting up the marriage between himself and Dugald's mother, but it may have had something to do with the politics of the day. In 1463, Sir John sent for Dugald and his mother to come to Dunstaffnage. Unknown to Sir John, there was a plot to kill the Lord of Lorn, it is not known, but it is thought to have been set up by the Lord of the Isles, in a power struggle with the King of Scots, who saw it as being in his best interest to neutralize this powerful and loyal representative of the King in the west highlands. The other plotters, which some feel included Colin Campbell, Lord Argyll, Sir John's son-in-law, were represented by Alan MacCoul, the illegitimate grandson of an earlier MacDougall Chief; as the armed wedding party made its way from Dunstaffnage to the small chapel located 180 yards from the castle walls, they were attacked by a superior force led by Alan MacCoul. Although better armed, MacCoul's force not before mortally wounding Lord of Lorn.
Sir John was rushed into the chapel and MacCoul and his henchmen ran into and occupied the deserted Dunstaffnage. With his last breath Sir John married Dugald's mother, legitimizing him and making him the de jure Lord of Lorn. After receiving the last rites, Sir John expired and a new chapter in west highland history was opened. Dugald gathered all the adherents of the Lord of Lorn and with the assistance of the MacLarens laid siege to Dunstaffnage, but to no avail. Unbeknownst to Dugald, Colin Campbell, Lord Argyll who seemed to have been involved in the plot, raised a group of MacFarlanes to aid MacCoul in his struggle against the de jure Lord of Lorn. MacCoul's men with the MacFarlanes met the men of Lorn and MacLaren in what was to be known as the battle of Leac a dotha, it was a fierce battle with both sides leaving the field with heavy losses. For the next few years Dugald, who had lost the title of Lord of Lorn through the treachery of his uncle Walter Stewart and the lord of Argyll, but had retained Appin and Lismore, consolidated his power and fortified the hunting lodge of Castle Stalker on the Cormorant's Rock in Loch Laich.
He ensured that the Campbells were in no doubt about his displeasure over the loss of the Lordship of Lorn, by having the Campbell territory surrounding Appin raided by the clan. In 1468, in a bid to destroy the power of Appin, Colin Campbell and Walter Stewart, the latter now recognized as the Lord of Lorn, organized a massive raid against Dugald and his clan. Alan MacCoul was again involved and they met at what was to be known as the Battle of Stalc. Though losing many men, Dugald destroyed the military strength of the MacFarlanes and killed Alan MacCoul, his father's murderer; the battle solidified Dugald's claim to Appin and the surrounding area, formally granted to him by King James III on 14 April 1470. In 1497 or 1498 Dugald Stewart of Appin was killed at the Battle of Black Mount fighting against the Clan MacDonald of Keppoch; the Clan Stewart of Appin supported the royalist, James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose at the Battle of Inverlochy, the Battle of Auldearn and the Battle of Kilsyth.
After James VII was deposed in 1688, the Stewarts of Appin supported the deposed House of Stuart. Appin supported the Jacobite risings and sent men to fight in the Jacobite rising of 1715. Dugald Stewart, 9th Chief of Appin, was created Lord Appin in the Jacobite peerage on 6 June 1743. Appin sent men to fight in the Jacobite rising of
James IV of Scotland
James IV was the King of Scotland from 11 June 1488 to his death. He assumed the throne following the death of his father, King James III, at the Battle of Sauchieburn, a rebellion in which the younger James played an indirect role, he is regarded as the most successful of the Stewart monarchs of Scotland, but his reign ended in a disastrous defeat at the Battle of Flodden. He was the last monarch from the island of Great Britain to be killed in battle. James IV's marriage in 1503 to Margaret Tudor linked the royal houses of England, it led to the Union of the Crowns in 1603, when Elizabeth I died without heirs and James IV's great-grandson James VI succeeded to the English throne as James I. James was the son of Margaret of Denmark, born in Holyrood Abbey; as heir apparent to the Scottish crown, he became Duke of Rothesay. He had two younger brothers and John. In 1474, his father arranged his betrothal to the English princess Cecily of York, daughter of Edward IV of England, his father James III was not a popular king, facing two major rebellions during his reign, alienating many members of his close family his younger brother Alexander Stewart, Duke of Albany.
James III's pro-English policy was unpopular, rebounded badly upon him when the marriage negotiations with England broke down over lapsed dowry payments, leading to the invasion of Scotland and capture of Berwick in 1482 by Cecily's uncle Richard, Duke of Gloucester, in the company of the Duke of Albany. When James III attempted to lead his army against the invasion, his army rebelled against him and he was imprisoned by his own councillors in the first major crisis of his reign. James IV's mother, Margaret of Denmark, was more popular than his father, though somewhat estranged from her husband she was given responsibility for raising their sons at Stirling Castle, but she died in 1486. Two years a second rebellion broke out, where the rebels set up the 15-year-old Prince James as their nominal leader, they fought James III at the Battle of Sauchieburn on 11 June 1488, where the king was killed, though several sources claimed that Prince James had forbidden any man to harm his father. The younger James was crowned at Scone on 24 June.
However he continued to bear intense guilt for the indirect role which he had played in the death of his father. He decided to do penance for his sin; each Lent, for the rest of his life, he wore a heavy iron chain cilice around his waist, next to the skin. He added extra ounces every year. James IV proved an effective ruler and a wise king, he defeated another rebellion in 1489, took a direct interest in the administration of justice and brought the Lord of the Isles under control in 1493. For a time, he supported Perkin Warbeck, pretender to the English throne, carried out a brief invasion of England on his behalf in September 1496. In August 1497, James laid siege to Norham Castle, using his grandfather's bombard Mons Meg. James recognised nonetheless that peace between Scotland and England was in the interest of both countries, established good diplomatic relations with England, emerging at the time from a period of civil war. First he ratified the Treaty of Ayton in 1497. In 1502 James signed the Treaty of Perpetual Peace with Henry VII.
This treaty was sealed by his marriage to Henry's daughter Margaret Tudor the next year, in an event portrayed as the marriage of The Thrissil and the Rois by the great poet William Dunbar, resident at James' court. James was granted the title of Defender of the Faith in 1507 by the Papal Legate at Holyrood Abbey. James maintained Scotland's traditional good relations with France and this created diplomatic problems with England. For example, when rumours that James would renew the Auld alliance circulated in April 1508, Thomas Wolsey was sent to discuss Henry VII's concerns over this. Wolsey found "there was never a man worse welcome into Scotland than I... they keep their matters so secret here that the wives in the market know every cause of my coming." Nonetheless, Anglo-Scottish relations remained stable until the death of Henry VII in 1509. James saw the importance of building a fleet that could provide Scotland with a strong maritime presence. James founded two new dockyards for this purpose and acquired a total of 38 ships for the Royal Scots Navy, including the Margaret, the carrack Great Michael.
The latter, built at great expense at Newhaven, near Edinburgh and launched in 1511, was 240 feet in length, weighed1,000 tons and was, at that time, the largest ship in the world. James IV was a true Renaissance prince with an interest in scientific matters, he granted the Incorporation of Surgeons and Barbers of Edinburgh a royal charter in 1506, turned Edinburgh Castle into one of Scotland's foremost gun foundries, welcomed the establishment of Scotland's first printing press in 1507. He built a part of Falkland Palace, Great Halls at Stirling and Edinburgh castles, furnished his palaces with tapestries. James was a patron of the arts, including many literary figures, most notably the Scots makars whose diverse and observant works convey a vibrant and memorable picture of cultural life and intellectual concerns of the period. Figures associated with his court include William Dunbar, Walter Kennedy and Gavin Douglas, who made the first complete translation of Virgil's Aeneid in northern Europe.
His reign saw the passing of the makar Robert Henryson. He patronised music at Restalrig using rental money from t
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
Stirling Castle, located in Stirling, is one of the largest and most important castles in Scotland and architecturally. The castle sits atop Castle Hill, an intrusive crag, which forms part of the Stirling Sill geological formation, it is surrounded on three sides by steep cliffs. Its strategic location, guarding what was, until the 1890s, the farthest downstream crossing of the River Forth, has made it an important fortification in the region from the earliest times. Most of the principal buildings of the castle date from the sixteenth centuries. A few structures of the fourteenth century remain, while the outer defences fronting the town date from the early eighteenth century. Before the union with England, Stirling Castle was one of the most used of the many Scottish royal residences much a palace as well as a fortress. Several Scottish Kings and Queens have been crowned at Stirling, including Mary, Queen of Scots, in 1542, others were born or died there. There have been at least eight sieges of Stirling Castle, including several during the Wars of Scottish Independence, with the last being in 1746, when Bonnie Prince Charlie unsuccessfully tried to take the castle.
Stirling Castle is a Scheduled Ancient Monument, is now a tourist attraction managed by Historic Environment Scotland. Castle Hill, on which Stirling Castle is built, forms part of the Stirling Sill, a formation of quartz-dolerite around 350 million years old, subsequently modified by glaciation to form a "crag and tail", it is that this natural feature was occupied at an early date, as a hill fort is located on Gowan Hill to the east. The Romans bypassed Stirling, building a fort at Doune instead, but the rock may have been occupied by the Maeatae at this time, it may have been a stronghold of the Manaw Gododdin, has been identified with a settlement recorded in the 7th and 8th centuries as Iudeu, where King Penda of Mercia besieged King Oswy of Bernicia in 655. The area came under Pictish control after the defeat of the Northumbrians at the Battle of Dun Nechtain thirty years later. However, there is no archaeological evidence for occupation of Castle Hill before the late medieval period. Other legends have been associated with Stirling.
The 16th-century historian Hector Boece claims in his Historia Gentis Scotorum that the Romans, under Agricola, fortified Stirling, that Kenneth MacAlpin, traditionally the first King of Scotland, besieged a castle at Stirling during his takeover of the Pictish kingdom in the 9th century. Boece is, considered an unreliable historian. Another chronicler, William Worcester, associated Stirling with the court of the legendary King Arthur. Tradition suggests that St Monenna founded a chapel here, as she is said to have done at Edinburgh Castle, although it is now thought that the legend of Monenna results from a confusion of early Christian figures, including Modwenna and Moninne; the first record of Stirling Castle dates from around 1110, when King Alexander I dedicated a chapel there. It appears to have been an established royal centre by this time, as Alexander died here in 1124. During the reign of his successor David I, Stirling became a royal burgh, the castle an important administration centre.
King William I formed a deer park to the south-west of the castle, but after his capture by the English in 1174, he was forced to surrender several castles, including Stirling and Edinburgh Castle, under the Treaty of Falaise. There is no evidence that the English occupied the castle, it was formally handed back by Richard I of England in 1189. Stirling continued to be a favoured royal residence, with William himself dying there in 1214, Alexander III laying out the New Park, for deer hunting, in the 1260s. Stirling remained a centre of royal administration until the death of Alexander III in 1286, his passing triggered a succession crisis, with Edward I of England invited to arbitrate between competing claimants. Edward came north in 1291, demanding that Stirling, along with the other royal castles, be put under his control during the arbitration. Edward gave judgement in favour of John Balliol, hoping he would be a "puppet" ruler, but John refused to obey Edward's demands. In 1296, Edward invaded Scotland, beginning the Wars of Scottish Independence, which would last for the next 60 years.
The English found Stirling Castle abandoned and empty, set about occupying this key site. They were dislodged the following year, after the victory of Andrew Moray and William Wallace at the Battle of Stirling Bridge. Many of the garrison were killed during the battle, after which the English commanders William FitzWarin and Marmaduke Thweng retreated into the castle. However, they were starved into surrender by the Scots. Next summer, the castle changed hands again, being abandoned by the Scots after the English victory at Falkirk. Edward strengthened the castle. King Edward failed to relieve the garrison. By 1303, the English again held the upper hand, Stirling was the last remaining castle in Scottish hands. Edward's army arrived with at least 17 siege engines; the Scots, under William Oliphant, surrendered on 20 July, but part of the garrison were ordered back into the castle by Edward, as he had not yet deployed his latest engine, "Warwolf". Warwolf is believed to have been a large trebuchet.
Although Edward's victory seemed complete, he was dead by 1307, Robert Bruce was now King of Scots. By 1313, only Stirling, Roxburgh and Berwick castles were held by the English. Edward Bruce, the king's brother, laid siege
James Francis Edward Stuart
James Francis Edward Stuart, nicknamed The Old Pretender, was the son of King James II and VII of England and Ireland, his second wife, Mary of Modena. He was Prince of Wales from July 1688, until just months after his birth, his Catholic father was deposed and exiled in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. James II's Protestant elder daughter, Mary II, her husband, William III, became co-monarchs and the Bill of Rights 1689 and Act of Settlement 1701 excluded Catholics from the British throne. James Francis Edward was raised in Continental Europe. After his father's death in 1701, he claimed the English and Irish crown as James III of England and Ireland and James VIII of Scotland, with the support of his Jacobite followers and his cousin Louis XIV of France. Fourteen years he unsuccessfully attempted to gain the throne in Britain during the Jacobite rising of 1715. Following his death in 1766, his elder son, Charles Edward Stuart, continued to claim the British crown as part of the Jacobite Succession.
James Francis Edward was born 10 June 1688, at St. James's Palace, he was the son of King James II of England and Ireland and his Roman Catholic second wife, Mary of Modena, and, as such, was automatically Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay, among other titles. The prince's birth was controversial and, coming five years after his mother's last conception, unanticipated on the part of a number of British Protestants, who had expected his sister Mary, from his father’s first marriage, to succeed their father. Mary and her younger sister Princess Anne had been raised as Protestants; as long as there was a possibility of one of them succeeding him, the king's opponents saw his rule as a temporary inconvenience. When people began to fear that James's second wife, would produce a Catholic son and heir, a movement grew to replace him with his elder daughter Princess Mary and his son-in-law/nephew, William of Orange; when the prince was born, rumours began to spread that he was an impostor baby, smuggled into the royal birth chamber in a warming pan and that the actual child of James and Mary was stillborn.
In an attempt to scotch this myth, James published the testimonies of over seventy witnesses to the birth. On 9 December, in the midst of the Glorious Revolution, Mary of Modena disguised herself as a laundress and escaped with the infant James to France. Young James was brought up at the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, which Louis XIV had turned over to the exiled James II. Both the ex-king and his family were held in great consideration by the French king, they were frequent visitors at Versailles where Louis XIV and his court treated them as ruling monarchs. In June 1692 his sister Louisa Maria was born, his military education was overseen by Richard Hamilton and Dominic Sheldon, two veterans of his father's old Irish Army. On his father's death in 1701, James was recognised by King Louis XIV of France as the rightful heir to the English and Scottish thrones. Spain, the Papal States, Modena recognized him as King James III of England, Ireland and VIII of Scotland and refused to recognise William III, Mary II, or Anne as legitimate sovereigns.
As a result of his claiming his father's lost thrones, James was attainted for treason in London on 2 March 1702, his titles were forfeited under English law. Though delayed in France by an attack of measles, James attempted invasion, trying to land at the Firth of Forth on 23 March 1708; the fleet of Admiral Sir George Byng intercepted the French ships, combined with bad weather, prevented a landing. James served for a time in the French army. Between August and September 1710, Queen Anne appointed a new Tory administration led by Robert Harley, who entered into a secret correspondence with de Torcy, the French Minister of Foreign Affairs, in which he claimed to desire James's restoration to the throne should James convert to Protestantism. A year however, the British government pushed for James's expulsion from France as a precondition for a peace treaty with France. In accordance with the Treaty of Utrecht and Lord Bolingbroke, the Secretary of State, colluded with the French in exiling James to the Duchy of Lorraine.
Queen Anne became ill at Christmas 1713 and seemed close to death. In January 1714, she recovered but had not much longer to live. Through de Torcy and his London agent, Abbé François Gaultier, Harley kept up the correspondence with James, Bolingbroke had entered into a separate correspondence with him, they both stated to James. However, James, a devout Catholic, replied to Torcy: "I have chosen my own course, therefore it is for others to change their sentiments." In March came James's refusal to convert, following which Harley and Bolingbroke reached the opinion that James's restoration was not feasible, though they maintained their correspondence with him. As a result, in August 1714, James's second cousin, the Elector of Hanover, George Louis, a German-speaking Protestant, the closest Protestant relative of the now deceased Queen Anne, became king of the created Kingdom of Great Britain as George I. James denounced the new King, noting "we have beheld a foreign family, aliens to our country, distant in blood, strangers to our language, ascend the throne."
Following George's coronation in October 1714, major riots broke out in provincial England. The following year, Jacobites started uprisings in Scotland and Cornwall aimed at putting "James III and VIII" on the throne. On 22 December 1715, James reached Scotland after the Jacobite defeats at the Battle of Sheriffmuir